|Abies nebrodensis||R. Morandini|
|Istituto Sperimentale per la Selvicoltura|
|Via delle Cascine 1|
|Araucaria angustifolia||G.P. Baldanzi|
|Departamento Producao Vegetal|
|Aucoumea klaineana (coastal provenances)||J. Groulez|
|Centre Technique Tropical|
|45bis, av. de la Belle Gabrielle|
|Centre Technique Forestier Tropical|
|B.P. 149, Libreville|
|République du Gabon|
|Caesalpinia dalei||J.B. Gillet|
|Cupressus dupreziana||M.S. Grim|
|Chef de la Station Centrale d'Amélioration des Arbres Forestiers|
|Bois de Boulogne|
|Delonix baccal||J.B. Gillet (address as above)|
|Dicraeopetalum stipulare (Kenya prov.)||J.B. Gillet - " -|
|Pinus caribaea var. bahamonsis|
(Great Abaco, Andros, Grand Bahama)
|Commonwealth Forestry Institute|
|University of Oxford|
|South Parke Road|
|Pinus eldarica||M.A. Mossadegh|
|Université de Téhéran|
|Pinus merkusii (Mindono prov., Philippines, Kerintji & Tapanuli prov. Indonesia)||E. Mortenson|
|P.O. Box 2338|
|Pinus occidentalis (Dominican Rep., Haiti, Eastern Cuba)||J. Thomson|
|Forestry Research and Training Institute|
|Calle 174, No. 1723|
|Stuhlmannia moavi||J.B. Gillet (address as above)|
|Tecleopsis glandulosa||J.B. Gillet - " -|
|0. Presumed extinct.|
|1. Endangered.||Actively threatened with extinction. Survival unlikely without protective measures.|
|2. Rare.||Not under immediate threat of extinction but occurring in such small numbers or in such localised or specialised habitats that it could quickly disappear. Needs watching.|
|3. Depleted.||Although sufficiently abundant for survival the species has been heavily depleted and is in decline as a result of natural causes or human activity.|
|4. Indeterminate.||Apparently endangered but insufficient data currently available for a reliable assessment.|
|(b)||Subspecies or variety.|
|E||Exotic. Indigenous population in category 1, 2 or 3 but survival ensured by widespread cultivation.|
|M||Protected in a national park or other reserve.|
|***||Giving cause for very grave anxiety|
|1.||Large Trees (15 m or more in height)|
|Amherstia nobilis||10–15 m. Burma|
ANG/57 Amh nob1
|Delonix regia||10–15 m. Madagascar|
ANG/57 Del reg
|Degeneria vitiensis||20–30 m. Fiji|
ANG/4/5 Deg Vit
|Foetidia clusioides||10–25 m. Madagascar|
ANG/67/2 For clu
|Gigasiphon macrosiphon||up to 20 m. Kenya, Tanzania|
ANG/57 Giga mac
|Lodoicea maldivica||up to 30 m. Seychelles|
ANG/187 Lod mal
|Pellicieria rhizophorae||6–15 m. Mangrove|
Pacific Coast, Costa Rica, Ecuador
ANG/28/8 Pel rhi
|Achyranthes mangarevica||Mangareva Island|
ANG/28/1 Cam Gra
ANG/28/1 Cam Gra
|Cinnamodendron ekmannii||Santo Domingo|
|Cordyline kaspar||New Zealand|
ANG/174/4 Cor Kas
|Corokia collenettei||Rapa island|
ANG/59/7 Cor col
|Elingamita johnsonii||New Zealand|
ANG/100/1 Eli Joh
|Elliottia racemosa||Georgia, S. Carolina|
ANG/93/1 Ell rac
ANG/67/2 Foe asy
|Franklinia alatamaha||Georgia, USA|
ANG/28/1 Fra Ala
|Hibiscadalphus (4 spp)||Hawaii|
ANG/31/1 Leb Kok
|Plectomirtha baylisiana||New Zealand|
ANG/53/1 Plec Bay
ANG/59/9 Pul per
|Trochetia erythroxylon||St. Helena|
|Trochetia melanoxylon||St. Helena|
1 Code number
|1.||Western U.S.A. and Canada||Mr. H. Barner. Danish State Forestry Tree Improvement Station, 3040 Humlebaek, Denmark|
|2.||Eastern U.S.A. and Canada||Dr. S.L. Krugman. Timber Management Research, Forest Service, Washington D.C. 20250, U.S.A.|
|3.||Mexico||Director, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales. Av. Progreso 5, Coyoacán 21 D.F., Mexico|
|4.||Lower altitude tropical pines||Mr. A.F.A. Lamb. Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford, England|
|5.||Northern Europe||Mr. H. Barner. Danish State Forestry Tree Improvement Station, 3040 Humlebaek, Denmark|
|6.||Mediterranean||Prof. R. Morandini. Istituto Sperimentale per la Selvicoltura, Via delle Cascine 1, 50144 Firenze, Italy|
|7.||Australia and eucalypts||J.W. Turnbull. Forest Research Institute, Forestry and Timber Bureau, Canberra, A.C.T., Australia|
|8.||South-East Asia||Mr. H. Keiding. Royal Veterinary and Agricultural College, Arboretet, Hørsholm, Denmark|
|9.||African tropical hardwoods||Director, Station d'Amélioration des Arbres Forestiers, 14 Rue Girardot, Nancy (M. et M.), France|
|10.||Latin American tropical hardwoods||To be proposed later|
H. Barner 1
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was set up under a convention signed in Paris in 1960 by the member countries of the Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) and by Canada and the United States.
