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State of development of organic aquaculture

Aquaculture (the farming of aquatic animals and plants), much like organic agriculture, is one of the world's fastest growing food sectors. Globally, aquaculture production has been growing at an average rate of 9 percent per year since 1970, compared with 2.9 percent for terrestrial farmed meat production and 1.3 percent for capture fisheries (Figure 1). However, to date, aquaculture has lagged behind the agriculture sector in terms of the quantities and diversity of certified organic produce1.

Figure 1: Contribution of aquaculture to total world fisheries landings 1970-1999

This delay is largely due to the absence of universally accepted standards and accreditation criteria for the production of organic aquaculture produce. It is also due to certifying bodies being almost totally restricted (until very recently) to a handful of organizations within developed countries (Europe, North America and Oceania) even though these countries produced less than 10 percent of total global aquaculture production in 19992.

Aquaculture has lagged behind the agriculture sector in terms of the quantities and diversity of certified organic produce.

Although no official statistical data are available concerning the global production of certified organic aquaculture products, it is estimated that total production in 2000 was only about 5 000 metric tonnes, primarily from European countries. This modest quantity represents about 0.01 percent of total global aquaculture production or about 0.25 percent of total European aquaculture production. According to Bergleiter3the total volume of organic aquaculture products marketed in Europe in 2000 was between 4 400 and 4 700 tonnes. These included:

Table 1: Organic aquaculture certification programmes and standards in 2001

Certification programme

Organic certification of/Standards for



Private organic aquaculture certifiers


BIOSUISSE (Switzerland)


DEBIO (Norway)

salmon, trout

ERNTE (Austria)

carp, trout

KRAV (Sweden)

salmon, trout, artic charr

Bioland, Demeter, Biokreis (Germany)


Naturland* (Germany)

carp/tench (1995), salmon (1996), trout (2000),


mussel (1999), shrimp (2001)*


salmon, trout (1999)

TÚN (Iceland)

salmon, trout, artic charr, seaweed (1999)

QCI (Italy)

trout, seabass, seabream (2001)**

National organic aquaculture standards



organic aquaculture standards (since 2000)


organic aquaculture standards (since 2000)



Private organic aquaculture certifiers


BIOGRO (New Zealand)

salmon (1994)***, crayfish, oysters, seaweed (1999)

BFA (Australia)

organic aquaculture standards (since Oct. 2001)

NASAA (Australia)

organic aquaculture standards (since 1999)

National organic aquaculture standards



organic aquaculture standards (since Sept. 2001)



Private organic aquaculture certifiers


ACT** (Thailand)




Private organic aquaculture certifiers






NOFA Massachusetts (USA)


U.S. State organic aquaculture standards



organic aquaculture standards (since 2001)





International organic aquaculture standards



Draft Standards for Organic Aquaculture adopted in 2000, but have yet to be adopted as full standards

* 200 tonnes of shrimps exported from a certified Ecuadorian farm to the United Kingdom.
** experimental batches of non-certified organic European seabass and Gilthead seabream produced in Italy and delivered to domestic markets in 2001 (Crosetti, 2001).
*** 500-800 tonnes of salmon limited to one farm, since discontinued (Paul Steere, The New Zealand King Salmon Co. Limited (pers. comm.).
Source: Bergleiter, 2001, modified.

Unfortunately, little or no production data is available for countries outside Europe. New Zealand was one of the largest producers outside Europe. A salmon farm was the first certified aquaculture facility in New Zealand4 with an estimated 500-800 tonnes of organic salmon targeted for the European market (the production of which has since been discontinued5). Non-European countries which are actively trying to develop their organic aquaculture production industries using national or private standards include Australia, Canada (salmonids), Chile (salmonids), Ecuador (shrimp), Indonesia (shrimp), New Zealand (mussels), Peru (shrimp), Thailand (shrimp), Viet Nam (shrimp) and the United States (non-species specific). Table 1 summarises the organizations currently carrying out certification of organic aquaculture products, together with the species certified and specific organic aquaculture standards employed.

It is estimated that total production of certified aquaculture products in 2000 was only about 5 000 metric tonnes, primarily from European countries.

As mentioned previously, the slow initial growth of organic aquaculture has been due the absence of internationally recognized and universally accepted regulations and standards for producing and handling organic aquaculture products. For example, although both the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission and the European Union have produced guidelines and standards for organically produced foods, neither have yet dealt with organic aquaculture.

The slow initial growth of organic aquaculture has been due the absence of internationally recognized and universally accepted regulations and standards for producing and handling organic aquaculture products.

