FAO GLOBAL INFORMATION AND EARLY WARNING SYSTEM ON FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME

SPECIAL REPORT

FAO/WFP CROP AND FOOD SUPPLY ASSESSMENT MISSION TO ANGOLA

1 July 2002

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Mission Highlights

  • The cease-fire agreement signed in April between the UNITA and the Angolan Government revealed the extent of suffering by people trapped in rural areas by the conflict. Large numbers of malnourished people have since made their way to reception and transit centres and up to 500 000 are reported to be in a critical nutritional situation.
  • The peace agreement came too late to make a significant difference to the area planted to foodcrops in 20001/02.
  • Angola was spared the drought which affected much of southern Africa in 2001/02, although rains were late. The 2002 cereal harvest is estimated slightly down on last year at 549 000 tonnes. Cassava production is estimated at some 5 620 000 tonnes, 7 percent higher than last year.
  • Cereal import requirements for 2002/03 are estimated at 725 000 tonnes, of which 504 000 tonnes are expected as commercial imports and 221 000 tonnes as emergency food aid.
  • The number of people in urgent need of food assistance is estimated at 1.4 million. WFP plans to assist 1.24 million people, including IDPs with insufficient or no access to land, the families of UNITA soldiers, the vulnerable population in previously inaccessible areas and refugees returning to Angola. The remaining needy population needs to be supported by other humanitarian agencies.
  • Of the estimated 4 million people displaced from their homes since 1998, around 2 million have been allocated land and no longer depend on food assistance.

 

1. OVERVIEW

An FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission visited Angola from 15 May to 6 June 2002 to estimate, as in previous years, crop production in 2002 and cereal import requirement in the 2002/03 marketing year (April/March), including food aid needs. Following briefings by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MINADER), the Mission visited 10 of the 18 provinces of the country over a period of two weeks, accompanied by officers from the Food Security Unit of MINADER and observers from SADC and USAID.

The Mission was divided into two groups for the field visits, one visiting the provinces of Malange, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul and Lunda Sul, while the other visited Bié, Huambo, Benguela, Moxico, Cunene and Huila. The cease-fire agreement signed with UNITA on 4 April 2002 has been well respected and the teams were able to travel long distances by road and cover more area than the previous missions. Information on the situation in the provinces not visited was provided to the Mission by the Food Security Unit of MINADER, WFP/VAM and the offices of NGOs, which have projects in the field.

Escalation of the conflict during 2001/02 resulted in further exodus of people from the rural areas and over 400 000 new internally displaced persons (IDPs) arrived in the urban areas between June 2001 and March 2002. The exact total is, however, unknown because of the numbers who have not registered with the authorities.


A total of 4 million people are estimated to have been displaced from their homes since 1998. Some 2 million IDPs have been given land and of these, those who are in their second season no longer receive food aid. The Government and NGOs are making a great effort to provide the displaced rural population with enough land and inputs and it has been reported by MINADER that 211 758 hectares have now been allocated to 392 386 IDP families, an average of 0.54 hectares per family. The number of people in need of food assistance between May 2002 and April 2003 is estimated at 1.4 million people. Local people with land are not expected to suffer major food shortages, although lack of food diversity could cause malnutrition problems among children, especially in view of the poor bean crop. IDP farmers, however, with smaller areas, low yields and even less dietary diversity are anticipated to face food difficulties later in the year.

Peace came too late to have a significant impact on planted areas in the 2001/02 season. The cropped area has been estimated at 2.24 million hectares, 6 percent higher than last year's total of 2.11 million hectares. Sorghum/millet areas increased because these crops are mainly grown in the areas less affected by the conflict. However, expansion was limited by shortages of seed. A total of 4 612 tonnes of seeds was distributed to 374 335 families in the 2001/02 season, compared to 5 472 tonnes distributed last year to 294 880 families.

Angola was spared the drought that affected much of southern Africa. Rains were delayed but satisfactory later in the season. However, yields of all crops were generally below potential because of the uneven distribution of rainfall and late planting. Most of the cassava planted with the first rains in October/November 2001 suffered from the Mosaic Virus. In areas worst affected by the conflict, yields were also reduced by severe damage to crops by military operations.

The Mission forecast the 2002 cereal production at 549 000 tonnes (including milled), 5 percent down from last year. Production of cassava, an important staple in the north, is estimated 7 percent higher than last year at some 5 620 000 tonnes fresh weight.

The cereal import requirement for marketing year 2002/03 (April/March) is estimated at 725 000 tonnes, of which 504 000 tonnes are anticipated to be imported commercially, leaving 221 000 tonnes to be covered by food aid.

The ending of hostilities in early April also revealed the extent of suffering by the people trapped in the rural areas by the fighting. Large numbers of people, mainly the families of UNITA soldiers, many of them severely ill and malnourished, have since made their way to the provincial capitals and UNITA families reception areas. The nutritional situation in some of the newly accessible areas is reported to be critical.

Some IDPs have already started to return to their homes to prepare land for the next season and to plant dry season crops in the wet-land areas. There are also reports of refugees returning. Return home is slow, however, with families having to travel long distances, coupled with shortages of food and seed, land mines, broken bridges and impassable rivers. Food assistance and agricultural inputs are urgently required for farmers returning to their home areas.

2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC SETTING

Angola has a total area of 1.247 million square kilometres and an estimated population in 2001 of 13.8 million. The country is endowed with substantial natural resources, including extensive reserves of oil and gas, valuable minerals, particularly diamonds, and an important hydroelectric potential from numerous rivers. It has a vast agricultural potential with fertile soils in the northern region and the central highlands, where annual rainfall normally exceeds 1000 mm. Livestock is predominant in the southern region, which receives lower rainfall, and is also less populated than the other regions. The country also has vast marine and river resources, particularly fisheries, as well as an extensive forestry sector.

In spite of the country's potentials, a high percentage of the Angolan population is living below the poverty line. The civil war that began after independence in 1975 and continued up to April 2002 was a major cause of social instability and economic disruption. The war situation together with inadequate economic policies has resulted in high levels of inflation, estimated at 115 percent at the end of 2001.

Real GDP growth declined steadily between 1996 and 1999 from 11.7 percent to 2.7 percent but recovered in 2001 to 4.1 percent. For 2002, the rate of real GDP growth is forecast at 10.5 percent, mainly due to oil production, estimated to be 920 000 barrels per day1. In spite of its relatively minor contribution to GDP (less than 7 percent) compared to oil (61 percent) and mining (9 percent), agriculture has great potential for providing employment to the rural population and in securing food supplies. Prior to independence (1975), food production was high and the country was a major exporter of maize and coffee.

Maize is the main food staple in the central highlands, while millet and sorghum are the most important cereals in the dry southern regions. Cassava predominates in the north. Livestock are of considerable significance, particularly in the south. In most of the conflict areas, agriculture has fallen to an almost subsistence level, with little or no marketable surplus and very limited trade activity. Self-sufficiency is seldom attained amongst displaced populations due to the limited access to land and insufficient seed.

