Type and medium used for for rooting cuttings depends on the species and the materials available. Following common rooting media are used:
Water: Can be used for easily rooting species. Its great disadvantage is the lack of aeration. Artificial aeration promotes rooting and impedes rottening.
Sand: The sand used should be fine enough to retain some moisture around the cutting and coarse enough to allow free draining. The sand should be washed and sterilized before use. Note: Seashore sand has a high salt concentration which may be toxic to some plants.
Soil: Well aerated sandy loam is preferable. Due to the possible presence of root-borne disease, soil may need to be sterilized or treated with pesticides.
Peat moss: Used together with other materials in order to increase the water holding capacity.
Coconut husk: Widely used in humid tropical environments where it has the same use as peat moss.
Industrial manufactured material such as Vermiculite, Perlite and Pumice are used separately or in combination with some other rooting media. Their advantage is their lightness, cleanness and high water holding capacity.
Note: pH of the rooting medium may be critical. Care should be taken when using a rooting medium with non-neutral pH.