The Republic of Mali went through a serious economic, financial and political crisis which affected all the socio-economic life of the country, and the end results were the March 1991 social disturbances and the advent of a democratically elected regime.
The crisis did not spare the communication sector as well, whose means were not only reduced, but were also questioned due to the unilateral use that was made of it: imposition of passwords and other instructions given by the only existing party and the regime then on power through the means of communication that were exclusively controlled by the State.
This vertical form that prohibits any type of exchange, discussion, or consultation led the population, especially the rural majority, to be disinterested in any government action. The rural peasantry behaved like a stranger to the imposed development and refused to collaborate, whenever it was asked to.
The popularization operations lost all credibility due to the methods used. All those negative aspects were underlined by the state generals of the rural peasantry organized by the transitional government in 1991.
The new Malian authorities, conscious of the role and the place that Communication for Development can play in the countrys situation, thought of elaborating a National Communication for Development Policy based on democratic principles and the wide options of the socio-economic development of the country. Therefore, a workshop was held from 4th to 11th October 1993 in Bamako, to define a National Communication for Development Policy. This important workshop, in which 130 participants from different state institutions and structures, the civil organizations, research institutions, bi-lateral and multi-lateral cooperation organizations took part, got the technical and scientific support of the UNDP and the FAO.
1. THE NATIONAL WORKSHOP FOR THE DEFINITION OF THE NCDP
The national workshop for the definition of the National Communication for Development Policy in Mali, held from 4th to 11th October 1993, led to the adoption of a final 40 pages document titled: National Communication for Development Policy.
The workshop gathered about 130 participants representing:
The Office of the President;
The Office of the Prime Minister;
The Ministries of: Finance and Economy, Budget and Government Spokesman, Culture and Communication, Rural Development, Environment, Basic Education, Water Resources, Mines and Power, Health, Solidarity and Aged Persons, Territorial Affairs and Decentralisation, Employment, Professional Training and Enhancement of Private initiatives;
Partners from Civil Organizations through the National NGOs Coordination Committee (CCA ONG), Permanent Assembly of the Chambers of Agriculture and representatives of the rural peasantry;
Associations for media professional, namely the National Union of Malian Journalists (UNAJOM), Private Press Editors Associations (ASSEP), the Union of Private Radios and Televisions of Mali (URTEL);
The training institutions, namely the Audiovisual Services Production Center (CESPA);
The research organizations, like the CERPOD;
The multilateral and bilateral cooperation agencies like French Cooperation, UNDP, FAO, UNFPA, URTNA, WWF (UICN), UNICEF, WHO, etc.
The workshop benefited from the efficient contribution of the staff of the FAO Headquarters Communication for Development group, for the technical and scientific support throughout the Committees works.
The workshop was also given a particular attention by the Malian national authorities, which explains the important number of participants from the technical ministries. The most important thing was that the opening and closing ceremonies were attended by the Minister of State in charge of Territorial Administration, who officially represented the Prime Minister, Head of Government, and the Minister of Culture and Communication.
The United Nations System was represented at these ceremonies by the UNDP Resident Representative in Mali, the FAO Deputy General-Director and the FAO Representative in Mali.
Beyond the formal character of the opening and closing official ceremonies, the effective presence (and the open interest for the success of these works) of these different Very Important Personalities, as well as the presentations that they wanted to deliver in their respective speeches, largely contributed to enhance the importance and the quality of the national workshop, whose tasks registered a remarkable assiduity from the participants.
On the methodological aspect, the proceedings of the workshop were carried out alternatively in committees and in plenary sessions. Five working groups were constituted with the following mandates.
Group 1: Definition of the Objectives of the National Communication for Development Policy and the Role of the Stakeholders
Mandate of Group 1:
Define precisely what is communication for development, in order to reach a consensus around this concept with a view to improving the level of understanding of the participants;
Define the mission of the National Communication for Development Policy;
Define the objectives (general and specific) of the National Communication for Development Policy;
Identify the different intervening parties;
Define the role of the intervening parties.
Group 2: Definition of the Legal and Institutional Framework of the National Communication for Development Policy
Define the legal and institutional framework of the National Communication for Development Policy;
Define the status of the communicator right from the central to the local level;
Define the status of the structures in charge of Communication for Development;
Determine the existing needs at all levels of Communication for Development;
Define an efficient and operational coordinating structure (clearly define its mandate, the financial and material means);
Define the profile of the Communicator for Development (personnel policy);
Define the future status of the rural radio and the role of the inter-sectorial committee at the regional and local levels.