Because of the war situation, the country has for many years relied on food imports - both commercial imports of wheat and rice, and food aid, mostly in maize and beans.

3. FOOD PRODUCTION IN 2001/02

3.1 Cropping patterns

The proportion of land under the major foodcrops - maize, millet/sorghum and cassava - varies from north to south. Variations between provinces and regions can be significant due to the differing lengths of growing seasons, altitude, soil quality and traditional preferences. The other major crops are beans, groundnuts and sweet potatoes. Rice and Irish potatoes are important in localized areas with suitable growing conditions.

Mixed cropping is the norm and it is usual to find maize and beans growing with groundnuts, cassava and sweet potatoes. Maize is not always consumed as grain, in much of the cassava dominated northern provinces maize is traditionally eaten green and is not available as food stocks. Not all of the cassava crop is available within the year of planting because of its 18-24 months growing period. It is estimated that as much as 30 percent of the cassava yield will be taken in the first year. A substantial part of the sorghum crop is used for making beer and non-alcoholic drinks.

Vegetable production (tomatoes, onions, cabbage, okra, peppers, carrots, pumpkin) is important, particularly in low-lying wet-land areas or where water for irrigation can be found during the dry season. Important green foods include the leaves of cassava, pumpkins, hibiscus, sweet potatoes, beans, cowpeas and amaranths, which may also be dried. Bananas, mangoes, pineapple, citrus fruits, passion fruit, tobacco and sugarcane are grown as food and cash crops, bananas being a particularly important supplementary food in the higher rainfall areas.

3.2 Rains

Annual rainfall in Angola ranges from as little as 20 mm on the south coast to as much as 2000 mm in parts of the north-east, with the major crop producing areas of central Angola receiving around 1200-1400 mm. The rains start earliest in the northern region, from September, and last the longest, until mid-May, usually broken in the middle into two shorter seasons by a dry period from around mid-December to mid-January, as the ITCZ (Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone) weather system moves south and then north again. There is only one season in the central region, which starts a month or so later but is longer. The south also has only one (shorter) season as it is briefly touched by the ITCZ before it moves north again.

Angola was spared the drought in 2001/02 which affected much of southern Africa although this was the second year the rainy season had started late and rains were poorly distributed.

In the north, most cereal crops were planted in October/November instead of September/October. As a result, they were too immature to survive a dry spell in December. Although replanting took place in several areas, yields were in general reduced by the dry weather. However, cassava managed to establish with the first rains. Rainfall was normal in the central zone after a late start and it was heavy in all regions during March/April. Late cassava planting was a major activity in the northern provinces where farmers were still planting in May when the Mission was in the field. Most southern provinces did not receive enough rain to start planting until the end of October, but crop growth thereafter was good, although the excessive rainfall of March and April caused some crop damage, particularly to beans. Rainfall records from the provinces are incomplete but the average overall would appear to have been around 800-900 mm between November 2001 and the end of April 2002 in the main cropping areas.

3.3 Input supplies

The supply of seeds, tools and fertilisers to IDPs and some residents was once again a major exercise in the 2001/02 cropping season. The main seed types distributed by NGOs were maize, beans, cowpea, millet, sorghum, groundnuts and vegetables. However, availability was lower this year. A total of 4 612 tonnes of seeds were distributed to 374 335 families, compared with 5 472 tonnes distributed to 294 880 families in 2001/02. Delivery of seed was late in all areas, although that could be considered a "mixed blessing" in view of the poor early rains, meaning that seed was not wasted on failed crops. Delays were said to be partly due to difficulties with Customs clearance, and the Angolan Government should be asked to improve that situation. There are also difficulties with providing the right varieties for each agro-ecological zone, with crop failures often blamed on the variety. It is important that this is given greater attention in future.

Multiplication of locally-adapted and improved crop varieties has started in the provinces and the FAO/UCPE (FAO Emergency Co-ordination Unit) in Luanda is co-ordinating with NGOs an aid programme of seed and cuttings (cassava and sweet potatoes) multiplication in the 2002/03 season.

There was also a limited distribution of 1 247 tonnes of fertiliser by NGOs, while MINADER distributed 10 652 tonnes of fertilizer under the Government's emergency assistance programme (PNEAH).

3.4 Area planted

Crop area estimates for the main food crops are given in Tables 1, 2 and 3. The total cropped area in 2001/02 has been estimated at 2.24 million hectares, 6 percent up from last year's total of 2.11 million hectares. Areas of maize, sorghum/millet and cassava increased 8 percent, 25 percent and 6 percent respectively on last year, while those of beans and groundnut are similar.

Table 1: Area under cultivation in 2000/01 and 2001/02 (hectares)

 
2000/01
2001/02
 
Residents
IDPs
Total
Residents
IDPs
Total
NORTH
           
Cabinda
31 039
0
31 039
31 660
0
31 660
Zaire
50 267
6 633
56 900
62 973
2 865
65 838
Uige
221 126
16 295
237 421
284 589
6 402
290 991
Bengo
36 192
6 261
42 453
33 619
7 654
41 273
Luanda
9 436
0
9 436
10 898
6 885
17 783
Kwanza Norte
75 638
8 662
84 300
72 495
6 232
78 727
Malange
147 233
15 826
163 059
137 592
19 499
157 091
Lunda Norte
24 337
18 833
43 170
45 861
14 266
60 127
Lunda Sul
27 669
13 562
41 231
42 416
8 681
51 097
Sub-Total
622 937
86 072
709 009
722 103
72 484
794 587
CENTRAL
           
Kwanza Sul
140 816
5 100
145 916
83 256
24 070
107 326
Benguela
170 358
36 422
206 780
171 833
30 006
201 839
Huambo
387 078
31 471
418 549
415 056
23 769
438 825
Bie
185 658
14 960
200 619
202 873
11 402
214 275
Moxico
58 655
14 884
73 538
40 404
8 953
49 357
Sub-Total
942 565
102 837
1 045 402
913 422
98 200
1 011 622
SOUTH
           
Namibe
12 724
1 319
14 043
8 026
2 600
10 626
Huila
197 127
28 719
225 846
225 762
35 442
261 204
Cunene
71 144
1 822
72 966
75 041
1 271
76 312
Kuando Kubango
22 063
28 907
50 970
85 403
1 761
87 164
Sub-Total
303 058
60 767
363 825
394 232
41 074
435 306
TOTAL
1 868 560
249 676
2 118 236
2 029 757
211 758
2 241 515
Source: GSA/MINADER, Angola.
3.5 Crop yields

Yields of all crops were below their maximum potential because of delayed rains and late planting, but low fertility of over-cropped soils near to the towns was also a factor, particularly with land allocated to IDPs. Maize and sorghum/millet yields were down from last year but the bean crop suffered most from uneven distribution of rainfall and aphid infestation. Overall, the reduction of grains yields also reflected crops destroyed by the army in military activities.

