Small-Scale Palm Oil Processing in Africa



FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN
148

ISSN 1010-1365

by
Kwasi Poku
FAO Consultant
Ghana

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2002

Table of Contents



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The views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

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ISBN 92-5-104859-2

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© FAO 2002


Table of Contents


FOREWORD

1. INTRODUCTION

2 OIL PALM

2.1 Origin of oil palm

2.1.1 Early trading in palm products

2.2 Oil palm farm systems in Africa

2.2.1 Small-scale farms
2.2.2 Medium-scale farms
2.2.3 Large-scale farms

2.3 Principles of preservation and processing methods

3. PALM OIL PROCESSING

3. 1 General processing description

3.1.1 Bunch reception
3.1.2 Threshing (removal of fruit from the bunches)
3.1.3 Sterilization of bunches
3.1.4 Digestion of the fruit
3.1.5 Pressing (Extracting the palm oil)

3.1.5.1 Batch presses
3.1.5.2 Continuous systems

3.1.6 Clarification and drying of oil
3.1.7 Oil storage
3.1.8 Kernel recovery

3.2 Process equipment design and selection criteria

3.2.1 Batch systems
3.2.2 Semi-continuous systems

3.3 Plant sizing
3.4 Process technology/capital investment considerations

4. TRADITIONAL TECHNIQUES AND INNOVATIONS IN SMALL-SCALE PALM OIL PROCESSING

4.1 Mechanical extraction
4.2 Direct screw-pressing
4.3 Hydraulic presses
4.4 Combination digester and hydraulic press systems
4.5 Combination mechanical digester and screw-press

5. PALM KERNEL OIL EXTRACTION

5.1 Mechanical extraction
5.2 Solvent extraction
5.3 Traditional method of palm kernel extraction

6. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

6.1 Treatment of solid waste products
6.2 Treatment of aqueous effluent

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANNEX 1: Major manufacturers and designers of palm processing equipment in Africa

BENIN
CAMEROON
NIGERIA
GHANA

FAO TECHNICAL PAPERS

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