Group 3: Media and Technological Choices
Mandate of Group 3:
Define a research and counseling mechanism in the field of technological choice depending on the types of media available with the different development partners;
Define a permanent follow-up mechanism for media with a view of ensuring a rational use of human and material resources;
Plan the human, financial and technical resources;
Define the indicators to measure the efficiency of the system;
Evaluate the system.
Within the framework of its mandate, the Group 3 gave a particular attention to traditional media (status, state of the research, specific constraints) and made recommendations related to the use of traditional media within the framework of the National Communication for Development Policy.
Group 4: Training in Communication for Development
Mandate of Group 4:
Determine the training needs of communication field staff;
Identify the skills that can respond to the training needs that are identified;
Identify the training needs of the communication professionals in the field of communication for development;
Define the contents of such training;
Identify the training institutions in the field of communication for development (status and competence).
Group 5: Action Thrusts and Strategies for Communication for Development
Mandate of Group 5:
Three sub-committees were set up to:
Define the methodological steps for planning communication activities within the framework of strategy for communication for development;
Suggest possible action thrusts in the short, medium and long terms, in the different sectors (institutional communication, legal and institutional aspect, training, etc...).
The Plenary Sessions
The functions of the plenary sessions were on one hand, to present to the whole participants the results of the work carried out by the different working groups, and on the other hand, to validate the principal conclusions and points of recommendation made by the groups. Systematically, each working day terminated with a plenary session in which all participants took part. The conclusions of the working groups were presented by the chairman and the secretary of each group. The alternation of plenary sessions and restricted working groups contributed to strengthen the participative character of the workshop, which solicited the effective contribution of each participant.
The Summary Sessions
The Summary Sessions were conceived and organized with a view of ensuring a better follow-up of the works of the workshop, within the working groups, and at the level of the plenary session as well. They were generally attended by the staff of the FAO Headquarters, the principal consultant, the moderators and secretaries of the working groups and workshops general secretariat. Practically, these summary sessions contributed to enhance the quality of the final documents of the workshop and made it possible to stick to the initial working agenda.
2. THE PROCESS OF FORMULATING THE NCDP
The process of formulating the National Communication for Development Policy followed the under-mentioned methodological stages:
Recruitment of an international consultant whose duty was to make an introductive report of the proceedings of the workshop. The introductive report also presented results, conclusions and recommendations of the sectorial studies made by the national consultants. Another function of this document was to expose the concepts, to outline the reflection paths and make recommendations to the participants;
Recruitment of a team composed of twelve (12) national experts whose duty was to make an inventory of communication in Mali through the sectorial studies in the fields related to radio broadcast, video and television, newspapers and magazines in French and national languages, the traditional media, the legal aspects, the technical and technological aspects and training;
Holding of the national workshop and definition of the National Communication for Development Policy, involving the participation of all Government partners at the national level and the bi- and multi-lateral cooperation.
The workshop for the definition of the National Communication for Development Policy obtained the following results:
Adoption by the participants of a final document defining the general and specific objectives of the National Communication for Development Policy, and containing the principal recommendations made by the thematic studies and the workshop;
The adoption of an action plan for the implementation of the National Communication for Development Policy in the short, medium and long term;
The identification (within the High Communication Council) of the structure in charge of implementing the National Communication for Development Policy;
The Government of Mali got the financial support from the UNDP and the technical assistance of the FAO through the TCP/MLI/1357 project.
3. THE NATIONAL COMMUNICATION FOR DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN MALI
The Principles and Objectives of the National Communication for Development Policy
The general principles of the National Communication for Development Policy adopted by Mali were:
Establish a climate of mutual trust between government and its partners (internal and external) for a concerted action in dealing with the major national issues;
Establish a framework within which all the development actors have the possibility of dialogue, consultation, transparency and equity, in accordance with the major orientations of the national policy;
Serve as an implementation tool for the decentralization policy;
Integrate and improve the culture and aspirations of the Malian people;
Serve as a reference, evolving and flexible orientation framework for all national partners and external collaborators.