Most of the cassava planted with the first rains in October/November 2001survived the dry periods but yields are expected to be limited due to the extent of the cassava mosaic virus, as well as low plant populations and pre-mature harvesting. Yield assumptions for the main food crops grown in the 2001/02 season are given in Tables 2. and 3.

3.6 Crop production forecast 2001/02

Crop production estimates are summarised Tables 2 and 3. Production of maize was estimated at some 426 000 tonnes, almost unchanged from year. Production of sorghum and milled declined 20 percent but that of cassava increased 7 percent.

Table 2: Areas, yields and production of main cereal crops in 2001/02

 
Maize
Millet and Sorghum
Total coarse grains
PROVINCE
Area
Yield
Prod.
Area
Yield
Prod.
Area
Prod.
 
(ha)
(t/ha)
(tonnes)
(ha)
(t/ha)
(tonnes)
(ha)
(tonnes)
NORTH
               
Cabinda
6 015
0.65
3 910
0
0.00
0
6 015
3 910
Zaire
7 901
0.65
5 135
0
0.00
0
7 901
5 135
Uige
34 918
0.65
22 697
0
0.00
0
34 918
22 697
Bengo
6 191
0.65
4 024
0
0.00
0
6 191
4 024
Luanda
9 283
0.50
4 641
0
0.00
0
9 283
4 641
Kwanza Norte
10 235
0.30
3 071
0
0.00
0
10 235
3 071
Malange
23 563
0.45
10 604
0
0.00
0
23 563
10 604
Lunda Norte
8 418
0.50
4 209
0
0.00
0
8 418
4 209
Lunda Sul
7 154
0.50
3 577
0
0.00
0
7 154
3 577
SUB-TOTAL
113 678
0.54
61 868
0
0.00
0
113 678
61 868
CENTRAL
               
Kwanza Sul
50 443
0.40
20 177
1 073
0.40
429
51 516
20 606
Benguela
104 957
0.30
31 487
30 276
0.40
12 110
135 233
43 597
Huambo
285 236
0.50
142 618
48 271
0.50
24 136
333 507
166 754
Bie
104 995
0.45
47 248
14 999
0.60
9 000
119 994
56 248
Moxico
16 781
0.50
8 391
1 481
0.40
592
18 262
8 983
SUB-TOTAL
562 412
0.44
249 921
96 100
0.48
46 267
658 512
296 188
SOUTH
               
Namibe
4 569
0.40
1 828
3 400
0.50
1 700
7 969
3 528
Huila
107 094
0.90
96 384
83 585
0.25
20 896
190 679
117 280
Cunene
1 526
0.40
610
72 497
0.40
28 999
74 023
29 609
Kuando Kubango
26 149
0.60
15 689
42 711
0.50
21 356
68 860
37 045
SUB-TOTAL
139 338
0.82
114 511
202 193
0.36
72 951
341 531
187 462
TOTAL
815 428
0.52
426 300
298 293
0.40
119 218
1 113 721
545 518
Source: GSA/MINADER and Mission estimates.

Table 3: Areas, yields and production of other main crops in 2001/02

 
Beans
Groundnuts
Cassava
Sweet potatoes
PROVINCE
Area
(ha)
Yield
(t/ha)
Prod.
(tonnes)
Area
(ha)
Yield
(t/ha)
Prod.
(tonnes)
Area
(ha)
Yield
(t/ha)
Prod.
(tonnes)
Area
(ha)
Yield
(t/ha)
Prod.
(tonnes)
                         
NORTH
                       
Cabinda
3 799
0.40
1 520
3 166
0.30
950
15 513
11.50
178 403
1 900
4.50
8 548
Zaire
7 242
0.40
2 897
5 267
0.50
2 634
39 503
9.50
375 279
4 609
4.50
20 739
Uige
26 190
0.45
11 784
20 369
0.40
8 147
183 325
11.00
2 016 566
17 459
4.50
78 567
Bengo
3 302
0.45
1 486
2 889
0.30
867
23 526
10.00
235 256
4 127
4.50
18 573
Luanda
1 693
0.35
593
0
0.00
0
5 280
10.50
55 439
1 344
4.50
6 050
Kwanza Norte
9 447
0.15
1 417
7 873
0.20
1 575
43 300
11.00
476 302
5 511
4.50
24 799
Malange
15 709
0.14
2 199
10 996
0.30
3 299
91 112
10.00
911 124
7 855
4.50
35 345
Lunda Norte
7 215
0.30
2 165
1 804
0.30
541
36 677
10.00
366 772
3 006
4.00
12 025
Lunda Sul
3 577
0.40
1 431
3 066
0.40
1 226
30 147
10.00
301 470
4 599
4.00
18 396
SUB-TOTAL
78 174
0.3261
25 492
55 430
0.35
19 239
468 383
10.50
4 916 611
50 410
4.42
223 042
CENTRAL
                       
Kwanza Sul
13 952
0.16
2 232
7 513
0.30
2 254
20 392
7.50
152 940
6 440
5.00
32 198
Benguela
24 221
0.20
4 844
6 055
0.40
2 422
22 203
3.50
77 708
10 092
4.00
40 368
Huambo
52 659
0.20
10 532
4 388
0.20
878
4 388
6.50
28 524
13 164
4.00
52 659
Bie
34 284
0.20
6 857
6 428
0.50
3 214
29 998
6.50
194 990
6 428
4.00
25 713
Moxico
3 455
0.20
691
2 468
0.30
740
20 236
7.00
141 655
1 481
4.50
6 663
SUB-TOTAL
128 571
0.1957
25 156
26 852
0.35
9 508
97 217
6.13
595 817
37 605
4.19
157 601
SOUTH
                       
Namibe
850
0.15
128
0
0.00
0
0
5.00
0
956
3.00
2 869
Huila
26 121
0.20
5 223
2 612
0.40
1 045
20 896
4.00
83 585
7 836
3.50
27 426
Cunene
1 526
0.10
153
0
0.00
0
0
0.00
0
0
0.00
0
Kuando Kubango
4 358
0.40
1 743
872
0.20
174
6 102
4.00
24 406
3 487
3.50
12 203
SUB-TOTAL
32 855
0.2206
7 247
3 484
0.35
1 219
26 998
 
107 991
12 279
3.46
42 498
TOTAL
239 600
0.24
57 895
85 766
0.35
29 966
592 598
9.48
5 620 419
100 294
4.22
423 141
Source: GSA/MINADER and Mission estimates.

Table 4 compares the estimated production of coarse grains with previous years.

Table 4: Production of coarse grains from 1996/97 to 2001/02 (`000 tonnes)

Province
1996/97
1997/98
1998/99
1999/00
2000/01
2001/02
Benguela
65
84
83
106
83
44
Bie
84
98
57
39
58
56
Huambo
112
159
115
88
180
167
Huila
49
70
95
98
128
117
Kwanza Sul
21
48
49
38
21
21
Malange
11
21
13
13
10
11
Moxico
21
21
13
12
11
9
Other Provinces
68
93
105
106
86
121
Total production
431
594
530
500
577
546
Total area
(`000 ha)
782
862
865
884
995
1 114
3.7 Livestock

Before the war, the livestock industry was important in the economy, but numbers were decimated with the conflict and will take many years to recover. Only in southern areas, where the household economy is based in livestock, significant numbers of animals was observed by the Mission. Livestock statistics in Angola are not up to date, and during its field visit the Mission collected estimates on livestock for the important provinces of Huila and Cunene. This information, together with MINADER available estimates is presented in Table 5.

