- some key requirements for tree-planting projects
- check-list of problems in growing good trees
|Stage or feature||Problem||Possible solutions||Alternative strategies|
|1 - PROVENANCE unacceptable →||collect or import seed from other sources|
|2 - PARENT TREES unacceptable →||collect from several parent trees of good form, grouped near each other, not closely related|
|3 - FLOWERING intermittent →||use stored seed or wildings; apply flower induction treatments (if available - see Manual 2)||use cuttings|
|4 - FRUITING irregular →||use stored seed or wildings||use cuttings|
|5 - QUALITY OF SEED poor →||collect early, treat against pests and diseases||use cuttings|
|6 - QUANTITY OF SEED insufficient →||collect by climbing||multiply by cuttings|
|7 - VIABILITY IN STORAGE poor →||sow at once; or improve drying &/or storage methods|
|8 - SEED DORMANCY a problem →||apply appropriate technique to break the type of dormancy present (see Manual 2)|
|9 - YOUNG SEEDLINGS die young →||check soil, shade, watering, spray for damping-off fungi, protect from small animals|
↓ [go to (C)]
|(B) LEAFY CUTTINGS|
|1 - WILTING a problem →||take cuttings early, check high humidity is maintained in bags & propagator, check shading|
|2 - LEAF-DROP common →||check as (B) 1; use younger leaves, handle cuttings more carefully||use pre-treatment|
|3 - ROTTING a problem →||check rooting medium, watering, shading; use fungicide||try leafless cuttings in situ|
|4 - SLOW ROOTING typical →||check stockplant management, rooting environment, use auxins|
|5 - SINGLE ROOTS usual →||use auxins, try longer cuttings|
|6 - INHIBITED ROOT GROWTH typical →||try less shade, weaker auxin; check fertilising of stockplants and cutting condition|
|7 - MULTIPLE SHOOTS common →||remove tips, leaving best; use less branchy clones||try slit half-cuttings with single bud|
|8 - WEANING DEATHS many →||dig up and handle cuttings more carefully, wean more slowly; check soil, watering and fertilisers|
|(C) YOUNG POTTED PLANTS|
|1 - SURVIVAL low →||check soil, watering, shading, pests & diseases, fertilisers; change container||check need for mycorrhizas|
|2 - INHIBITED GROWTH pronounced →||check as (C) 1, and try to avoid transplanting and weaning stress - check root systems|
|3 - GROWTH RATE shoots too tall →||alter timings, reduce fertilisers||try cuttings at a different time|
|(D) SUCCESSFUL PRODUCTION OF SUFFICIENT, GOOD PLANTING STOCK|
|(E) PLANTING & ESTABLISHMENT|
|1 - SURVIVAL low →||check condition of planting stock (especially root systems), transport & handling, timings re rains, soil, planting techniques, weeds, pests & diseases||prevent rooting through in nursery; try mycorrhizas|
|2 - INHIBITED GROWTH general →||check as (D) 1, and (where relevant) consider mulch, fertiliser, legume shade tree, critical stage watering||change container|
|(F) SUCCESSFUL TREE PLANTING|
|(G) LEAFLESS CUTTINGS (planted in situ, directly in place)|
|1 - SURVIVAL & GROWTH poor →||check length, diameter and age of cuttings; check handling & timing||try leafy cuttings|
|2 - MULTIPLE STEMS common →||remove lower buds and branches; use less branchy clone|
|(H) SUCCESSFUL TREE PLANTING|
(See sheet A 2 for further explanation of this check-list, and the Contents list for sheets with more information on the suggested actions.)
- information on vegetative propagation
Vegetative propagation & tree improvement:
Baker, F.W.G. (Ed.) (1992). Rapid propagation of fast-growing woody species. C.A.B. International, Wallingford, Oxon, Britain.
Davis, T.D., Haissig, B.E. & Sankhla, N. (Eds.) (1988). Adventitious root formation in cuttings. Advances in Plant Sciences, Vol 2, Dioscorides Press, Portland, Oregon, USA.