The general objectives of the National Communication for Development Policy (NCDP) were:
Enhance the participation of the population at defining and implementing the overall development orientations of the country, by initiating a dialogue between all the development partners on these actions;
Support the initiatives taken by the background communities in the different development sectors by privileging the exchange of information, knowledge and techniques within these communities;
Allow all those who are responsible for broadcasting information or introducing innovations in the different development sectors, to have social and educative instruments available, to enable them carry out their work under the best possible conditions;
Develop for all the collaborators at the rural peasantry level, popularization support, training and communication systems based on dialogue, consultation and participation strategies, rather than on vertical message strategies.
Besides, the NCDP must participate in consolidating the democratic, institutional and political achievements, including the citizens awareness of their rights and duties, and the State, of its responsibilities and authority.
The specific objectives of the NCDP were:
Contribute to the implementation of a master plan of the rural development sector;
Contribute to the emergence of a legislative framework that makes dialogue possible, give a sense of responsibility and improve relationships between the public authorities and the rural peasantry;
Widespread actions geared towards the protection of the environment;
Contribute to the promotion of the Malian women and girls through the enhancement of the women in the society and in the decisional authorities and the systematic enrolment of girls in schools;
Contribute to the development of the Malian school system and its suitability to the realities of life;
Contribute to the improvement of the health of the Malians through supporting the implementation of the national health programmes;
Accompany the implementation of the National Population Policy;
Enable every Malian to have a deeper knowledge of issues concerning sanitation, urban environment and hygiene;
Enhance the pilot initiatives and actions, experiments, research, the follow-up and assessment of Communication for Development activities;
Encourage and support the involvement of Malians living outside the country in the process of the sub-regional and continental integration.
Therefore, the National Communication for Development Policy was expected to be a global response that was wished by the Malian authorities, to the different challenges that the Malian society was to face after two decades of an autocratic regime.
The aspirations that reflect the numerous objectives aimed at were the consequence of recovered liberty. The period of formulation of the NCDP in Mali was characterized by:
The relative weakness of the new political regime resulting from the 1992 elections;
The emergence of a strong associative current, which made possible the springing up of thousands of associations, socio-professional groups both at the national and local levels;
The brisk rise of demands of different sorts (political, cultural, economic);
A shared will at different levels of the Malian society to remake the State by questioning the public affairs management methods, in order to involve more the citizens in the conception, the implementation and the assessment of projects concerning them (the first democratic government will comprise a Ministry for the modernization of the civil service, and a department in charge of decentralization).
The NCDP should also take into account the main development programs under elaboration or being implemented in the country, in the fields of health, rural development, education, etc...
The Implementation Measures of the NCDP
The Implementation Measures of the NCDP were defined during the workshop for the definition of the National Communication for Development Policy. The participants at the workshop, concerned about the rapid implementation of the NCDP, identified and recommended institutional measures, which would facilitate the best conditions for the implementation of the NCDP in order to achieve the different objectives set. These measures were:
Bring the Government to approve the conclusions and recommendations relating to the National Communication for Development Policy;
Publish and broadcast the proceedings of the workshop relative to the definition of the National Communication for Development Policy
Set up, transitionally, a committee in charge of Communication for Development at the Prime Ministers Cabinet, whose executive secretariat will be located at the Ministry in charge of communication;
Elaborate an action plan, in consultation with the development partners;
Strengthen the capabilities of the Audiovisual Services Production Centre (CESPA), in order to enable it to play fully its leadership role of Communication for Development in Mali.
The aim was to equip the National Communication for Development Policy with a coordination and implementation structure, having sufficient authority so that its recommendations and decisions gets the adherence of all the collaborators, and the National Commission for Communication for Development acting under the direct authority of the Prime Minister, Head of Government.
The definition of a National Communication for Development Policy was a response to the Malian authorities concern to have available a framework of reference for all the collaborators, internal and external partners, of the development process in Mali. As already underlined, the Malian authorities were, at the same time, concerned about creating conditions for a better involvement of the background population, by inverting the methods and practices of identification, conception, implementation and assessment of development projects and programs, whose beneficiary is the population.
Mali was the first country to initiate the exercise of elaborating a National Communication for Development Policy.
As such, the process implemented in Mali launched the tools that will later be refined for further exercises in Guinea Bissau and Burkina Faso for the definition of a National Communication for Development Policy in these countries.