With the end of the war, the opening of roads and free circulation, trading of cattle from South to North is expected to increase. Requirements of animal traction next season, as much abandoned land will require rehabilitation for crop production, will also contribute to enhance livestock marketing.

Table 5: Estimates of livestock populations in 2001/02

Region
 
Country
Total
Cattle
Sheep
Goats
Pigs
Poultry
   
1 977 500
45 000
725 000
64 000
171 000
 
North
 
 
Luanda
6 500
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
30 000
 
Kuanza Norte
500
2 500
11 500
14 500
25 000
 
Malange
500
500
500
1 000
N.A
 
Uíge
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
25 000
 
Sub-Total
7 500
3 000
12 000
15 500
80 000
 
Centre
 
Kuanza Sul
54 000
33 500
74 000
27 000
25 000
 
Benguela
38 000
7 500
21 500
6 000
35 500
 
Huambo
12 000
500
3 000
N.A
N.A
 
Sub-Total
104 000
41 500
98 500
33 000
60 500
 
South
 
Namibe
106 000
500
500
500
500
 
Huíla
160 000
N.A
14 000
15 000
30 000
 
Cunene
1 600 000
N.A
600 000
N.A
N.A
 
Sub-Total
1 866 000
500
614 500
15 500
30 500
Source: MINADER.

4. SITUATION BY PROVINCES

The Mission visited 10 out of the 18 provinces of Angola - Malange, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Lunda Sul, Bie, Huambo, Benguela, Moxico, Cunene and Huila. Information on these provinces is presented below.

Malange

At least 75 percent of Malange is believed to have been affected by the conflict, particularly in the south - the most important maize growing area. It is estimated that the population engaged in farming during the 2001/02 season has been around 140 000 families with some 157 000 hectares. Cassava is the main staple food, and traditionally, more than three-quarters of the maize crop is consumed as immature green cobs, before the end of December. The cassava crop is forecast at some 911 000 tonnes this year and sweet potatoes at some 35 000 tonnes. Yields of beans and groundnuts were badly affected by the late start of the rains but this has been a better season for cassava than last year, with plenty of cuttings available from previous seasons. Cassava planting started in October/November and the crop survived well.
There were complaints about shortages of tools, and late and insufficient seed deliveries. Poor seed quality, especially of beans and unsuitable varieties, particularly of maize, were also reported. Another factor adversely affecting yields, especially in IDP plots, is the exhaustion of soil fertility in the areas surrounding the main towns where much of the cultivation is concentrated because of insecurity. Cassava from the 2000/01 season was maturing and harvesting has started. There were reports of some crops being destroyed by the army in their offensives against UNITA.

No major food security problems for the farming population are foreseen where cassava is the staple food. However, a lack of diversity in the food types available could lead to some malnutrition among the young, especially in view of the poor yields of high protein bean and groundnut crops. Landless IDPs and vulnerable people from the conflict areas will continue to need support in 2002/03.

Kwanza Norte

About half of the province was affected by the conflict and the number of families in agricultural production was estimated at 69 000, cultivating 79 000 hectares. Production of the main crops in the 2001/02 season is forecast at 3 071 tonnes of maize, 1 417 tonnes of beans and some 476 000 tonnes of cassava. The first planting season was affected by late rains specifically in the case of maize. Crops of maize, groundnuts, sweet potatoes and cowpeas planted in the second season, around March, were in good condition. The second season bean crop was damaged by excessive rains in April and only reduced crops were maturing. Although the area planted was reduced by the failure of first season plantings, yields are expected to be better than last year, except for beans.

Kwanza Norte is characterized by grassy hills separated by thickly forested valleys which provide adequately sheltered conditions for crop growth. The Mission observed large numbers of people leaving the Capital Ndalatando every morning to work in their fields and returning in the evening loaded with farm products. Some rehabilitation of the extensive coffee plantations being carried out was also observed. Sugarcane, melons and yams were all in evidence and oil palm is a significant source of edible oil, palm wine and cash income.

The food supply situation of the farming population, which depend on cassava as the staple, is satisfactory. Most of the maize crop is consumed green.

Lunda Sul

The western half of Lunda Sul was heavily affected by the conflict. Some 45 000 families are estimated to have engaged in farming during the 2001/02 cropping season cultivating about 51 000 hectares, mainly cassava. Maize is for consumption as green cobs. The Province had a better season than last year. Although rains were delayed on the whole, the cassava crop is forecast at some 302 000 tonnes. Production estimates for maize and other crops, including sweet potatoes, are low. A dry spell in December adversely affected the maize crop on the lighter soils. The established maize before tasseling should have been able to resist the dry spell and field interviews suggested that the variety might have been inadequate.

Second season crops (planted in April 2002) of groundnuts, sweet potatoes, bambarra groundnuts and melons were in good condition in areas of better soil fertility. However, only resident farmers had enough seed to plant. LWF reported that seed deliveries for IDPs were late. Deliveries of tools were also below requirements.

Substantial IDP movements back to their home areas are reported. LWF informed the Mission that half the population of one IDP camp (Luemba) had recently returned home. However, the Province is still cut off from Luanda by a major river where the bridge was bombed during the war.

The food security situation is stable for the farming population which depend on cassava as the staple food. However, there is concern for the IDP families who will have little else to eat.

Kwanza Sul

Around 20 percent of Kwanza Sul along the coast, was unaffected by the war and in the 2001/02 cropping season it is estimated that some 100 000 families were cultivating some 107 000 hectares. The main food crop of this central region province is maize which makes up some 50 percent of the cropped area with cassava at around 20 percent. Other foodcrops include beans groundnuts sweet potatoes Irish potatoes bananas papaya and sugarcane. Cash crops of coffee and cotton are also important.

Generally there is only one cropping season in the coastal areas. There is, however, considerable activity in irrigated vegetable production in the dry season from May onwards. The first rains of the 2001/02 season were late but subsequently abundant. Some 400 hectares of maize were planted by IDPs on the coast near Sumbe the provincial capital with yields estimated at around 0.4 tonnes/hectare. Shortages of seeds limited the amount of other crops grown. On the inland plains resident farms with pure stands of maize on better soils appeared in much better conditions with yields of around 1.5 tonnes/hectare estimated by the Mission. Cobs, however, were very small due to the practice of sowing many seeds in one hole (from 4-20) and about 1.0 m between planting holes, which seems to prevail throughout the northern region.