Realising the need to address this issue, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) drafted Basic Standards for Organic Aquaculture Production. These guidelines were first prepared in 1998 and adopted as draft standards by IFOAM at its General Assembly in Basel, Switzerland, in 2000. The draft standards have been subsequently further revised (based on the deliberations and inputs of a IFOAM Organic Aquaculture Working Group and from inputs received from other interested stakeholders) and are expected to be finally voted into full standards at the next General Assembly of IFOAM6. Table 2 lists the IFOAM General Principles for organic aquaculture as laid down in the latest draft aquaculture standards.

Table 2: Draft IFOAM general principles concerning organic aquaculture production

Conversion to Organic Aquaculture

  • Conversion to organic aquaculture is a process of developing farming practices that encourage and maintain a viable and sustainable aquatic ecosystem. The time between the start of organic management and certification of the production is known as the conversion period.
  • Aquaculture production methods can vary widely according to biology of the organisms, technology used, geographical conditions, ownership structure, time span, etc. These aspects should be considered when the length of conversion is specified.

Basic Conditions

  • Management techniques must be governed by the physiological and ethological needs of the organisms in question. The organisms should be allowed to meet their basic behavioural needs. Management techniques, especially when applied to influence production levels and speed of growth must maintain and protect the good health and welfare of the organisms.
  • When introducing non-native species, special care must be to avoid permanent disruption to natural ecosystems.

Location of Production Units

  • Location of organic production units maintains the health of the aquatic environment and surrounding aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem.

Location of Collecting Areas

  • Wild, sedentary/sessile organisms in open collecting areas may be certified as organic if they are derived from an unpolluted, stable and sustainable environment.

Health and Welfare

  • Management practices achieve a high level of disease resistance and prevention of infections.
  • All management techniques, especially when influencing production levels and speed of growth maintain the good health and welfare of the organisms. Living aquatic organisms should be handled as little as possible.
  • The well being of the organisms is paramount in the choice of treatment for disease or injury.

Breeds and Breeding

  • Breeding strategies and practices in organic aquaculture interfere as little as possible with natural behaviour of the animals. Natural breeding methods are used.

Nutrition (Aquaculture)

  • Organic aquaculture production provides a good quality diet balanced according to the nutritional needs of the organism. Feed is only offered to the organisms in a way that allows natural feeding behaviour, with minimum loss of feed to the environment.
  • Feed compromises by-products from organic food processing and wild marine feed resources not otherwise suited for human consumption.


  • Harvesting certified organic aquatic organisms from enclosures or collecting areas creates minimum stress to the organisms. The act of collection does not negatively affect natural areas.

Transportation of Living Marine Animals

  • The transportation medium should be appropriate for the species with regards to water quality, including salinity, temperature, oxygen, etc. Transportation distance, duration and frequency should be minimised.


  • Slaughter process minimises the stress and suffering of the organism.
  • Slaughter management and techniques governed by careful consideration of the physiology and ethology of the organisms in question and accepted ethical standards.

Source: IFOAM, 2002

The United States is also making progress, albeit at a slower pace. Ten years after the United States Organic Food Production Act was promulgated, the United States Department of Agriculture's National Organic Program (USDA/NOP) published the long-awaited Final Rule on National Standards for Organic Crop and Livestock Production, Handling and Processing7. Aquatic animal standards are not yet included; however, they will eventually be amended into the Final Rule. The National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) established an Aquatic Task Force and Aquaculture Working Group in 2000 to examine key issues and formulate recommendations for submission to the USDA/NOP. These were submitted in October 2001. Of the recommendations, the maximum allowance of 5 percent fishmeal and oil in aquatic animal diets is perhaps the most significant and constraining for United States organic aquaculture producers. This is due to the existing National Standards mandating that livestock under organic management be provided 100 percent organic feed. This is also applicable to organic aquatic animals; therefore, fishmeal and oil, required by many aquatic animals, must also be organic. Despite the intense activity of the Aquatic Task Force and Working Group, it remains unclear when exactly the USDA/NOP will draft a proposed organic aquaculture rule8. In addition, the Organic Food Production Act specifically states that "on or after October 1, 1993 a person may sell or label an agricultural product as organically produced only if such product is produced and handled in accordance with this chapter." This leaves aquaculturists who are considering transitioning into organic production, and those that have already earned private organic certification, in a difficult position, especially as the October 2002 Final Rule implementation date approaches. As of December 2001, The USDA is still undecided about whether it will grant these producers the much-needed opportunity to call their product organic after October 2002.