The analysis of the steps involved in the elaboration of the NCDP in Mali brings to light the different favourable factors and the constraints that marked the process.
1. IDENTIFYING THE TOPICS AND COMMUNICATION SECTORS TO BE DIAGNOSED
Practically, this aspect did not experience particular difficulties. A consensus was reached on the different sectors of study. The recruitment of national consultants did not also experience any difficulty. It was decided to constitute research teams - with two experts per team - to carry out the different studies.
The main constraints noted at this stage could be the very generalised character of some studies, that appeared to be more descriptive than critical. As a result, the recommendations were most of the time general.
Ensure that all the consultants have a same understanding of the terms of reference of the studies to be conducted. The organization of a pedagogical workshop can be a response to this concern.
2. PRODUCING THE DOCUMENT ON THE SYNTHESIS OF THE SECTORIAL STUDIES
The summary document that was elaborated allowed the participants to have a reference document, giving the general guidelines for the national workshop and showing the situation of each communication sector in Mali.
The summary document, which was often brief in presenting the inventory per sector, was used more than the sectorial studies carried out by the consultants. These were not always referred to sufficiently during the workshop, to explicit their conclusions and recommendations contained in the sectorial studies.
The national consultants should have been consulted during the national workshop, within the framework of the activities carried out by the different groups and committees, where their conclusions and recommendations could have been widely discussed.
3. NATIONAL WORKSHOP FOR THE DEFINITION OF A NATIONAL COMMUNICATION FOR DEVELOPMENT POLICY
The workshop made efforts regarding information at the level of the public media (namely the radio and television), to present its objectives and the expected outcomes.
The national authorities showed a real political will to organize the workshop, and this interest was shown throughout the proceedings (presence of many government cabinet members to the official ceremonies, assurances given as to the readiness to address the recommendations that will be made by the workshop, etc.).
The constraints were many:
The high number of participants (130), could not enable the full participation of all;
The uneven level of understanding the communication issues by the participants, and particularly the communication for development;
The mistrust manifested by some civil servants on coordination issues, planning and implementation of communication activities (mainly from the representatives of departments having skilled communication staff or communication structures);
The weak participation of the rural peasantry on one hand, and the adoption of French as the working language on the other: the few representatives of the peasants associations were not able to express themselves efficiently (e.g., a representative of village man", who is a member of the working group N°3 had to get the proceedings translated to him in Bambara in order to understand and participate).
Restrict the number of participants per organisation;
A better information within the department staff on the real challenge of the workshop, to wipe out the suspicions and avoid misunderstanding on the objectives sought for by the NCDP;
Take into account of the needs and expectations of the rural peasantry, and the background population in a more general way, by organizing and holding preparatory regional workshops prior to the national workshop.
As the first country to experiment the formulation exercise of a National Communication for Development Policy, Mali has now the hindsight of more than six years compared to the period of elaboration of the NCDP.
The assessment of the implementation process of the communication policy was subject first to a study initiated by the Ministry of Communication of Mali, with the support of the UNFPA, in 1999. This study ("Report of the diagnosis study for the revival of the National Communication for Development Policy", by Abdoulaye Malick and Traore et Bobo Keita, independent consultants), was within the framework of the initiatives of the Government of Mali aimed at reviving the National Communication for Development Policy, after a diagnosis of the state of implementation of the priority actions program that resulted from the October 1993 national workshop. The aim was also to reiterate the political willpower of the Malian authorities in favour of the NCDP, after a period of lethargy.
The analysis of the implementation of the NCDP process in fact made it possible to observe two distinct phases the process went through: a dynamic phase in which concrete actions by different actors within the framework of the recommendations made by the national workshop were achieved; and a second phase characterized by the weakening of activities and the lack of coordination.
Within the framework of the implementation of the main recommendations of the workshop for the definition of a National Communication for Development Policy, the main concrete actions have been achieved by the Government, the development partners and the internal partners.
