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APPENDIX 3


SUMMARY OF MAJOR NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS OF TEMPERATE BROAD-LEAVED TREES BY FAMILY, GENUS AND SPECIES

FAMILY ACERACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use1

Acer buergerianum

Trident maple

East China

Bonsai

C




Ornamental

C

Acer campestre

Common or field maple

Europe

Ornamental

C

Acer nigrum

Black maple

East North America

Syrup (sap)

C

Acer palmatum

Japanese maple

Japan

Bonsai

C




Ornamental

C

Acer platanoides

Norway maple

Europe

Ornamental

C

Acer rubrum

Red maple

East North America

Dye (bark)

T




Ornamental

C

Acer saccharum

Sugar maple

East North America

Ornamental

C




Syrup (sap)

C

Acer saccharinum

Silver maple

East North America

Ornamental

C

1 C - Commercially important at regional or international level, L - Commercially important in individual countries or portions of countries, T - Traditional, historic use or in current use by tribal cultures. A - Agricultural crop.

FAMILY AQUIFOLIACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Ilex aquifolia

Holly

Europe

Decorative greenery

C




Ornamental

C

Ilex opaca

American holly

East United States

Decorative greenery

C




Ornamental

C

Ilex paraguariensis

Yerba maté

North Argentina

Herbal tea

L



South Brazil





Paraguay



Ilex vomitoria

Yaupon

Southeast United States, Mexico

Ceremonial

T

FAMILY ANACARDIACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Pistacia kinjac

Pistachio

Afghanistan

Edible nuts

L



Pakistan



Pistacia terebinthus


Mediterranean

Edible nuts

L




Tannin (galls)

T




Turpentine

T

Pistacia texana

Texas Pistachio

Texas, United States, Central Mexico

Edible nut

L



Near East



Pistacia vera

Pistachio


Edible nut

A




Mordant (fruit husks)

T




Tannin (fruit husks)

L

FAMILY BETULACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Alnus glutinosa

Black alder

Europe

Tannin (bark)

T



Near East





Siberia



Alnus rugosa

Speckled alder

North America

Tannin (bark)

T

Alnus tenufolia

Mountain alder

North America

Dye (bark)

T

Alnus spp.



Honey

C




Ornamental

C

Betula alba

European birch

Europe

Essential oil (bark)

L




Tannin (bark)

T




Syrup (sap)

L

Betula lenta

Sweet birch

East United States

Essential oil (twigs and bark)

L




Birch beer (sap)

L

Betula nigra

River birch

Southeast North America

Bonsai

C



North North America

Syrup (sap),


Betula papyrifera

Paper birch


Ornamental

L




Canoes, shelters, etc., (bark)

C

Betula pendula

Weeping birch

Europe

Ornamental

T




Bonasi

C

Carpinus betulus

European hornbeam

Europe

Ornamental

C



Near East



Carpinus laxifolia


Korea

Bonsai

C

Carpinus japonica

Japanese hornbeam

Japan

Bonsai

C

Corylus avellana

European hazel

Europe

Edible nut (cultivated)

C, A




Edible and industrial nut oil

C

Corylus maxima

Turkish filbert

Near East

Edible nut (cultivated)

C




Edible and industrial nut oil

C

Ostrya virginiana

American hop hornbeam

East North America

Ornamental

C

FAMILY CORNACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Cornus florida

Flowering dogwood

East North America

Ornamental

C

Cornus mas

Cornelian cherry

South Europe

Fruit added to wines and liqueurs

L

Cornus sanguiensis

Dogwood

South Europe

Fruit added to wines and liqueurs

L

Cornus stolonifera

Red-osier dogwood

North America

Ornamental

C

FAMILY EBENACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Diospyros khaki

Japanese persimmon

Japan

Edible fruit

A




Ornamental

C

Diospyros virginiana

Common persimmon

Southeast United States

Edible fruit

L

FAMILY ERICACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Arbutus unendo

Strawberry tree

Mediterranean

Jellies, wines, liqueurs

L

Oxydendrum arboreum

Sourwood

East United States

Honey

L




Ornamental

C

FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Aleurites fordii

Tung

Central-west China

Tung oil (seeds)

A

Aleurites montana

Tung

Southwest China

Tung oil (seeds)