25 countries are today members of OECD, namely Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States and Yugoslavia.
The convention provides that the OECD among other activities shall promote policies designed “ - to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations.”
OECD's Directorate for Agriculture and Food has taken the initiative for the establishment of the following seed schemes:
The Varietal Certification of Herbage Seed.
The Varietal Certification of Cereal Seed.
The Varietal Certification of Beet Seed.
The Varietal Certification of Vegetable Seed.
The preparatory work leading to the establishment of an OECD Scheme for the Control of Forest Reproductive Material Moving in International Trade started late in 1963. Earlier in 1963 (August) the FAO World Consultation on Forest Genetics and Tree Improvement, held in Stockholm, adopted a resolution urging the OECD to study the problems involved, and to establish for forest reproductive material a scheme similar to those already in operation or about to be established by the OECD for agricultural seeds.
The initiative of the OECD in this matter and the ensuing preparatory work by a group of forestry experts from member countries have had full support from the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the European Economic Community (EEC).
Five successive drafts of the Scheme have been prepared, commented on by member countries and international organizations concerned, and discussed and revised by the study group of experts. The final draft was considered by the Meeting of Representatives of the National Forestry Authorities, 27 to 29 June 1966. It was then approved in its present form for submission to the Committee for Agriculture and to the Council.
It should be noted that the Scheme is in line with the EEC Directives of 14 June 1966, which deal with trade in forest reproductive material.
The Scheme is open to all members of the OECD as well as to all member countries of the United Nations or the Specialized Agencies wanting to participate in accordance with the procedure for participating.
A state desiring to adhere to the OECD Scheme shall notify the Secretary General, who shall inform the other participating states.
1 Mr. Barner is consultant to the OECD for the Forestry Scheme. It should be noted that this is not an official OECD report.
BACKGROUND AND PRINCIPLES
The object of the Scheme is to encourage the production and use of seeds, parts of plants and plants that have been collected, raised and distributed in a way that ensures their trueness to name.
The Scheme is described as the scheme for the CONTROL of forest reproductive material, unlike the established Schemes for the VARIETAL CERTIFICATION of herbage, cereal, beet and vegetable seed. This distinction is due to the interpretation of the words “control” and “certification”. The former signifies a less comprehensive system, in which reproductive material is identified by its provenance and origin, and conforms to certain standards accepted at the present time. The latter, applied to agricultural seeds, implies a complete verification of the varietal trueness to type of seed from the time of its breeding to the point of entering into trade (including pre- and post-control tests).
Three broad categories of forest reproductive material are recognized in the Scheme:
Source Identified, which represents a minimum standard.
Selected, which conforms to the desired standard at the present time.
Certified, which represents the standard of genetically improved material to be aimed at in the future.
The reproductive material which, as a rule, moves in international trade, can be classified to the following criteria:
Locality and Origin
Depending on the accuracy of the source's definition, the following distinctions can be made:
Seed Zones represent units determined by climatic and edaphic conditions. The zones are often large and encompass a variety of environmental conditions.
Region of Provenance is a smaller unit than a Seed Zone. It determines also the subpopulation. (See definition, page 50.)