In the absence of these international/regional standards, it has been left to individual member states and private/non-governmental certifying agents to set and develop their own specific organic aquaculture standards and accreditation bodies (Table 1). For example, although the Soil Association produced its first draft organic aquaculture standards as early as 1989, it was not until 1998 that subsequent revisions of these draft standards were eventually approved by their Council as interim standards, with certified organic salmon and trout reaching the marketplace the following year (the interim standards only applying to salmonid production)9. These salmonid aquaculture standards, together with those of two other United Kingdom private certifiers (Food Certification Scotland Ltd and the Organic Food Federation) have since been officially recognized, in accordance with European Union Council Regulation 2092/91, by the United Kingdom Register of Organic Food Standards their official Standards for Organic Food Production10. To date the only other country that has developed national aquaculture standards has been France11 and more recently, in September 2001, by Australia12.

A pioneering private certifying body actively engaged in the promotion and development of organic aquaculture in Europe and globally is Naturland, based in Germany. The association launched their activities in 1995 with development of organic aquaculture standards and initial certification of organic carp and tench production in Southern Germany using traditional pond culture techniques13. The development of standards for salmonid and mussel farmers in Ireland followed a few years later with organic salmon and mussels reaching markets in 1996 and 1999, respectively14. More recently, Naturland extended its reach to developing countries by developing standards for the organic production of shrimp in ponds.

Farmed shrimp represents the single most valuable internationally traded aquaculture commodity worldwide (valued at US$6.7 billion in 1999 or 12.4 percent of total global aquaculture production by value), with 99.4 percent of total global production originating from developing countries within the Asia and Latin America Regions15. With the support of German GTZ (Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit mbH), Naturland initiated their first pilot project for the organic production of shrimp in Ecuador, and since then other countries (including Indonesia, Peru and Viet Nam) have shown interest in the project16. Following the certification of the first Ecuadorian shrimp farm in May 2000, the first batch (200 tonnes) of certified organic shrimp is expected to be sold in the United Kingdom in 2001 (Table 1).

Despite its late start and modest size, the organic aquaculture sector currently boasts 20-25 private and non-private certifying bodies (Table 1). They have a diverse set of aquaculture standards which sometimes vary considerably from country to country, certifier to certifier, and species to species.

Box 1: European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission Working Party on Organic Fish Farming

At the twenty-first session of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC) in Budapest, 2000, a decision was made to establish an ad hoc Working Party on Organic Fish Farming. The main objectives of the Working Party are to:

  • compile material on the status and development of organic fish farming;
  • review and discuss the technical aspects of organic fish production;
  • consider the market conditions related to organic fish farming;
  • define research needs.

The Working Party will also focus on the technical aspects of currently available guidelines and draft guidelines for the production of organic fish.

Current estimates suggest that in 2000 organic fish farming consisted of only about 0.2 percent of the total 2 million tonnes of European aquaculture production. However, organic fish farming deserves EIFAC's attention as growth rates in the order of 25 percent are common. Species farmed typically include carp, tench, pike, pikeperch and coregonids in Austria, carp and trout in Germany, salmon in Ireland and salmon and trout in the United Kingdom. Culture systems used are traditional ponds for carp and by fish, earthen ponds for trout and offshore cages for salmon.

An initial step by the Working Party has been the dissemination of a questionnaire to the EIFAC national focal points in order to obtain an overview of organic fish farming in Europe. As this first questionnaire only covered freshwater environments, a second questionnaire including brackish and marine environments is needed.

Following a workshop in Nuremburg, February 2002, a number of important issues facing organic fish farming today were highlighted including:

  • Nutritional aspects: acceptable residue levels in fish feeds, the replacement of fish meal and oil with alternative protein sources, the use of natural antioxidants, nutrient fluxes and associated environmental issues.
  • Holding facilities: construction materials allowed, stocking densities, the role of oxygenation and water quality aspects.
  • Post-harvest issues: including slaughter, handling, transport and processing.
  • The Working Group of EIFAC aims to play a leading role facilitating the scientific scrutation of these themes.

Source: Matthias Halwart (pers. comm.)

To a large extent these differences reflect the differences between individual certifiers, farmers, and other interested stakeholders (including the public and the consumer, NGOs, etc.) in the interpretation of what organic aquaculture really means and entails. There is an urgent need for the universal acceptance and adoption of a broad set of basic principles and production standards17.