L

FAMILY FAGACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Fagus grandifolia

American beech

East North America

Edible nut

T




Dye (bark)

T

Fagus sieboldii


Japan

Bonsai

C

Fagus sylvatica

European beech

Europe

Nut oil

L




Ornamental

C




Bonsai

C

Castanea crenata

Japanese chestnut

Japan

Edible nut

A




Dye (nut hull, bark)

T

Castanea dentata

American chestnut

East North America

Edible nut

T2




Tannin (bark)

T2

Castanea henryi


China

Edible nut (small)

L



Japan

Edible nut


Castanea mollisima

Chinese chestnut

China

Edible nut

A

Castanea ozarkensis

Ozark chinkapin

South-central United States

Edible nut

L

Castanea pumila

Allegheny chinkapin

East United States

Edible nut

L

Castanea sativa

European chestnut

Mediterranean Europe

Edible nut

A



Near East

Honey

C




Ornamental

C




Tannin (bark)

L

Castanopsis/Chrysolepis spp.3

Golden chinkapin (USA)

Asia, Western North America

Edible nut

L, T

Lithocarpus densiflorus

Tan oak

California, Oregon,

Edible nut (acorn)

T



USA

Tannin (bark)

T

Lithocarpus fenestra

Kala chakma

India

Tannin (bark)

L

Nothofagus alpina

Rauli

Argentina, Chile

Edible nut

T

Nothofagus glauca

Hualo

Argentina, Chile

Edible nut

T

Quercus spp.

Oak


Dye (bark)

T4




Edible nut (acorn)

L,T5




Tannin (bark)

L,T

Quercus aegilops

Valonea oak

Mediterranean Europe

Tannin (galls)

T



Near East



Quercus coccifera

Kerm or holly oak

Mediterranean Europe

Dye (kermes scale)

T



Near East



Quercus coccinea

Scarlet oak

East North America

Ornamental

C

Quercus floribunda

Kilonj

India

Tannin (bark)

L

Quercus ilex

Holm oak

Mediterranean Europe

Tannin (bark, galls)

L, T



Near East

Dye (kermes scale)

T




Ornamental

C

Quercus infectoria

Lusitania oak

Mediterranean Europe Near East

Tannin (bark, galls)

T

Quercus lamellosa

Bujrat

India

Tannin (bark)

L

Quercus leucotrichophora

Gray or ban oak

India

Tannin (bark)

L

Quercus palustris

Pin oak

East North America

Ornamental

C

Quercus pendiculata

Common oak

Europe

Tannin (galls)

T

Quercus rubra

Northern red oak

E NA

Ornamental

C




Dye

T




Tannin (bark)

T

Quercus semicarpifolia

Kharshu oak

India

Tannin (bark)

L

Quercus suber

Cork oak

West Mediterranean

Cork (bark)

C




Tannin (bark)

C

Quercus velutina

Black oak

East North America

Quercitron dye (bark)

T

Quercus virginiana

Live oak

Southeast United States

Ornamental

T

2 Destroyed by Asian chestnut blight.

3 See table 8.5 for detail.

4 See Table 6.3 for detail.

5 See Table 8.1 for detail.

FAMILY HAMAMELIDACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Liquidambar formosiana


Southeast China

Styrax (resin)

L

Liquidambar orientalis

Liquidambar

Mediterranean Europe

Styrax (resin)

C



Near East



Liquidambar styraciflua

Sweet gum

East United States

Styrax (resin)

C



Mexico, Honduras

Ornamental

C

FAMILY HIPPOCASTANACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Aesculus hippocastanum

Horse chestnut

Europe

Ornamental

C



Near East



Aesculus octandra

Yellow buckeye

Eastern United States

Edible nuts2

T

2 Contain poisonous glucosides and require leaching before use.

FAMILY JUGLANDACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Carya spp.