A Stand is difficult to define. In most cases it is genetically more homogeneous than a Region of Provenance. (See definition, page 50.)
A Tree can in some cases be used as source, for example when using vegetative reproduction material.
The OECD Scheme only acknowledges sources 2, 3, and 4. In the case of indigenous forests information on geographical position and elevation of the source will enable the recipient to evaluate the fitness of the material. With non-indigenous sources this evaluation is considerably more difficult.
The OECD Scheme therefore demands as a minimum requirement information on whether a source is indigenous or non-indigenous. (See definitions of ‘Provenance’ and ‘Origin’, page 50.)
However well defined a source may be, the information that reaches the recipient of seed or plants is often inadequate. One of the main objects of the OECD Scheme is to provide the recipient with accurate information, stated on a certificate signed by a designated authority. The above mentioned information on location, altitude, and origin of the seed source is the basis for OECD's category “Source Identified”.
Apart from information under the heading “Location and Origin”, the quality of the stand is usually of interest. When a stand fulfils certain requirements it can be approved under OECD's category “Selected”.
On page 51, OECD's requirements for approval of stands are presented.
“Stability” signifies the grade of uniformity that is expected to be found in the various characteristics of the offspring originating from the same seed source, but derived from different seed years.
It is obvious that recommendations or dissuasions regarding the sources can only be given if a similar result is to be expected from new supplies of seed or plants from the source concerned. Thus the value of the certification scheme depends on the stability of the offspring.
Among the factors influencing stability the following can be mentioned:
If a collection unit has no definite limits but contains stands of widely different genetic constitution, low stability is to be expected.
b) Composition and Arrangement
The source ought to be a natural and coherent unit where the trees are well distributed and numerous enough to enable adequate interpollination. The source must show a normal degree of individual variation in morphological and phenological characteristics.
c) Age and Development
It is important that a source is not used for production of reproductive material until a reasonable degree of uniformity has been reached in flowering and seed production. (See page 51, 9.)
See page 51, 2.
It is important that collection of seed takes place only after abundant flowering and in good seed years. It should be carried out in such a way that the reproductive material truly represents the source.
The requirements mentioned above are only concerned with the location and the description of the sources. Particularly in international trade, information of this kind provides only limited possibilities for evaluating the future development of the offspring in a new environment. The adaption can only be determined by provenance trials carried out in the potential regeneration areas of the species.
The objectives of such trials are:
to evaluate genetic differences in one or several important characteristics between representative samples of test and standard material;
to evaluate on the basis of a) whether the tested material is superior in the areas concerned.
Provenance and progeny trials of this kind can in certain circumstances form the basis for a classification of the sources for OECD's category Certified. The “Certification” is a very complicated procedure from both the experimental and control point of view and it is still under discussion.
RULES AND DIRECTIONS OF THE SCHEME
The OECD Scheme for the Control of Forest Reproductive Material Moving in International Trade shall cover all seeds, parts of plants, and plants which have been collected, transported, processed, stored, raised, sampled, labelled, and sealed in accordance with the rules that follow. The said rules constitute the minimum requirements. The OECD Scheme for the Control of Forest Reproductive Material shall be implemented in the participating countries by Designated Authorities. More detailed rules for delimiting regions of provenance and the approval of basic material which a participating country may stipulate shall be made available by the Designated Authority in an official publication.
2. Categories of Reproductive Material
The requirements of the three categories applied in the OECD Scheme can be illustrated as follows:
|Approval and inspection by a designated authority||X||X||X|
|Provenance or Region of Provenance defined and registered||X||X||X|
|Nature of Origin defined and registered||X||X||X|
|Phenotypic superiority defined and registered||X|
|Genotypic superiority defined and registered||X|
The category “Certified” does not constitute a category in line with “Source-Identified” and “Selected”, which are based entirely on a description of the source. “Certified” reproductive material is derived from Category A or B, and is classified “Certified” if it is found superior in provenance- or progeny-tests. See table above.
A. SOURCE-IDENTIFIED REPRODUCTIVE MATERIAL
3. Delimiting Regions of Provenance
Regions of provenance should be defined by means of administrative and geographic boundaries and, where applicable, by altitudinal and other appropriate boundaries judged to be significant in the country concerned.