Despite its late start and modest size, the organic aquaculture sector currently boasts 20-25 private and non-private certifying bodies.

Organic aquaculture and the environment

In marked contrast to the freshwater-dependent terrestrial agricultural production systems, aquaculture (including organic aquaculture) can also be realised within marine and/or brackish water environments. For example, over half (54.7 percent) of total global aquaculture production currently originates from marine or brackish coastal waters (Figure 2). This includes aquatic plants and molluscs within marine waters (46.6 percent and 44.4 percent total marine production in 1999) and crustaceans (shrimp, crabs) and finfish (mainly salmonids) in brackish water (56.2 percent and 35.7 percent of total brackish water production in 199918). In the case of the total reported certified organic aquaculture products produced in Europe (4 200 - 4 700 tonnes in 200019), 87-93 percent of these were produced in marine and brackish waters (i.e. Atlantic salmon and blue mussels). The use of these hitherto largely untapped vast aquatic resources (over two-thirds of our planet being covered by oceans) is particularly essential in view of the urgent need to conserve our precious fresh water supplies for human consumption and conventional agriculture, including livestock production20. In addition to organic fish and mollusc production, the seas hold particular promise for the production of organic aquatic plants for either for direct human consumption or as much needed organic feed inputs for animal husbandry21.

Figure 2: Major aquaculture species groups by rearing environment in 1999

For the organic aquaculture sector to successfully co-exist with other food production sectors, it will have to successfully source its own organic feed and nutrient resources.

For the organic aquaculture sector to successfully co-exist with other food production sectors, it will have to successfully source its own organic feed and nutrient resources. For example, a major concern with the organic production of carnivorous fish species such as salmon and trout (over 73 percent of farmed finfish production within developed countries currently being carnivorous finfish species) is the use or not of fish meal and fish oil within organic feeds for these species22. In particular, questions revolve around:

Box 2: Organic Shrimps - a new potential?

Pollution and over fishing have caused a great reduction of the natural fishing population and a sufficient supply of fish and other sea fruits is no longer guaranteed. In order to cover the demand, aquaculture has been expanding globally, but studies have shown that intensive aquaculture is linked to various environmental problems such as the devastation of precious mangrove forests for the construction of ponds, and the resulting damage to the livelihoods of fishing communities which depend on mangroves as nursery areas for fish stocks and for artisanal fishing. Inadequate management can also lead to disease and the eventual abandonment of ponds degraded by an uncontrollable accumulation of nutrients and pesticides. Unrestrained use of antibiotics also leads to a risk of build-up of resistance against pathogens, both in the farmed organisms and those that consume them.

Shrimps are mainly produced in south-east Asia and Latin America. In fact, Thailand and Ecuador are the world's biggest producers of shrimps (P. monnodon and P. vannamei), and their economies are highly dependent on the shrimp industry. However, the rapid increase in aquacultural production has seen certain negative socio-economic and ecological effects. Consumers have become more aware of the environmental and socio-economic threats to small fishing communities by intensive aquaculture through campaigns by various environmental bodies and NGOs some of which have gone so far as to launch boycott campaigns for aquacultural products.

Shrimp farming is therefore quite a contentious issue, but also provides a challenge for the organic community and the possibility to demonstrate the positive potential for organic aquaculture. Efforts began in the late 1990s by a couple of certification bodies (e.g. Naturland) to create standards for organic shrimp production and IFOAM has now formulated draft organic fish farming standards. In the year 2000, the first organic shrimps from a pilot project in Ecuador, supported by GTZ, were certified by Naturland. Shrimp farmers in Java and Vietnam have since entered the organic scene and are now also in the process of becoming certified.

Source: Bergleiter, 2002

Clearly, if organic principles are to be upheld, it is essential that these products be:

Utilizing public water bodies for aquacultural production is not necessarily a silver bullet for organic production, particularly for culture of animals reared in net cages.

Utilizing public water bodies for aquacultural production is not necessarily a silver bullet for organic production, particularly for culture of animals reared in net cages. The vulnerability of net-cages in open, aquatic ecosystems brings a unique set of problems27 including an increase in escapes from these systems, untreated release of effluents and exposure to chemical drift. Although these problems are not necessarily barriers, they can be considered limitations to organic certification by some standardizing bodies. Although this issue may be particularly contentious in the United States, within Europe other issues such as organic fish being able to perform their "natural behaviour" (i.e. roam freely and exhibit normal migration behaviour) could become equally as important28.

