Messrs. D.Hüseyin KOÇ, Baki AKSU & Ahmet KURTOĞLU
University of Istanbul, Faculty of Forestry, BAHÇEKÖY/ISTANBUL
With this study the analysis of Turkey's foreign trade of the non-wood forest products were aimed. Although non-wood forest products have an important share inside the forest products, especially inside the export, recently there has not been any detailed study related to the its foreign trade. Therefore considering the last 10 years data, this research aimed to find out the development of the non-wood forest products' trade inside the forest products' trade.
Figures of export and import related to non-wood forest products between the years of 1990–1999 which are belong to State Statistical Institute were transferred to MS-EXCEEL media and evaluated by questioning method. 23 non-wood forest products' items which are subject to export and import were included in this research. Development in the export and import of non-wood forest products at last 10 years (1990–1999), the first 5 countries which have priority at export and import, and the shares of 23 non-wood forest products items in the export and import were determined.
The results reveal that, share of the non-wood forest products inside 1.8 billion $ total forest products export was 36%, while the share was 1.5% inside the 3.2 billion $ of total forest products import between the years of 1990–1999. Balance of Turkey's of foreign trade non-wood forest products always progressed at positive direction between the years of 1990–1999. In this period about 682.7 million $ export and 48.9 million $ import were made. Considering foreign trade of non-wood forest products, Turkey established export and import links with 113 and 64 countries respectively.
Considering that the export is a very important concept in the development of the countries, the increase in the variety of the products is as much important. 20.703.122 hectares of land in Turkey consist of forests of which 10.547.987 hectares are normal and 10.155.135 hectares are spoilt. Thus, the main forest products are produced in these regions whereas the trees and the small trees growing in the forest ecology and the non-wood forest products, which are obtained from the sub-flora, can also be produced. (OGM Internet records, ÖRS 1999). These products which create an important export opportunity for Turkey are also valuable for the economy of our country and for the people living in the forest villages.
Non-wood forest products are produced in two ways. Firstly, products as resin, sweetgum, Laurus leaf, cane, stick, and bushes are produced yearly by the Office of Forestry and secondly, the above mentioned products are produced without a specific programme according to the demands. In the second way of production products are sold to the forest villagers in relation with the 37. Article of the Law of Forestry. Forest Villager Development Co-operatives or the villagers are privileged in relation with the 40. Article of the Law of Forestry. However, a conscious organization is not carried out in the collection of these products, which have an important export potential, and efforts remain at the individual level (ÖZER 1999).
Non-wood forest products have an important share in the foreign trade of forest products, especially in the export. However, a detailed study of foreign trade has not been prepared recently. Thus, this research aims to find out the development of the non-wood forest products in the foreign trade of forest products considering the data of the last decade.
2. Material And Method
All data used in this study which aims to analyse the foreign trade structure of Turkey's non-wood forest products are the figures of export and import. Figures of export and import related to non-wood forest products between the years 1990 and 1999, which belong to State Statistical Institute, were transferred to MS-EXCEL media and evaluated by questioning method. 23 non-wood forest products, which are subject to export and import, were included in this research. Both literature information and the records of State Statistical Institute were considered in the determination of these 23 products (BOZKURT/YALTIRIK/ÖZDÖNMEZ 1982; BOZKURT/GÖKER 1996; ÖRS 1999). Development in the export and import of non-wood forest products at the last decade (1990–1999), the first 5 countries, which have priority at export and import, were determined.
3.1 Foreign Trade Balance of Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey
Foreign trade of the non-wood forest products in Turkey is summarised in Figure 1. While the trading balance of some wood forest products was negative in Turkey, the balance of non-wood forest products was positive between the years 1990 and 2000. Export was at the level of 59 million $ in 1990 and 81 million $ in 1998 which was the year of the highest export. A decrease in the export was apparent after the progress in 1998.