Maize production most of which is allowed to mature and is conserved dry is estimated at some 20 000 tonnes and cassava at 153 000 tonnes. No major food security problem is expected for resident farmers who depend on maize as the staple food. By contrast, there is concern for the IDP families whose yields are very low and will run out of food well before the next harvest. They also have little else to eat having little or no cassava whereas many residents have some cassava as well as a variety of perennial fruit crops to provide diversity in the diet.

Benguela

Benguela was heavily affected by the conflict mainly the inland areas away from the east coast. Some 166 000 farming families are estimated to have cultivated 202 000 hectares of land this season. The province has three agro-ecological zones - Coastal Transition and Highland. Maize was virtual failure on the coast but sorghum did reasonably well. The Transition and Highland zones both had satisfactory second season crops. The maize production forecast for the 2001/02 season is 31 487 tonnes and for sorghum/millet it is 12 110 tonnes. Cassava production is expected to be 78 000 tonnes. NGOs complained about late deliveries of seed and poor germination of imported seeds particularly the maize variety "Matuba".

Huambo

Most of Huambo was affected by the war although not as heavily as areas to the east. The number of families in agriculture is presently estimated to be 278 000 cultivating 439 000 hectares of land. Production in the 2001/02 cropping season is estimated at 143 000 tonnes of maize 24 000 tonnes sorghum/millet 29 000 tonnes of cassava and 53 000 tonnes of sweet potatoes. The sorghum crop was in good conditions and is a relatively new crop in the area but farmers said the maize varieties Matuba and Kalahari had done badly. Farmers were starting to plant crops in the wetlands to mature during the dry season. Nearly all of Huambo was affected by the conflict but now access to the coast is clear although it is suspected that there could be land mines on some of the secondary roads.

Bié

About 50 percent of Bie province was badly affected during the conflict and the number of families farming in the 2001/02 season is estimated at around 173 000 with a cultivated land area of 214 000 hectares. Production in the 2001/02 season is estimated at some 47 000 tonnes of maize, 9 000 tonnes sorghum/millet, 195 000 tonnes of cassava and 26 000 tonnes of sweet potatoes. Once again the maize variety Matuba has done badly - it is apparently a high input type which needs better fertility than average. Beans in the wetlands were looking reasonable but sorghum in the uplands was poor. Most of the maize had been consumed green because of food shortage with little dry maize retained. Farmers said much of the seed received was poor quality and unlikely to germinate so was used for food instead.

Moxico

Moxico was badly affected by the conflict. An estimated 70 000 farmers were active in 2001/02 with some 49 000 hectares of land. Production in the 2001/02 season is estimated at only 8 391 tonnes of maize, 592 tonnes sorghum/millet and 142 000 tonnes of cassava. It is reported that large areas of crops planted in the 2001/02 season were destroyed by the army to deny access to food supplies to UNITA. Virtually all of the Province was heavily affected by the fighting and the task of resettlement, including mine clearance, will be enormous.
Huila

Huila was not as badly affected by the war, with the southern half of the Province producing more or less normally. The population in agriculture during 2001/02 was estimated at 148 000 farming families with some 261 000 hectares under cultivation. Production is estimated at some 96 000 tonnes of maize, 21 000 tonnes of millet/sorghum, 84 000 tonnes of cassava and 27 000 tonnes of sweet potatoes. Maize is the main staple and the variety Kalahari has adapted well, although the crops of both maize and millet were observed to be very short and unlikely to yield well. Livestock are important in Huila and numbers were said to have increased in the last year  mainly as a result of migration from neighbouring provinces.

Cunene

Cunene was one of the provinces which was not affected directly by the conflict. It still has an estimated 91 percent of its population in agriculture. Because of low rainfall, Cunene is predominantly a livestock farming and sorghum/millet growing area. Some 49 000 farmers with some 76 000 hectares of land are estimated to have been in production in the 2001/02 cropping season. Production is estimated at some 29 000 tonnes of sorghum and millet. Livestock population is estimated at 1.6 million cattle and 600 000 goats. Cattle vaccination campaigns covered up to 500 000 head last year.

5. FOOD SUPPLY SITUATION

5.1 Access to food and prices

As a result of the war in past years, Angola has experienced massive population displacements which have affected people's capacity of producing and accessing the necessary food. Overall, the conflict disrupted marketing activities and the price system. Depreciation of the national currency reached 100 percent between March 2001 and the time of Mission's arrival, and inflation was 115 percent for 2001. The military situation also contributed to the instability of supplies as roads were not accessible and most goods moved by plane, making the food available irregular and expensive.

Migration from rural to urban areas, especially into the overpopulated Luanda, has not been matched by income generation opportunities. The informal economy can be observed in every street and corner of Luanda, as evidence of the high unemployment rate. The same lack of income activities can be observed in the main inland cities.

The cost of the food basket2 has decreased with the signing of the Peace Agreement with expectations of improved movement of goods between provinces. Figure 1 below shows the dollar-expressed cost of a food basket in Moxico Province which was heavily affected by the conflict.

Figure 1: Angola - Food basket prices in Moxico Province

Source: WFP/VAM.

In general, there are important price differentials as a result of the above-mentioned market distortions. According to the food basket cost, the provinces can be aggregated into three groups: good access conditions and lower prices (Benguela, Huila); moderate access conditions and intermediate prices (Bié, Kuanza Norte, Malange, Uige and Huambo) and poor access conditions and high prices (Moxico and Lunda Sul).

5.2 Cereal supply/demand balance, 2002/03

The table below summarizes a forecast of the cereal supply/demand position for the 2002/03 marketing year (April/March). The table also contains figures for cassava to show the relative importance of this crop which is the main food in the Northern provinces and is expanding rapidly to the rest of the provinces.

Table 6: Food balance sheet for marketing year 2002/2003 (`000 tonnes)

 
Coarse grains
Rice (milled)
Wheat
Total cereals
Cassava
DOMESTIC AVAILABILITY
546
3
0
549
5 620
Production 2002
546
3
0
549
5 620
Stock drawdown
0
0
0
0
0
DOMESTIC UTILIZATION
834
160
280
1 274
5 620
Food use
725
160
280
1 165
3 934
Other uses
109
0
0
109
1 686
IMPORT REQUIREMENTS
288
157
280
725
0
Commercial imports
67
157
280
504
0
Food aid
221
0
0
221
 

As in previous years, the economic and military situation of the country does not allow for stocks in rural areas, so they are considered to be about zero. No information is available on national stocks of wheat and rice, consumed mainly in urban areas, hence it has been assumed that there is no stock change.

National cereal consumption requirement has been calculated on the basis of a mid-marketing year population estimate (14 896 005) and an annual per caput cereal consumption of 78.2 kg. that takes into account food aid rations for 1 417 500 beneficiaries who will depend entirely on food aid in marketing year 2002/03. To estimate the national average consumption the projected cereal imports as food aid (221 000 tonnes) was divided by the total number of beneficiaries and then aggregated with the historical average consumption of 70 kg to arrive at an adjusted national per caput consumption. Other uses of cereals include seed retention animal feed and post-harvest losses, estimated at 20 percent of total production for coarse grains, 8 percent for rice and 30 percent for cassava.