It is, however, important to remember here that over 91 percent of total conventional marine aquaculture production in 1999 was farmed aquatic plant and mollusc species feeding low on the aquatic food chain. As mentioned previously, with the possible introduction of appropriate water and nutrient management techniques, the prospects for the increased production of farmed organic aquatic plants and molluscs is considerable.

Long-term prospects for certified organic aquaculture products

Based on current estimates of certified organic aquaculture production and an anticipated compound annual growth rate of 30 percent from 2001 to 2010, 20 percent from 2011 to 2020, and 10 percent from 2021 to 2030, it is estimated that production will increase 240-fold from 5 000 tonnes in 2000 to 1.2 tonnes by 2030. Such a production of certified aquatic products would be equivalent to 0.6 percent of the total estimated aquaculture production in 2030. Total world aquaculture production is estimated to increase 4-fold from about 45 million metric tonnes in 2000 to over 194 million tonnes by 2030, with the sector growing at an average APR of 5 percent per year. These estimates are primarily based on existing organic aquaculture production levels from developed countries, and the assumption that the major markets for certified farmed aquatic products will be Europe and North America in the West, and Australia, Japan, New Zealand and Singapore in the East. Demand in the latter countries will be fuelled by the growing awareness concerning environmental pollution and the safety of aquatic products for human consumption, as well as the state of global fishery resources and long-term sustainability of current aquatic food production systems.

Certified organic aquaculture production is estimated to increase 240-fold, from 5 000 tonnes in 2000 to 1.2 tonnes by 2030; equivalent to 0.6 percent of the total estimated aquaculture production.

Box 3: The Sierra Nevada fish farm, Spain

Piscifactoría de Sierra Nevada S.L. (Ltd.) is a family firm, formed in 1964 in Riofrío, a small village in the Loja Mountains, near Granada. The fish farm has become a fundamental pillar of Riofrío's economy. In addition to its 20 staff members, it has contributed to the local industry through the reputation of its trout and sturgeon. In a village of only 300 inhabitants, there are 11 restaurants specializing in fish dishes, selling about 500 000 kg of trout a year.

From the beginning the fish farm refused to employ intensive aquaculture methods, instead it chose a path of research and experimentation, with the aim of developing an alternative approach. Mr. Domezain, the technical manager, praises the enthusiasm of some researchers, often unpaid, acknowledging their contribution to the project. Important achievements include the development of a water purification scheme based on a system of natural vegetation filters, which at the same time, enhances the aquatic ecosystem.

The fish farm applied to the Andalusian Organic Farming Committee (CAAE) for certification in the year 2000. At this time, CAAE did not have standards for aquaculture, but rose to the challenge and now, after 18 months, there are trout, sturgeon and their processed products certified by CAAE on the market, holding the CAAE logo. The Sierra Nevada Fish Farm feeds its sturgeon according to its own formula that complies with the Andalusian Organic Farming Committee (CAAE) standards.

It appears that the Sierra Nevada Fish Farm is the first organic certified sturgeon farm in the world. It is also the only farm, conventional or organic, that raises the Southern European sturgeon species Acipenser vaccarii, a species native to Andalusia, but considered extinct in the wild. The present stock are from eggs purchased 15 years ago.

Were more fish farms and countries to produce organic sturgeon, the implications to the industry would be very positive. Sturgeon are a highly threatened species; organic fish farming could be an alternative to catching wild fish. Organic aquaculture could also form a resource for restocking areas where wild populations have become extinct.

Source: Alonso Villalón, 2002

However, these estimates could change dramatically if developing countries were to embrace certified organic aquaculture production methods in earnest. To date certified organic aquaculture production in the developing world has been restricted to the limited experimental production of organic shrimp within a few selected countries (Ecuador, Vietnam, and Indonesia) by developed country certifiers29. For example, developing countries produced over 90.3 percent of total global aquaculture production in 199930, with production increasing at an average rate of 12.5 percent per year since 1990 compared with 2.1 percent for developed countries (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Total world aquaculture production by major economic country groupings

Source: FAO, 2001b

Of these developing countries, China stands out head and shoulders in that it has a 3000-year history and tradition in aquaculture, including the development and use of freshwater finfish production methods based upon the use of holistic integrated farming systems and polyculture rearing techniques31. Fish polyculture farming strategies in China (dating back to the Tang Dynasty or 7th century A.D) rest on three basic principles, namely:

Last but not least, mainland China reportedly produced over two-thirds of total global aquaculture production in 1999 (30 million tonnes or 70.2 percent by weight), including 66.3 percent of total farmed finfish, 78.3 percent of total farmed molluscs, 76.7 percent of total farmed aquatic plants, and 34.6 percent of total farmed crustaceans in the world)33.