Jackson, M.B. & Stead, A.D. (Eds.) (1983). Growth Regulators in Root Development, Monograph 10, Br. Plant Growth Regulator Group, Wantage, Britain.
Ladipo, D.O., Leakey, R.R.B. & Grace, J. (1991). Clonal variation in a four year old plantation of Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. and its relation to the Predictive Test for Branching Habit. Silvae Genetica, 40, 135–140.
Leakey, R.R.B. (1983). Stockplant factors affecting root initiation in cuttings of Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum., an indigenous hardwood of West Africa. J. hort. Sci., 58, 277–290.
Leakey, R.R.B. (1985). The capacity for vegetative propagation in trees. Pp. 110–133 in: Attributes of Trees as Crop Plants, edited by M.G.R. Cannell & J.E. Jackson, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Britain.
Leakey, R.R.B. (1987). Clonal forestry in the tropics - a review of developments, strategies and opportunities. Commonwealth Forestry Rev., 66, 61–75.
Leakey, R.R.B. (1990). The domestication of tropical forest trees by cloning: a strategy for increased production and for conservation. Pp. 22–31 in Fast Growing Trees and Nitrogen Fixing Trees, edited by D. Werner & P. Müller, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Germany.
Leakey, R.R.B. & Ladipo, D.O. (1987). Selection for improved tropical hardwoods. Pp. 229–242 in Improving Vegetatively Propagated Crops, edited by A.J. Abbott & R.K. Atkin, Academic Press, London, Britain.
Leakey, R.R.B. & Longman, K.A. (1986). Physiological, environmental and genetic variation in apical dominance as determined by decapitation in Triplochiton scleroxylon. Tree Physiology, 1, 193–207.
Leakey, R.R.B., Chapman, V.R. & Longman, K.A. (1982). Physiological studies for tropical tree improvement and conservation. Some factors affecting root inititation in cuttings of Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. Forest Ecol. & Management, 4, 53–66.
Leakey, R.R.B. and others (1990). Low-technology techniques for the vegetative propagation of tropical trees. Commonwealth Forestry Rev. 69, 247–257.
Libby, W.J. & Rauter, R.M. (1984). Advantages of clonal forestry. Forestry Chronicle, 60, 145–149.
Pochet, P. (1987). Le bouturage du caféier Robusta/Robusta propagation by cuttings. Administration Générale de la coopération au Développement (AGCD), 5, place du Champ de Mars, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.
Tissue culture & micropropagation:
Biondi, S. & Thorpe, T.A. (1982). Clonal propagation of forest tree species. Pp. 197–204 in: Tissue Culture of Economically Important Plants, edited by A.N. Rao, Comm. on Sci. & Tech. in Devel. Countries/Asian Network for Biol. Sci., Singapore.
Bonga, J.M. & Durzan, D.J. (Eds.) (1982). Tissue culture in forestry, Martinus Nijhoff/ W. Junk, The Hague, Netherlands.
Jones, O.P. (1983). In vitro propagation of tree crops. Pp. 139–159 in: Plant Biotechnology, edited by S.H. Mantell & H. Smith, Soc. exptl Biol., Seminar Series 18, Cambridge Univ. Press, Britain.
Sommer, H.E. & Caldas, L.S. (1981). In vitro methods applied to forest trees. Pp. 349–358 in Plant Tissue Culture: methods and applications in agriculture, edited by T.A. Thorpe, Academic Press, New York, USA.
Staritsky, G. & van Hasselt, G.A.M. (1980). The synchronised mass propagation of Coffea canephora in vitro. pp. 597–602 in: Proc. 9th internat. Colloquium on Coffee, Vol. 2, London, Britain.
Dirr, M.A. & Heuser, C.W., Jr. (1987). The reference manual of woody plant propagation. Varsity Press, Inc., P.O. Box 6301, Athens, Georgia, USA.
Duryea, M.L. & Landis, T.D. (Eds.) (1984). Forest Nursery Manual: production of bareroot seedlings. Martinus Nijhoff/W. Junk, The Hague, Netherlands.