Hickory

Asia, North America

Edible nut

A, L, T

Juglans alianthifolia


China, Japan

Edible nut

L

Juglans australia


Argentina

Edible nut

L



South Bolivia



Juglans boliviana


Bolivia

Edible nut

L



Peru

Edible nut

C

Juglans californica

California walnut

California, USA

Edible nut

L

Juglans cathayensis


Central China

Edible nut

L

Juglans cinerea

Butternut

East North America

Dye (nut hulls)

T




Edible nut

T

Juglans duclouxiana


Asia

Edible nut

L

Juglans hindsii

North California walnut

North California

Edible nut

C

Juglans kamoniana


West Himalaya

Edible nut


Juglans major

Arizona walnut

Arizona

Edible nut

L



North Mexico



Juglans mandchuriana


North China

Edible nut

L

Juglans microcarpa

Little walnut

Central-southwest

Edible nut

L



United States





Ecuador

Dye (nut hulls)

L

Juglans neotropica


Peru

Edible nut

L





L

Juglans nigra

Black walnut

Eastern North America

Industrial products from nut hulls

C




Edible nut

C




Dye (nut hulls and bark)

T




Edible nut


Juglans regia

English or Persian walnut

Europe, Near East

Dye

A




Edible nut

T

Pterocarya spp.

Wingnuts

Asia, Near East


L

FAMILY LAURACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Laurus nobilis

Laurel

Mediterranean

Decorative greenery

C




Flavouring, foliage

C

Sassafras albidum

Sassafras

East United States

Flavouring (foliage)

L

Umbellularia californica

Myrtlewood

California, Oregon

Flavouring (foliage)

L




Honey

C

FAMILY LEGUMINOSAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Cercis canadensis

Redbud

East United States

Ornamental

C

Cercis siliquastrum

Judas tree

Mediterranean Europe

Ornamental

C



Near East



Gleditsia caspica

Caspian locust

Near East

Soap (pods)

L

Gleditsia japonica

Japanese locust

Japan

Soap (pods)

L

Gleditsia macracantha


China

Soap (pods)

L




Tannin (pods)

L

Gleditsia triacanthos

Honey locust

East United States

Beer (pods)

T




Ornamental

C

Prosopis chilensis

Algarrobo

North Chile

Fodder (pods)

L




Honey

L

Prosopis cineraria


India

Edible pods

C

Prosopis glandulosa

Honey mesquite

Southwest United States

Edible pods

T



North Mexico

Honey

L




Jelly, flour (pods)

L




Honey


Prosopis pubescens

Screwbean mesquite

Southwest United States

Jelly, flour

L



North Mexico


L



North Chile

Fodder (pods)

L

Prosopis tamarugo

Tamarugo


Honey

L

Robinia pseudoacacia

Black locust

East United States

Honey

C




Ornamental

C

FAMILY MAGNOLIACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Liriodendron tulipifera

Yellow poplar

East United States

Honey

L




Ornamental

C

Magnolia acuminata

Cucumber tree

East United States

Ornamental

C

Magnolia grandiflora

Evergreen magnolia

Southeast United States

Ornamental

C

FAMILY MORACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Maclura pomifera

Osage-orange

South-central United States

Dye (root bark)

T

Morus alba

White mulberry

Asia

Bonsai

C




Food for silkworms (foliage)

C

Morus issai


Asia

Bonsai

C

Morus rubra

Red mulberry

East North America

Edible fruit

L

FAMILY MYRTACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Eucalyptus spp.

Eucalypts

Australia

Decorative greenery

C



Papua New Guinea

Essential oils2

C




Honey

C




Liqueur

L

Eucalyptus accedens

Powder bark wandoo

Australia

Tannin (bark)

L

Eucalyptus astringens

Brown mallet

Australia

Tannin (bark)

L

Eucalyptus wandoo

Wandoo

Australia

Tannin (bark)

L

Myrtus communis

Myrtle

Mediterranean Europe

Decorative

T



Near East



2 See Table 4.2 for detail.

FAMILY NYSSACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Nyssa ogeche

Ogeechee tupelo

Florida, Georgia

Honey

L

Nyssa sylvatica

Black tupelo

East North America

Ornamental

C

FAMILY OLEACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Fraxinus spp.

Ash

Asia

Ornamental

C



Europe





NA



Olea europea

Olive

Mediterranean

Edible fruit (cultivated)

C




Edible oil (cultivated)


FAMILY PLATANACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Platanus x acerifolia

London plane

Hybrid

Ornamental

C

Platanus occidentalis

American sycamore

East United States

Ornamental

C

Platanus orientalis

Oriental plane

Sourtheast Europe

Ornamental

C



Near East



FAMILY RHAMNACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Rhamnus fragula

Alder buckthorn

Europe

Medicinal (bark)

L

Rhamnus purshiana

Cascara buckthorn

Pacific Coast, NA

Medicinal (bark)

C

FAMILY ROSACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Amalanchier spp.