Based on the above calculations the cereal import requirement is estimated at 725 000 tonnes. Commercial imports are anticipated at 504 000 tonnes including 280 000 tonnes of wheat and 157 000 tonnes of rice and 67 000 tonnes of maize. Commercial imports have been forecast based on the increasing levels of cereal imports in recent years. In view of the expected reactivation of the economy and resumption of marketing activities these projections could be conservative. After commercial imports, there is still a deficit of 221 000 tonnes which is to be covered by food aid for 1 417 500 most vulnerable people. Of this caseload, WFP will assist 1 240 500 persons with 191 491 tonnes of cereals. The remaining 177 000 people will be supported by other humanitarian agencies working in the country.

6. EMERGENCY/RECOVERY FOOD ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENT

Background: It is estimated that since the resumption of the war in late 1998 approximately four million Angolans have been displaced from their place of origin and excluded from the normal agricultural productive cycle. With the signature of the cease-fire between UNITA military forces and the Government on 4 April 2002, Angola has entered a new period of peace. Thus the scenario under which humanitarian activities will be conducted during the next twelve months will be dramatically different from the one that has characterized WFP operations since the resumption of the armed conflict in 1998. In particular, the Humanitarian Community will have access to many areas which have been inaccessible until April.

A series of joint rapid assessments of critical needs (RACN) have been carried out in these newly accessible areas by UN Agencies, NGOs, and Government Representatives to investigate the living conditions of populations which for many months had no or limited access to basic foodstuffs and non-food items. Several pockets of severe malnutrition with urgent needs for food assistance were discovered and it is highly probable that as the security situation improves and more areas become accessible, other malnourished populations could be brought to the attention of the Humanitarian Community. Furthermore, the families of UNITA soldiers living in several quartering areas (36 at the time of Mission) in various parts of the country will also need food assistance.

The food aid needs presented in this section, duly reviewed and endorsed by the joint assessment Mission, are based upon the pre-assessment results of both the RACNs and the vulnerability assessment exercise carried out during March/April by the Vulnerability Assessment Groups in each province where food aid is distributed. Members include NGOs, WFP, Government and UN agencies. In each province the Mission members discussed the results of these surveys with a wide range of NGO and Government officials.

During the three weeks spent in the country, from 25 May to 5 June, the Mission had the opportunity to discuss all aspects of the current food security situation and the prospects for the coming twelve months with all relevant institutions in the Government and the Humanitarian Community, as well as with a large number of key informants and beneficiaries in the field.

Access to food and target groups: Although a good proportion of IDPs had access to land during the latest two agricultural seasons, only a small proportion has managed to become self-sufficient. Those who have managed to do so have achieved this by complementing their household production with other income generating activities.

The vast majority of IDPs remain food insecure because the quantity and quality of land and agricultural inputs to which they have access to do not allow them to harvest sufficient food to cover their household requirements and the economies in the interior are essentially moribund, providing few opportunities for them to develop complementary or alternative sources of income. Food access will be particularly difficult for those IDPs (around 300 000) that were forced to flee from their homes after the beginning of October 2001 since they did not arrive in secure areas in time to be incorporated into the programmes for the distribution of land and agricultural inputs.

Although it is expected that during the coming twelve months the market network will reach most areas which were previously inaccessible, it is most probable that the items traded will be relatively high value industrial consumer items such as clothes, cigarettes, salt, sugar, soap, etc. It is unlikely that high volume, low unit value basic staple foods will be among those goods reaching these areas from outside. Thus in the newly accessible areas which were particularly affected by the military instability, residents, those displaced, and families of UNITA soldiers that were unable to take advantage of the current agricultural season will need to be assisted with food and non-food items in order to enable them to recover.

In general terms, agricultural production during the 2001/02 season has been negatively affected by military operations in all unstable areas. Map 1 attempts to quantify the extent of the impact of the armed conflict on agricultural production in those areas.

The areas indicated as "heavily affected" are the ones where agricultural inputs were unavailable, areas planted were severely reduced and food crops were often destroyed by the military. Even though difficulty of access made it impossible for the Mission to visit these areas, the results of RACNs indicate that the local populations in many of those areas present evident signs of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Some of them have reported that they have to walk 50 or 60 km to harvest what remains of their sweet potato or cassava crops.

Areas indicated as "affected" are those ones where poor availability of agricultural inputs and poor security, as well as the malfunctioning of the market network, have forced the majority of the population to cultivate smaller plots of land than they normally would and where there have been serious constraints for the distribution of land to IDPs.

Map 1: Impact of the conflict on agricultural production in Angola, 2001/02

Source: WFP/VAM Unit

Access to land: In general, residents in secure areas have access to, and, therefore, cultivate larger areas than IDPs. In both northern and southern provinces they cultivate around 1 hectare in less secure areas and 2-3 hectares in more secure areas.

IDPs in secure areas who have managed to become established, may have access to land through a variety of mechanisms. They may have been allocated land by MINADER in previous years, gained access to land through family and customary land allocation arrangements and exchanged their labour for access to a small plot of land owned by a local resident. More recently arrived IDPs are unlikely to have had time to gain access to sufficient land to provide for their household food needs. Groups that arrived during 2001 before October may have been given re-settlement plots (usually less than 0.5 hectares) and been able to cultivate some food crops. However, those IDPs who arrived after October/November 2001 would not have been formally resettled, although some in the northern provinces may have been able to participate in the second planting season - January-April.

While the "Norms on the Resettlement of Displaced Populations" state that land distributed should be sufficient to enable the subsistence of an average family, in many areas the quantity and quality of land allocated was not sufficient to meet this standard. Furthermore, the land allocated is often land which the local resident population regards as inappropriate for cultivation, is virgin land, or is land that has been left fallow for many years. This creates difficulties in opening up the land and ploughing to sufficient depth to allow for adequate crop development.

Nutrition: Vulnerability Assessment Exercise indicated that in the areas where the humanitarian community has had access, and supplementary and therapeutic feeding programmes are in place, population based surveys of the nutritional situation of children under five years continue to show relatively stable levels of malnutrition.

However, in areas where there have been recent influxes of IDPs arriving in a poor state of health and nutrition; areas where there are high concentrations of IDPs; and where there are reports of increased morbidity and mortality rates, the number of admissions to feeding centres has risen steeply. From November to January the increased arrivals were a consequence of military operations, particularly in the provinces of Huambo, Huila, Bié and Moxico. From March/April new arrivals were related to populations groups from previously inaccessible areas seeking humanitarian assistance. Many of these had covered long distances to reach assistance and had health problems, particularly tuberculosis, anaemia and diarrhoea.