Liegel, L.H. & Venator, C.R. (1987). A technical guide for forest nursery management in the Caribbean and Latin America. Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agric., Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-67.
Napier, I. (1985). Técnicas de viveros forestales con referencia especial a Centroamérica. Publicación Miscelanea No. 5, Escuela Nacional Ciencias Forestales, Siguatepeque, Honduras, Central America.
Napier, I. & Robbins, M. (1989). Forest seed and nursery practice in Nepal. Nepal/UK Forestry Research Project, Dept of Forestry & Plant Research, Babar Mahal, P.O. Box 3339, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Willan, R.L. (1985). A guide to forest seed handling, with special reference to the tropics. FAO, Rome, Italy & DANIDA Forest Seed Centre, Humlæbek, Denmark.
General information on growing trees:
Aumeeruddy, Y. & Pinglo, F. (1989). Phytopractices in tropical regions. Man and the Biosphere Program, UNESCO, Paris/Institut de Botanique, Montpellier, France.
Carter, E.J. (1987). From seed to trial establishment. DFR User Series No. 2, Division of Forest Research, Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), P.O. Box 4008, Yarralumla, ACT 2600, Australia.
Dupriez, H. & de Leener, P. (1983). Jardins et vergers d'Afrique. English translation (1989): African Gardens and Orchards. Macmillan/Terres et Vie, 13, rue Laurent Delvaux, 1400 Nivelles, Belgium.
Hartmann, H.T. & Kester, D.E. (1983). Plant Propagation: principles and practices, 4th edn, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA.
Longman, K.A. & Jeník, J. (1987). Tropical Forest and its Environment, 2nd Edn, Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, Britain & John Wiley, New York, USA.
Tinus, R.W. & McDonald, S.E. (1979). How to grow tree seedlings in containers in greenhouses. Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agric., Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-60.
Wilson, J. & Leakey, R.R.B. (1990). Repairing the damage: re-establishing trees in the tropics. The Crown Agents Review, London, 1, 14–20.
- Some sources of chemicals and materials
(A) Examples of suppliers of chemicals, some with agents in the tropics:
Auxins for rooting cuttings:
Dip `N Grow - contains 1.0% Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) plus 0.5% 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in alcohol: from Alpkem Corporation, Clackamas, Oregon 97015, USA.
Hormo-Root - contains 0.1–4.0% IBA plus Thiram (a fungicide) in talc (inert powder); from Hortus Products Co., P.O. Box 275, Newfoundland, New Jersey 07435, USA.
Rootone - contains 0.057% IBA plus a total of 0.113% of 3 chemical derivatives of NAA, plus Thiram (fungicide), in talc; from Union Carbide Agricultural Products Co., Inc, P.O. Box 12014, T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
Seradix - contains 0.1–0.8% IBA in talc; from Rhone-Poulenc, Agricultural Centre, 14–20 Rue Pierre Baizet, 69009 Leon, France [Tel: (33) 7229 255]
Strike - contains 0.2–0.3% NAA plus Captan (fungicide): from Pan Britannica Industries (pbi), Britannica House, Waltham Cross, Herts, EN8 7DY, Britain. [Tel: 0992 23691; Telex: 23957; Fax: 0992 26452].
Pure chemicals for micropropagation and research are available from many firms, including:
Cyanamid, C House, Fareham Road, Gosport, Hants, PO13 0AS, Britain [Tel: 0329 224000; Telex 86173; Fax: 0329 220213].
Mackay & Lynn Ltd, 2 West Bryson Road, Edinburgh, EH11 1EH, Britain [Tel: 031-337 9006] (Also laboratory equipment and sundries.)
Sigma Chemical Co Ltd, Fancy Road, Poole, Dorset BH17 7TG, Britain [Tel: 0202 73314; Telex: 418242; Fax: 0202 715460 (Group ⅔)].
Pesticides, fungicides, weedkillers, fertilisers, etc are also widely available. Main suppliers include:
Du Pont (UK) Ltd, Agricultural Products Department, Wedgwood Way, Stevenage, Herts, SG1 4QN, Britain. [Tel: 0438 734000; Telex 825591].
