Afforestation, Forestry Research, Planning and Development in the Three-North Region
NOTES ON ELM IN THE KORQIN SANDY LANDS, NORTHEAST CHINA
The Korqin Sandy Lands are located in the Western reaches of the Liaohe River Basin, southeast to the Greater Khing'gan Mountains. It is the largest extension of wind-deposited sandy land in the eastern-most part of Northern China's grasslands and a key area in China's Three-North Shelterbelt Development Program.
Korqin is characterized by the presence of a thick layer of loosely-structured sand deposits, highly susceptible to wind erosion when disturbed. The semi-arid and windy conditions and the severe winter temperatures further contribute to the fragility of the eco-systems in the Region, explaining its tendency towards desertification. Historically, desertification has occurred in cycles coinciding with increasing human pressure, and is now approaching its most advanced and, for some areas, possibly irreversible stages.
The Project “Afforestation, Forestry Research, Planning and Development in the Three North-Region” (FAO/GCP/CPR/009/BEL) jointly financed by the Governments of Belgium and China, with Technical Assistance from FAO has been involved since 1990 in applied research for sustainable development through the diversification and improvement of plantation forestry and the conservation of natural resources.
In order to better understand the ecology of the sandy land environment and wisely use its resources, the Project has organized a survey in 1998 of the Elm open woodlands, originally the main and most valuable vegetation type in the Korqin, due to its high productivity, utilization value and diversity of ecological functions.
The purpose of the survey was to understand both the structure and the distribution pattern of the elm open woodland as well as its ecological functions and meaning, in order to provide scientific information and technical support to its rehabilitation and conservation.
This survey includes vegetation-composition, growth and natural regeneration as well as pest and diseases of the Elm open woodland. Simultaneously, a survey of ancient elm trees was carried out, with selection and seed collection.
The field survey was carried out by Zou Shouyi (Team Leader) from the Project, with participation by Xu Jiuru and Lu Tao from Beijing Forestry University, Li Haiping from the Forestry College of Inner Mongolia and Liu Zhongling from the University of Inner Mongolia.
Based on pictures and statistics obtained from the above-mentioned survey, and results of previous studies, several experts were invited to participate in the final redaction of this book.
The following is a list of authors for the different chapters of the book:
|Chief Editor||Zou Shouyi, Lu Wen and Marten Gillis|
|General information Korqin||Liu Zhongling|
|The elm open woodlands||Zou Shouyi|
|Satellite image monitoring of elm open woodlands||Zhang Yugui|
|Inventory of ancient elm trees||Xu Jiuru and Lu Tao|
|Ulmus macrocarpa||Zhang Yuqi|
|Elm pests and diseases||Li Haiping|
|Ecological characteristics||Jiang Fengqi and Song Xuan|
Photos used in this book are taken by Zou Shouyi, Xu Jiuru and Liu Zhongling.
The survey and compilation of the book were supported by Beijing Forestry University, Forestry College of Inner Mongolia, the University of Inner Mongolia, Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia, Chifeng City, Xing'an League, Fuxin City of Liaoning, Baicheng City of Jilin, and the authorities of relevant Forestry Bureaus, Forest Farms, Forestry Work Stations, and Nature Reserves in the survey region. We hereby acknowledge their great support, which has enabled the completion of this work.
Zhang Weidong, National Project Director
Marten Gillis, Chief Technical Adviser
Tongliao, June 2002
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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION TO THE KORQIN SANDY LANDS
1.1 The Area
1.2 Climatic Conditions
1.3 Soils and parent material
1.4 General information on Flora and Vegetation
1.5 Elms in Korqin
CHAPTER TWO: ELM OPEN WOODLANDS IN THE KORQIN SANDY LANDS
2.1 Distribution and characteristics of Elm open woodland
2.3 Natural vegetation succession
2.4 Types and structure of Elm open woodlands
2.5 Present use of the Elm open woodlands
2.6 Protection status, woodland-based tourism and cultural values of Elm open woodlands
CHAPTER THREE: PEST AND DISEASES OF ELM
3.1 Major pests and diseases in the Elm open woodlands
3.2 Importance of pests and diseases in different types of Elm open woodlands
3.3 Features and control measures against some key pests
CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE ELM OPEN WOODLAND
CHAPTER FIVE: SATELLITE IMAGE MONITORING OF ELM OPEN WOODLAND IN THE KORQIN SANDY LANDS
5.1 General situation of the elm open woodlands
5.2. Monitoring and comparison of Elm open woodlands in the Zuoyizhong Banner
CHAPTER SIX: INVENTORY OF ANCIENT ELM-TREES IN THE KORQIN SANDY LANDS
CHAPTER SEVEN: ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ELM POPULATIONS IN THE GREAT GREEN VALLEY NATURE RESERVE
7.1 The Daqinggou Nature Reserve
7.2 Niches, distribution patterns and species associations of elm populations in Daqinggou