Rapid assessment of critical needs (RACN) carried out either by individual NGOs or combined UN, Government department and NGOs in the "newly accessible areas" indicated that the nutritional situation in some of these areas is very critical. MUAC screening results indicate global malnutrition rates above 20 percent in Bié (Chitembo, Cuemba and Chindumba), in Uige (Sanza Pombo) Huambo (Chilembo and Londuimbali) and Huila (Bunjei, Chipindo and Cusse). In these new areas the lack of access to potable water and health services for the treatment of diseases, which affect the absorption of nutrients, negatively affects food security at household and individual level.

In addition there are "quartering areas" where the families of ex-combatants from UNITA are located and where the living conditions of these families are very poor. In some cases, severely malnourished individuals from the quartering areas are transported to the closest centre with humanitarian assistance.

Medium-term prospects: Many displaced families living in the provincial and municipal capitals, as well as a number of the Angolan refugees at present in Zambia, Namibia and Congo may (or are likely to) return to their areas of origin before the beginning of the next planting season in October/November 2002. Subject to availability of resources, the humanitarian community will support these return movements through the distribution of food and non-food return packages to enable those families to restore their livelihood systems and achieve food security.

Returnee families may adopt different or combined strategies. Some may divide their time between re-establishing their households on their own land and the urban centres where there are greater income opportunities or access to health facilities or schooling for their children. Other households may divide temporarily, with some members returning to assess the situation in their home areas, while other members maintain links with opportunities for assistance. The distance between the area of re-establishment and the centres where services are available will also affect the strategies that households adopt

Those IDPs who will not return to their areas of origin will probably take advantage of dry season income opportunities related to casual labour, collection and sale of firewood and charcoal, brick-making, etc. It is expected that these opportunities will increase but become more dispersed as security improves. There will be a reduction in the pressure on natural resources and as families return to their home areas, commercial activity and the opportunities for related casual labour in municipal and provincial capitals may also increase.

Population in need of food aid: At the time of the last Mission in May 2001, it was estimated that the number of people who would need assistance during 2001/2002 would be around 1.34 millions. First estimates of the number which the Mission believes will require assistance during 2002/2003 is 1.42 millions. This is a slight increase in numbers compared with the previous year and will probably rise as more areas of the country become accessible to the humanitarian community

Although WFPs interventions will essentially be of two types, "relief" and "recovery", the following tables divides the estimated numbers of beneficiaries into five different categories. This division is made in order to underline the fact that during the coming year May 2002-April 2003 there will be "new" categories of vulnerable populations in need of food assistance

The new caseload includes (i) the families of the UNITA soldiers now demobilized and in the quartering areas (11.4 percent); (ii) the vulnerable populations in areas that have been inaccessible to the humanitarian community until April/May 2002 (26.2 percent); and (iii) the Angolan refugees who are expected to return from neighbouring countries (3.1 percent). These three categories account for about 41 percent of the total caseload and represent an extra caseload of vulnerable individuals that were not reached by the humanitarian community before May 2002. The proportion of beneficiaries falling under the various types of assistance is expected to be substantially different in 2002/03 compared with the previous year. About 41 percent of the total caseload will be assisted through "relief interventions" and 59 percent through "recovery activities". Also, it should be noted that the above estimates are based on the assumption of a continuing improvement in the security situation and the timely return of a good proportion of IDPs to their areas of origin.

Table 7 summarizes the total number of persons who will need humanitarian assistance over the period 2002-2003, broken down by province and category of intervention

Table 7: Projected total number of food aid beneficiaries by Province and by category, 2002-2003

Province
Emergency assistance
Recovery
Quartering areas
Newly accessible areas
External returnees
TOTAL
Cunene
1 500
8 000
6 500
2 500
0
18 500
Huila
53 500
51 500
16 000
37 500
0
158 500
Kuando Kubango
25 500
4 500
14 000
20 500
12 500
77 000
Namibe
500
6 500
0
0
0
7 000
Benguela
44 000
33 500
27 000
29 500
0
134 000
Bié
100 000
21 500
11 000
81 500
0
214 000
Huambo
28 500
21 000
32 000
111 000
0
192 500
Moxico
39 000
35 000
10 000
19 000
25 000
128 000
Bengo
12 500
71 000
5 000
18 500
0
107 000
Kuanza Norte
14 500
20 500
3 000
4 000
0
42 000
Kuanza Sul
28 500
11 000
1 500
12 500
0
53 500
Luanda
14 000
2 500
0
0
0
16 500
Lunda Sul
17 500
4 000
5 000
6 500
0
33 000
Malange
24 000
87 000
13 000
13 500
0
137 500
Uige
12 000
37 500
16 000
13 500
500
79 500
Zaire
2 000
7 500
1 500
1 500
6 500
19 000
Total
417 500
422 500
161 500
371 500
44 500
1 417 500

 

The average monthly number of persons who will need humanitarian assistance over the coming year is 1 417 500.

An indicative full food basket needed to provide such assistance is shown in Table 8 below where coarse cereals (mainly maize) total 221 016 tonnes.

Table 8: Food requirements for the total beneficiary caseload by category

Category
Cereals
Pulses
Oil
CSB
Sugar
Salt
Total
Emergency assistance
71 334
7 754
5 324
3 846
920
780
89 958
Recovery
55 350
5 791
3 825
950
190
692
66 799
Quartering areas
27 287
2 903
1 742
0
0
290
32 222
Newly accessible areas
59 494
6 431
3 859
683
205
643
71 314
External returnees
7 551
803
482
0
0
80
8 916
TOTAL
221 016
23 682
15 232
5 479
1 315
2 485
269 209

 

Out of the above-mentioned population in urgent need of assistance, WFP expects to reach a monthly average of 1 240 500 persons, which represents 87 percent of the total number. It is expected that the remainder will receive food aid through other pipelines (mainly ICRC, European Commission and AAA).

Given the dramatic change of scenario under which humanitarian operations will be carried out in the coming months, WFP is in the process of reviewing its operations so as to reflect the mission and WFPs own pre-assessment findings. The table below shows the break down of the estimated numbers of WFP beneficiaries by province and type of intervention.

Table 9: Projected average number of food aid beneficiaries under WFPs pipeline, by Province and type of assistance, 2002-2003

Province
Emergency assistance
Recovery
Quartering areas
Newly accessible areas
External returnees
TOTAL
Cunene
1 500
7 500
6 500
2 500
0
18 000
Huila
38 000
54 000
16 000
50 000
0
158 000
Kuando Kubango
25 500
4 500
14 000
20 500
12 500
77 000
Namibe
500
6 500
0
0
0
7 000
Benguela
33 500
31 000
27 000
29 500
0
121 000
Bié
152 000
21 500
11 000
26 000
0
210 500
Huambo
28 500
22 500
32 000
65 500
0
148 500
Moxico
29 000
50 000
10 000
7 000
22 500
118 500
Bengo
12 000
4 000
5 000
18 500
0
39 500
Kwanza Norte
14 500
20 500
3 000
4 000
0
42 000
Kwanza Sul
21 000
11 000
1 500
0
0
33 500
Luanda
12 500
4 000
0
0
0
16 500
Lunda Sul
17 500
4 000
5 000
5 500
0
32 000
Malange
24 000
79 500
13 000
13 500
0
130 000
Uige
12 000
27 500
16 000
13 500
500
69 500
Zaire
2 000
7 500
1 500
1 500
6 500
19 000
Total
424 000
355 500
161 500
257 500
42 000
1 240 500

An indicative full food basket required to provide such an assistance is shown in Table 10 below where coarse cereals (mainly maize) total 191 491 tonnes.