1. MEASURES IMPLEMENTED BY THE GOVERNMENT
Adoption by the Government of the recommendations of the national workshop for the definition of a National Communication for Development Policy;
Promulgation of decree N°94-329/PM-RM dated October 2, 1994, instituting a Communication for Development Committee (CDC) in the cabinet of the Prime Minister. The CDC is composed of representatives of public authorities and the civil Society (associations, NGOs and professional organizations). The secretariat is held by a technical adviser of the Ministry in charge of Communication nominated by the Prime Minister. The missions of the CDC are among others, the working out and coordination of the implementation of an integrated and inter-sectorial Communication for Development strategy, to propose legislative and regulatory laws regarding the communication for development, the supervision and control of the conformity of the sectorial strategies and activities with the National Communication for Development Policy, the elaboration of a directory of specialised human resources in the fields of training, research and elaboration of training materials, the planning, creation and utilization of Communication for Development materials, etc. The 1994 decree was later on revised to take into account the participation of women in the CDC (Decree N°96-006/PM-RM, dated January 1996);
Implementation of the revision processes of the different legal provisions;
Creation within the High Communication Council, of a Communication for Development Commission.
2. MEASURES IMPLEMENTED BY DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS
Publication and official handover to the Government through the Ministry of Culture and Communication of the brochure titled "National Communication for Development Policy", containing the actions of the national workshop for the definition of and a national communication policy, meant for broadcasting of the different recommendations of the workshop;
Meeting held on the 7th of June 1994, between the FAO Representative and the Minister of Culture and Communication, to examine some decisions taken by the Government for the adoption of laws concerning the setting up of a committee in charge of Communication for Development;
Holding of a meeting on the 10th of June 1994, under the chairmanship of the UNDP Resident Representative, as coordinator of the United Nations system in Mali, with representatives of the different agencies, to discuss on ways in which the United Nations system can contribute to the development of the work undertaken in the field of communication for development. The meeting reached the following conclusions:
The setting up of an ad hoc committee in charge of communication for development;
The necessity to consider a communication component in all development projects and programs as an element that can improve the efficiency and the impact of a project to be recommended;
The pursuance of the idea to institute a support fund for communication for development, aimed at supporting the CESPA;
Support and development of the CESPA by the FAO through the Communication for Development group in all the system of the United Nations;
Assistance to the extension of rural radio of Mali, namely through the Rural Radio Project of South Mali, with financial assistance of the Netherlands;
Assistance of the UNESCO to introduce a Communication for Development branch at the Faculty of Arts, Fine Arts and Humanities (FLASH) of the University of Mali. Preparatory workshops for the creation of this branch were organized and financed by UNESCO. A communication and development module was presented within the framework of the workshop;
Contribution of the UNESCO for the creation of a Communication for Development network, to support the development projects and programmes in their fields of communication and training activities.
3. MEASURES IMPLEMENTED BY INTERNAL PARTNERS
The workshop for the definition of a National Communication for Development Policy recorded the participation of representatives of associations, NGOs, professional organizations and internal partners in the development process. In spite of the real interest shown then by the participants, very few concrete implementation of the NCDP actions by these sectors can be pointed out. However, at this level, the diagnosis study for the revival of the NCDP revealed:
The existence of the communication for development function at the level of NGOs and private organizations;
Very often, some structures (study cabinets, training and production centres) are set up to exercise this function;
The existence of communication for development programmes, of communication for development strategies, and sometimes operation plans for communication for development strategies;
The existence of a budget for communication for development;
The existence of initiatives, actions and means of communication for development (community radios, activities on the field, committees or listening groups) involving the participation of the background population.
The analysis of the implementation of the NCDP process in Mali brings forth a certain number of factors that favourably contributed to the initiation of concrete actions within the framework of the NCDP on one hand, and on the other hand, some factors that brought forth some handicaps, which hampered the implementation of the NCDP.
The advantages of the implementation of the NCDP were:
The political will of the Malian authorities to create through the NCDP, a consultation and dialogue framework with all the partners in the development process, and make possible the full participation of the populations in taking all decisions concerning them;
The readiness of bi- and multi-lateral cooperation partners to bring their assistance in the formulation and the implementation of the NCDP;
The existence in Mali, of a certain "tradition" of development communication, namely through the Malian rural radio experience, one of the oldest in French speaking Africa;
The existence of specialized communication structures in the field of communication for development (CESPA, CNIESC and Rural Radio);
A democratic environment, open and pluralist.