Fisons Horticulture Division, Paper Mill Lane, Bramford, Ipswich, Suffolk, IP8 4BZ, Britain. [Tel: 0473 830492; Telex: 98240].
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), Woolmead Walk, Farnham, Surrey, GU9 7UB, Britain. [Tel: 0252 733919 (horticultural products); 0428 644061 (agrochemicals).
Pan Britannica Industries (pbi), Britannica House, Waltham Cross, Herts, EN8 7DY, Britain. [Tel: 0992 23691; Telex: 23957; Fax: 0992 26452].
Note that Benomyl = Benlate fungicide, and is a wettable powder that can be used for sprays, dips or soil drenches. It acts systemically, by being taken up by the plant and spreading inside it.
(B) Horticultural materials & equipment: for example from:
Grangewood Plastic Packaging Ltd, Essex House, Jutsoms Lane, Romford, Essex, RM7 0ER, Britain [Tel: 0708 725911; Telex: 8951426; Fax 0708 728 677] (Polythene sheet and bags).
Kerrypak Ltd, Longbrook House, Ashton Vale Road, Bristol, BS3 2HA, Britain [Tel: 0272 669 684, 0272 662 455; Telex: 444 277; Fax: 0272 231 251] (Plastic shadecloth).
LBS Polythene, Cotton Tree, Near Colne, Lancs BB8 7BW, Britain. [Tel: 0282 871777; Fax: 0282 869850] (Wide range of products).
Right Rain, Stag Business Park, 164–166 Christchurch Road, Ringwood, Hampshire, BH24 3AS; [Tel: 0425 472 251; Telex: 41206; Fax: 0425 472 258] (Mist propagation equipment).
Spencer-Lemaire Industries, Ltd, 10310 112 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T5K 1N1 [Tel: (403) 426 3203] (Rootrainers).
(Note: when calling from outside Britain, omit the first zero from telephone and fax numbers.)
- record-keeping and labelling
Why keeping records is important:
Tropical trees are not plants with short life-cycles, like many food crops. Making records is therefore especially important, for instance, to:
Some hints about making records:
Different types of label:
For short-term purposes (less than a year), many types of label are suitable, for example those
made of plastic, wood or metal.
However, it is difficult to find labelling that will last a long time in the tropics, because of the effects of bright sun, heavy rain, termites, weed growth, etc. Plastic can become brittle in the sun, wood may rot and metal tarnish.
Writing the information:
What to write with:
Where to attach the labels:
Problems with labels:
Using the records
The best-kept records are of little use if they are not used! Here are two suggestions:
- assessment by scoring
(A) Need for scoring methods
Scoring is a useful way of getting a rapid, general view of a situation in biology. Use it before embarking on long and detailed measurements that may or may not be appropriate, and especially when the features to be assessed are difficult or impossible to record by measurement or counting; for example when:
(B) Weaknesses of scoring methods
(C) Features of useful scoring methods
The main aims when choosing an appropriate scoring method are to minimise the weaknesses and achieve a valid and useful assessment without undue difficulty or delay. Some hints are:
(D) Analysis of scored data
Used with judgement, scoring methods can provide a rapid and useful complement to more precise and quantitative measurements. They are especially appropriate when the features do not lend themselves to easy measurements, or when time is short. Although the data obtained are only semi-quantitative, it may be possible to carry out valid statistical tests of significance.