Service berry

Asia

Ornamental

C



Europe





North America



Crataegus spp.

Hawthorn

Asia

Edible Fruit

L



Europe

Ornamental

C



North America



Crataegus aestivalis

Mayhaw

Southeast United States

Edible fruit

L

Crataegus opaca





Crataegus rufula





Crataegus cuneta


Japan

Bonsai

C

Malus pumila

Apple

Europe

Edible fruit

A



Near East



Malus spp.

Crabapple

Asia

Bonsai

C



Near East

Edible fruit

L




Ornamental

C

Prunus amygladus

Almond

Asia

Edible nut

A

Prunus avium

Sweet cherry

Asia

Edible fruit

A



Europe



Prunus domestica

Plum

Asia

Edible fruit

A



Europe



Prunus persica

Peach

Near East

Edible fruit

A

Prunus serullata

Japanese flowering cherry

Japan

Ornamental

C

Prunus yedoensis

Japanese flowering cherry

Japan

Ornamental

C

Pyrus domestica

Pear


Edible fruit

A

Sorbus americana

Mountain ash

East North America

Bird lime (fruit)

T




Edible fruit

T, L




Ornamental

C

Sorbus aucuparia

Mountain ash, rowan

Europe

Herbal medicine (fruit)

T, L

Sorbus domestica

Service tree

North Africa, Europe

Edible fruit

T, L

FAMILY SALICACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Salix alba

White willow

Europe

Medicine salicylic acid (bark)

T




Ornamental

C

Salix babylonica

Weeping willow

Asia

Ornamental

C

Salix spp.



Honey

L

Populus alba

White poplar


Ornamental

C

Populus nigra ‘Italica’

Lombardy poplar


Ornamental

C

FAMILY TILIACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Tilia americana

American basswood

Europe

Honey

C




Mats, cordage (bark)

L

Tilia cordata

European linden

East North America

Honey

C




Mats, cordage (bark)

L




Ornamental

C

Tilia japonica


Japan

Mats, cordage (bark)

L

Tilia tomentosa

Silver leafed lime

Europe

Honey

C

Tilia tuan



Mats, cordage (bark)

L

FAMILY ULMACEAE

Genus and Species

Common name(s)

Natural Range

Principal NWFP

Type of use

Celtis australis

Nettle tree

Mediterranean

Bonsai

C

Celtis bangeana sinensis


Asia

Bonsai

C

Celtis occidentalis

Hackberry

East North America

Ornamental

C

Ulmus americana

American elm

East North America

Ornamental

C2

Ulmus parvifolia

Chinese elm

China

Bonsai

C




Ornamental

C

Ulmus rubra

Slippery elm

East North America

Medicinal (bark)

C

Zelkova



Bonsai3

C




Ornamental

C

2 Use limited by Dutch elm disease

3 See Table 3.1 for detail.

FAO TECHNICAL PAPERS

NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS

1. Flavours and fragrances of plant origin (1995)

2. Gum naval stores: turpentine and rosin from pine resin (1995)

3. Report of the International Expert Consultation on Non-Wood Forest Products (1995)

4. Natural colourants and dyestuffs (1995)

5. Edible nuts (1995)

6. Gums, resins and latexes of plant origin (1995)

7. Non-wood forest products for rural income and sustainable forestry (1995)

8. Trade restrictions affecting international trade in non-wood forest products (1995)

9. Domestication and commercialization of non-timber forest products in agroforestry systems (1996)

10. Tropical palms (1998)

11. Medicinal plants for forest conservation and health care (1997)

12. Non-wood forest products from conifers (1998)

13. Resource assessment of non-wood forest products Experience and biometric principles (2001)

14. Rattan - Current research issues and prospects for conservation and sustainable development (2002)

15. Non-wood forest products from temperate broad-leaved trees (2002)

The FAO Technical Papers are available through the authorized FAO Sales Agents

publications-sales@fao.org


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