The main constraints of the implementation of the NCDP were:
At the institutional level, a certain instability of institutions in charge of the implementation of the NCDP or meeting difficulties in their functioning (High Communication Council), frequent changes of the cabinet members;
Lack of a consensus on the institutional anchorage of the NCDP - The workshop was marked by debates on the institutional anchorage between the representatives of the ministerial departments;
Absence of institutional mobilization resources - The lack of promotion of the NCDP within the different development partners (Mali did not submit to its partners a NCDP implementation program supported by figures) led to the lack of resources to finance the implementation of the NCDP;
The institutional instability led to a relative loss of institutional memory for the piloting and follow-up of the implementation of the NCDP.
The lessons learnt are numerous. The analysis of the whole process makes it possible to draw out the following main lessons:
1. The definition and formulation of a Communication for Development Policy was to address the need felt by all the development actors (Government, development partners, civil society);
2. In the formulation exercise, all the potential parties involved were not associated at all levels (local, regional, national);
3. The gender dimension was not taken into account in the composition of the representatives at the workshop;
4. The NCDP must take into account the decentralization policy in order to be in conformity with the new socio-economic and political environment of the country;
5. The definition of the institutional framework was a source of further difficulties like the absence of a consensus on the institutional anchorage and the lack of consultation between the participating parties;
6. The weak participation of the rural peasantry, associations and civil society organizations had as consequence, the non-involvement of these actors in the implementation of the NCDP, and their ignorance of the NCDP;
7. The program of activities in the short, medium and long terms adopted by the workshop did not assess the resources (human, material and financial) necessary for the implementation process;
8. The lack of structures for the implementation of the NCDP (for the coordination and implementation of the activities) was the cause of the loss of the institutional memory of the NCDP;
9. The UNDP and FAO support project to the Government ought to have gone beyond the NCDP definition and formulation exercise, to include the support to the Government in setting up the implementation structure (Executive Secretariat and the Communication for Development Committee that were to be created within the Ministry in charge of Communication).
The definition exercise of the National Communication for Development Policy and the difficulties met in its implementation in Mali necessitates, based on the lessons learned, to make the following recommendations:
1. One of the essential and indispensable conditions for the success of the NCDP is the expression of the political will by the national authorities to support the exercise;
2. The definition of the NCDP must be made by taking into account the local, regional and national levels. Consultations will be organized at these different levels, for a real involvement of the populations and guarantee their appropriation of the process;
3. As the definition of a NCDP is not an end in itself, it is necessary to carry out an exhaustive assessment of the program of actions, with a view to including it as a component within the program of cooperation with development partners. The holding of a roundtable of financial partners is an essential step in the implementation of the NCDP;
4. In a first phase, the implementation of the NCDP should be entrusted to a project type of structure, or to the national communication for development programme, in charge of the technical coordination of the NCDP. The Communication for Development Committee will assume the orientation function at the national level. The composition of the structure will be softened, but will necessarily include skills in assessment and follow-up;
5. As the Communication for Development Committee can be a heavy structure, it could be envisaged the setting up of technical committees at the sectorial levels, for the definition of sectorial communication for development strategies, and the coordination at the sectorial level;
6. The training of human resources in communication for development at the different levels (professionals of communications, popularization agents, development agents and facilitators), in order to constitute a "critical mass" that can direct the communication for development activities and guarantee its good implementation. The availability of human resources in the field of communication for development also constitutes a capacity of the country for a real appropriation of the NCDP (at the conception level, planning and implementation, and assessment);
7. The sharing of experiences with the countries that have already defined and implemented the NCDP like Mali, Guinea Bissau, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic and Senegal.
By deciding to formulate a National Communication for Development Policy (NCDP), the concern of the Malian authorities was to follow up closely the new democratic context in which the country entered, after more than two decades of dictatorial regime. The basic principles of the NCDP are founded on the conscious and voluntary participation of the population in managing their own development. The NCDP must create the conditions of a real dialogue between the development partners in the process.
Conscious of the determinant role of communication in this process, the Malian authorities had undertaken to proceed to an assessment of the implementation exercise of the NCDP. To carry out successfully this exercise, Mali must get the support of development partners, namely the FAO and the UNDP. The lessons got in carrying out the NCDP formulation exercise in the different countries, are a mines deposit which Mali needs to create the conditions for a revival of "its" NCDP.
On the contrary, the lessons learnt from the Malian experience comfort the methodological advancement carried out since the formulation and the implementation of the NCDP.