Potential development in developing countries and likely impact on food security

Though the production of certified organic aquaculture products within developing countries is still very much in its infancy, developing countries and in particular Low-Income Food Deficit Countries (LIFDCs) produced over 90.3 percent and 82.5 percent of total global aquaculture production in 199934. Moreover, the growth of aquaculture production within developing countries and LIFDCs has been steadily increasing, and in the last decade has been growing over 6 times faster than the aquaculture sector within developed countries over the same period (Figure 3). In contrast to developed countries where finfish aquaculture production currently targets the production of higher-value carnivorous species, the bulk (93.7 percent) of finfish aquaculture production within developing countries targets the production of lower value (in relative marketing terms, and therefore more affordable in economic terms) freshwater filter feeding species (28.7 percent total, including silver carp, bighead carp and catla) and omnivorous/herbivorous fish species (64.9 percent total, including grass carp, common carp, crucian carp, nile tilapia, rohu) feeding low on the aquatic food chain.

In terms of food supply, aquaculture supplied over 34.3 percent of total global food fish supplies in 1999. Although aquaculture currently ranks fourth in terms of global farmed meat production (20.3 million tonnes in 1999) after pig meat (89.9 million tonnes), beef and veal (56.0 million tonnes), and chicken meat (55.5 million tonnes35), in China it ranks second to pig meat production (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Total farmed terrestrial and aquatic meat production in mainland China 1970-1999

Source: FAO, 2001b, 2001c

In terms of animal meats, according to the FAO Food Balance Sheets (1997-1999 average) more food fish or seafood is currently being consumed than any other type of meat; food fish (from capture fisheries and aquaculture) representing 15.9 percent of total animal protein supply, followed by pig meat (15.2 percent), beef and veal (13.4 percent), and poultry meat (13.0 percent). In general, people living within Africa and Asia (including LIFDCs) are much more dependent on fish as part of their daily diets than people living within most developed countries and other regions of the world.

To a large extent, the driving factor governing the greater consumption of food fish (with respect to other animal protein sources) within developing countries and LIFDCs is their lower price and greater affordability compared with other animal protein sources. It follows therefore, that if certified organic aquaculture production is to grow into a major sector and be consumed locally, species feeding low on the aquatic food chain should be targeted for production.

The real challenge in the long run will be for the organic aquaculture sector to be seen as a recycler of valuable nutrients and resources from the larger agriculture and livestock production sector, and consequently as a very positive and net benefit to society and the environment.

If certified organic aquaculture production is to grow into a major sector and be consumed locally, species feeding low on the aquatic food chain should be targeted for production.

1 Bergleiter, 2001a; Brister and Kapuscinski, 2001a.

2 FAO, 2001b.

3 Bergleiter, 2001a.

4 Feed International, 1994.

5 Paul Steere, The New Zealand King Salmon Co. Limited (pers. comm.)

6 IFOAM, 2002.

7 USDA/NOP, 2000.

8 Mark Keating, National Organic Program (pers. comm.).

9 Soil Association, 2001.

10 UKROFS, 2001.

11 Bergleiter, 2001.

12 AFFA, 2001.

13 Bergleiter, 2001b.

14 Naturland, 2002.

15 FAO, 2001b.

16 Bergleiter, 2001b.

17 Whole Foods Market, 2000; Aarset et al., 2000; Blake, 2001; Bergleiter, 2001a; Brister and Kapuscinski, 2001b; GAA, 2000; Hilbrands, 2001; van der Meer and Stein, 2001.

18 FAO, 2001b.

19 Bergleiter, 2001a.

20 Baker, 2001; Barrett, 2001; Vorosmarty et al., 2000.

21 Stuart Edwards, BIO-GRO New Zealand (pers. comm.).

22 Tacon and Pruder, 2000.

23 Kirschenmann, 2001.

24 GAA, 2000; Merican, 2000.

25 Bergleiter, 2001a.

26 Staniford, 2000.

27 Black, 2001; Brister and Kapuscinski, 2001c.

28 Magnus van der Meer, Agro Eco (pers. comm.).

29 Bergleiter, 2001b.

30 FAO, 2001b.

31 Zweig, 1985.

32 Tacon and De Silva, 1997.

33 FAO, 2001b.

34 FAO, 2001b.

35 FAO, 2001c.

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