Examining the import values, we can see that the import in 1990 was at the level of 2.8 million $. This amount decreased to 1.7 million $ in 1991. The import increased in the next years and reached the level of 8.2 million $ in 1999. Export was 20 times the import in 1990 but this ratio was 8 in 1999.
3.2 Privileged Countries in the Non-Wood Forest Product Exports in Turkey
Five privileged countries in the non-wood forest products export are summarized at Table 1. As it is apparent in Table 1, the highest export was made to Germany between the years 1990 and 1992 whereas USA was the privileged country during the other years. The share of 4 UN countries, which are in the first 5 countries in the total export, is 40.5%. Export links have been established with 113 countries in the recent 10 years. This figure was 56 in 1990 and 80 in 1999.
The export shares of the 5 privileged countries according to the export figures of the last decade (1990–1999) are summarised in Figure 2. According to Figure 2, the total export was divided among the countries as follows: 21% USA, 14% Germany, 12% Italy, 9% France and 5% Spain. The export of approximately 682 million $ was made to the mentioned 5 countries (61%) and to the others (39%).
3.3 Privileged Countries in the Non-Wood Forest Product Importations in Turkey
Five privileged countries in the non-wood forest products' imports are shown at Table 2. Importation of 49 million $ has been achieved in the last decade regarding 64 countries. The number of the countries was 21 in 1990 and 44 at the end off 1999. The privileged countries in import were the Netherlands in 1990, 1991, 1997 and 1998, Germany in 1992 and 1996, Italy in 1993 and 1995, and Albania in 1994.
Five privileged countries according to the total import figures in the last decade are shown in the Figure 3. According to this classification, the countries as follows: the Netherlands 16%, Italy 12%, China and France 11%, and Germany 10%. The share of the other countries was 40%. Imports of non-wood forest products were also achieved regarding the Free Zones though not as much as the others.
Table 1. Privileged Countries in the Export of Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey
|Figure 2: Privileged countried in the export of non-wood forest products in Turkey||Figure 3: Privileged countried in the import of non-wood forest products in Turkey|
Table 2. Privileged Countries in the Import of Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey
3.4 The Share of the Product Groups in the Non-Wood Forest Product Exports in Turkey
Twenty-three non-wood forest products exported in Turkey and their yearly shares in the export are summarised at Table 3. Both the yearly % shares and the financial values of the products are shown at the table. The classification was made according to the total sales in the last decade. According to the table, thyme covers the 19.4% share of the 682.7 million US$ of export. Thymus is followed by Capparis 16.7%, edible mushrooms 16.5%, pine-nut 10.8%, Laurus leaf 10.4%, Castanea 9.7%, and Ceratonia siligua 4.9%. Share of liquorice, bulbous plants, Foeniculum, juniperus cones, Cerasus mahalep and Saluia is between 1.4% and 2.3% as in the table. The shares of Tilia flowers, nut-gall, sweet gum, tragacanth, resin, Rhus, bark mushrooms, Orchis, camatina, bushes and Myrtus are below 1%.
3.5 The Share of the Product Groups in the Non-Wood Forest Products Importations in Turkey
Twenty-two non-wood forest products, which are on the import market in Turkey, are classified according to their shares in import at Table 4. According to the table, the import of Foeniculum, juniperus cones, Saluia, pine nut, Tilia flowers, Laurus leaf, tragacanth, Myrtus, Rhus and Cerasus mahalep has begun in the recent years. Contrary to export, edible mushrooms cover an important share of the import (22.7 %). According to the other classification, 10 years of import include bark mushrooms 17.8%, bulbous plants 14%, bushes 11%, Ceratonia siligua 8.8%, Thymus 8.1%, resin 3.3%, liquorice 3%, Foeniculum, juniperus cones 2.6%, Saluia 2.2%, pine nut 2%, nut-gall 1.3% and Capparis 1.1%. The shares of Castanea, sweet gum, Tilia flowers, Laurus leaf, tragacanth, Myrtus, Rhus, Cerasus mahalep and Silene in the import were below 1%.