Table 10: Projected total food aid requirements for WFP Programme, 2002-2003, by commodity and by type of intervention (tonnes)

Category
Cereals
Pulses
Oil
CSB
Sugar
Salt
Total
Emergency assistance
63 828
6 949
4 841
3 801
906
699
81 024
Recovery
50 631
5 292
3 525
950
190
641
61 229
Quartering areas
27 287
2 903
1 742
0
0
290
32 222
Newly accessible areas
42 617
4 626
2 776
622
187
463
51 291
Returning returnees
7 128
758
455
0
0
76
8 417
TOTAL
191 491
20 528
13 339
5 373
1 283
2 169
234 183

A breakdown of projected average WFP assistance, by province and by commodity is shown in Table 11.

Table 11: Breakdown of projected WFP assistance, by Province and by commodity (tonnes)

Province
Cereals
Pulses
Oil
CSB
Sugar
Salt
Total
Cunene
2 622
278
184
49
10
31
3 174
Huila
25 628
2 718
1 701
273
58
279
30 656
Kuando Kubango
12 677
1 346
830
88
18
136
15 096
Namibe
877
92
69
37
7
12
1 095
Benguela
18 647
1 998
1 302
591
145
211
22 893
Bie
33 540
3 588
2 284
832
208
368
40 818
Huambo
21 708
2 325
1 655
1 324
306
243
27 560
Moxico
18 703
2 013
1 237
417
118
212
22 701
Bengo
6 510
694
430
49
11
71
7 765
Kuanza Norte
6 563
716
447
221
61
75
8 083
Kuanza Sul
5 197
552
344
85
21
60
6 259
Luanda
1 967
233
176
179
43
28
2 627
Lunda Sul
4 938
525
350
142
31
54
6 040
Malanje
18 154
1 985
1 391
814
179
232
22 755
Uige
10 697
1 140
738
241
59
123
12 999
Zaire
3 063
325
201
31
8
34
3 662
Total
191 491
20 528
13 339
5 373
1 283
2 169
234 183

 

WFP Strategy and Methods of Intervention

Although there will be constraints to access due to the destroyed transport infrastructure, the presence of land mines etc it is expected that during the coming 12 months the humanitarian community will gradually be able to extend its activities to most parts of the country.

WFP will continue to give emphasis to the use of food aid for recovery activities through self-targeting mechanisms such as Food-for-Work and Food-for-Assets. However, relief assistance will continue where necessary in order to save the lives of malnourished individuals and to assist those newly arrived IDPs who will not be able to return to their areas of origin before the beginning of the 2002/03 agricultural season. The identification and targeting of groups vulnerable to food insecurity will be further reinforced through an improved Vulnerability Assessment (VA) system.

Thus the present strategy to reduce free food distributions wherever possible and encourage self-reliance will continue in order to (i) avoid the development of food aid dependency, and (ii) restore sustainable livelihoods among beneficiary populations.

WFP assistance will be targeted through

a) Relief Assistance to

b) Recovery Response through

Logistics

WFP maintains 12 provincial offices in Angola; including Luanda. This structure allows WFP to maintain and control a vast logistics network for the delivery of food assistance throughout the country

Most food is imported through the three main seaports of Luanda, Lobito and Namibe. Limited quantities of cereals, salt and dried fish are locally purchased in Benguela and Huila provinces. For the next PRRO, the port of Lobito is expected to handle 56 percent of the food imports, Luanda 30 percent and Namibe 14 percent. From the ports the food is generally moved to WFPs primary/transit storage facilities in Luanda, Lobito and Lubango. About 10 percent of the food will be moved directly from the ports to the Extended Delivery points at the provinces.

The primary warehouses located in Luanda, Lobito and Lubango are rented commercially and their current respective capacities are Luanda at 19 000 tonnes, Lobito at 24 000 tonnes and Lubango at 6 000 tonnes. Warehousing at 12 WFP provincial offices is either commercially rented or provided by the Government. WFP maintains a stock of re-locatable storage units that can easily be erected anywhere in the country to cater for an increased need for storage space.

For provinces that are only accessible by air, WFP runs an air operation from Luanda airport and from the Catumbela airport (near Lobito) in Benguela province. The Lubango airport is also used as an air-bridge staging area as and when required.

Salt and fish are procured locally, and limited quantities of cereals have also been procured locally in the past.

Since the formal cessation of hostilities between UNITA and Angolan Government Forces on 4 April 2002, from a security point of view, access may now be possible to most parts of the country. Generally, road access from the coastal provincial capitals to provincial capitals in the interior is now possible to about one-half of the country, albeit with significant challenges posed by the poor state of infrastructure.

The four outlying provinces - Cuando Cubango, Moxico, Lunda Sul and Lunda Norte, and parts of Bie - which make up about 50 percent of the land area continue to be inaccessible by road or rail transport. On the basis of the provincial food aid needs, WFP is projecting that it would be able to deliver about 75-80 percent of food aid using surface transport means. The remaining 20-25 percent will have to be transported by air. These projections take into account infrastructure repairs that the Government of Angola is expected to undertake on key road arteries by the end of December 2002. Transport by road during the dry season is expected to be possible but difficult. However, the challenges will be amplified during the rainy season.

Access to the municipalities from the provincial capitals will continue to be challenging for several reasons: lack of commercial transport capacity; very poor road conditions; broken bridges; and/or the threat of land mines. The secondary and tertiary roads are not expected to be given priority in rehabilitation programs as they fall outside of the mandate of the central/national road authority.

In the medium term WFP expects that transport costs for long distance haulage will probably come down. However, given the expected increase in resettlement activities and the use of food as a resource to support the resettlement of populations at their municipalities (farther away from the provincial capitals), WFPs secondary transport costs will go up.

This report is prepared on the responsibility of the FAO and WFP Secretariats with information from official and unofficial sources. Since conditions may change rapidly, please contact the undersigned for further information if required.

GIEWS, FAO
Fax: 0039-06-5705-4495
E-mail:giews1@fao.org

Mr.Holdbrook Arthur
Regional Director,ODY,WFP
Fax: 00237-223-5907
E-mail:Holdbrook.Arthur@wfp.org

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1 Economic data and estimations in this section are from The Economist Intelligence Unit reports on Angola.

2 The minimum food basket consists of: maize, beans, oil and salt. It provides 2,100 Kcal/day for a five-member family.

3 Tables 7 to 10 show "Quartering Areas", as well as "Newly Accessible Areas" and "External Returnees", as separate categories. The beneficiaries in these categories will be assisted through relief or recovery interventions according to needs.