- record sheet for clone numbers
|Whereabouts of original plant:||Altitude||Approximate age|
|Features of original plant:||Date selected||Approx. height|
|stem straight?||stem cylindrical?||forking?|
|live branch angle?||live branch size?||dead branch shedding?|
|live crown depth?||live crown evenness?||health and other features?|
|Cuttings taken:||type||number taken||number set|
|on (date)||on (date)|
|number rooted||number potted|
|on (date)||on (date)|
|Planted as stockplants:||place||position|
|Planted as trees:||place||position|
- record sheet for cuttings set
|Date: / /||Identity/Identité no.|
|ORIGIN OF STOCKPLANTS/ORIGINE DES PLANTES RESERVEES COMME SOURCE:|
|Country/pays -||Provenance/Land race - Exact|
|locality/Localité exacte -||Altitude -|
|STOCKPLANTS/PLANTES RESERVEES COMME SOURCE:|
|Location/Localisation -||Clone no(s) -|
|Height cuttings taken/Hauteur relative qu'on a pris les boutures -||m.|
|No. of stockplants used/No. des plantes utilisées comme source -|
|Previous treatment of stockplants/Traitement antérieur des plantes -|
|CUTTINGS COLLECTED/BOUTURES COLLECTIONEES:|
|clone no(s) -|
|Approximate no. of each clone/No. approximatif de chaque clone-|
|Date(s) of collection/Date(s) de collecte -|
|Where propagated/Lière de multiplication-|
|Rooting medium/Milieu d'enracinement -||Length/Longeur-||cm. +/- Auxin(e)|
|Number rooted/Nombre enraciné -||on/le-||(date)( %)|
|Number potted/Nombre mis en pot -||on/le-||(date)( %)|
|No. planted for stockplants/No. pour le parc à bois- on/le-||(date)|
|No. planted for clonal trials/No. pour essais clonaux -on/le-||(date)|
|No. sent/No. expédié-||to/à -||on/le-||(date)|
|(Example of a bilingual record sheet used in Cameroun)|
- record sheet for propagation checks
|Weekly checks:-||Week starting:||Month:||Year:|
|Ready to pot up?||Pests?|
|Rooting medium moist?|
|Appearance of cuttings:|
|What problem was:|
|How long problem lasted?||What else needs attention?|
Volume 1 - Rooting Cuttings of Tropical Trees
taking the cuttings
care of cuttings
check-lists, sources and records
Volume 2 - Raising Seedlings of Tropical Trees
choosing seed sources
germinating the seeds
care of seedlings
check-lists, sources and records
Volume 3 - Growing Good Tropical Trees for Planting
planning a forest nursery
general principles of tree growth
symbionts and nutrition
protection from damage and loss
running a nursery
check-lists, sources and records
Volume 4 - Preparing to Plant Tropical Trees
general principles for tree survival
types of planting site
which species to plant?
choosing on appropriate system
preparing the ground
check-lists, sources and records
Volume 5 - Planting and Establishment of Tropical Trees
getting the plants there
how and when to plant
assessing the results of field trials
check-lists, sources and records
Tropical Trees: Propagation and Planting Manuals. Volume 1.
ROOTING CUTTINGS OF TROPICAL TREES
This Manual is the first in a new series of readable, illustrated handbooks for propagating and planting tropical trees.
The series is designed to provide clear and concise information on how to select, grow, plant and care for tropical trees. The Manuals are intended for anyone interested in growing trees, from the small-holder to the experienced forester, in both humid and drier areas.
Manual 1 is concerned with rooting cuttings in order to multiply trees vegetatively. Farmers have used vegetative propagation for centuries in growing tropical food crops. It is a standard technique for producing improved rubber trees, and is also now used for tea, coffee, oil-palm and other crops. But growing more and better indigenous trees may be the most far-reaching contribution to sustainable land use that vegetative propagation can play. It facilitates the quicker ‘domestication’ of these ‘wild’ species, encouraging both smaller and larger growers to tap the multiplicity of potential benefits offered by tropical trees.
This manual gives clear, step-by-step instructions on the rooting of tree cuttings, including:
choosing the best trees to propagate
producing good cuttings from stockplants
constructing a favourable environment for propagation
rooting and handling leafy cuttings
The procedures described in this Manual can be used with most woody species to provide diverse clonal mixtures. Such superior planting stock will help to fulfil the potential of multiple usefulness offered by tropical trees, while encouraging the conservation of genetic resources.
|Published by Commonwealth Science Council|
|May be purchased from|
Marlborough House, Pall Mall
London SWIY 5HX
|ISBN 0 85092 394 8|