4. List of Regions of Provenance
In each country where Source-Identified reproductive material is defined, an official or officially recognized national list and a map of regions of provenance should be published. These lists and maps and any revisions made to them should be sent to the OECD and to all participating countries.
The regions of provenance shall on this list be arranged by genera, species and, where applicable, by sub-species or variety. The origin of the stands shall be classified as indigenous or non-indigenous (whenever possible the origin of non-indigenous reproductive material shall be given). As much information as possible shall be given of the ecological conditions prevailing in the regions of provenance.
Only reproductive material from a region of provenance inscribed in the abovementioned list may be designated as Source-Identified reproductive material under the OECD Scheme for the Control of Forest Reproductive Material.
The category “Source-Identified” applies in areas of natural forests (indigenous). Localization of a seed source to single stands within the Region of Provenance is not required. It is important that the concept Region of Provenance is not extended to cover too wide an area. Finally it must be remembered that only when a seed source in the category Source-Identified forms a well-defined unit can it be transferred to the category “Certified”, provided it proves superior in provenance trials.
B. SELECTED REPRODUCTIVE MATERIAL
5. Approval of Basic Material
The seeds, parts of plants, and plants approved for collection or to be raised as selected reproductive material shall be derived from trees in selected stands, untested seed orchards or clones which fill the minimum requirements for basic material, as specified on page 51.
6. List of Approved Basic Material
Similar information as under points 4 a), b) and c) is required.
The category covers:
Reproductive material should only be collected in selected stands. The collection unit can consist of a number of selection stands within a Region of Provenance. The collection unit can also, if desired, be limited to compromise a single stand. In that case the locality is called Provenance and not Region of Provenance.
In the case of indigenous stands it may sometimes be reasonable to combine several selected stands into one unit within a Region of Provenance. In the case of non-indigenous stands the most correct procedure should be carefully considered. In this connection it must be remembered, that only well-defined collection units can be transferred to the category Certified.
Seed orchards have been established all over the world. The selected material from which a seed orchard derives can be expected to improve considerably. Testing the many young seed orchards might not be possible for a long time to come. The inclusion of Untested seed orchards in the OECD Scheme is therefore being considered. A final decision concerning this matter has not yet been reached.
C. CERTIFIED REPRODUCTIVE MATERIAL
7. Approval of Basic Material
The seeds, parts of plants, and plants accepted for collection or to be raised as Certified reproductive material shall originate from seed orchards, stands or clones whose genetic superiority has been proved by provenance or progeny tests.
As mentioned above, final rules and directives for this category have not yet been laid down. In accordance with the present draft, the following definition is suggested:
Certified reproductive material signifies material which in comparative tests has proved to be genetically superior to standard material in at least one characteristic important to forestry.
Superiority can be guaranteed only for the same kind of environment in which the material has been tested. Moreover, superiority can be certified only up to and including the most advanced age at which it has been observed in the test.
D. E. PRODUCTION, INSPECTION, SEALING AND LABELLING
This paragraph contains more detailed rules for the control of forest reproductive material. All institutions employed in the procurement of forest reproductive material must be registered, and all relevant records must be available for inspection. Inspection can take place in the forest as well as in seed extraction plants and nurseries.
All packages shall be sealed by the supplier and a special OECD label shall be fixed by a seal. All categories of reproductive material which are to be introduced into another country shall be accompanied by a certificate. A specimen of a certificate is given on page 52.
Forest Reproductive Material:
Reproductive material of genera and species of trees which will be used for the production of wood.
A population of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, constitution, and arrangement to be distinguishable from adjacent populations.
A stand of trees which has been continuously regenerated by natural regeneration, or one raised artificially from seed collected in indigenous stands of the same region of provenance.
A stand of trees superior to the accepted mean for the prevailing ecological conditions when judged by the criteria set out on page 51, and which may be treated for the production of seed. Where necessary, and particularly to comply with the requirements of uniformity as described in paragraph 3 on page 51, the approval of a selected stand would be dependent on the removal of certain inferior trees.
Provenance: (Location of Seed Source)
The place on which any stand of trees is growing. The stand may be indigenous or non-indigenous.
For an indigenous stand of trees the origin is the area on which the trees are growing; for a non-indigenous stand the origin is the place from which the seed or plants were originally introduced.
Region of Provenance:
For a genus, species, sub-species or distinct variety the region of provenance is the area or group of areas subject to sufficiently uniform ecological conditions on which stands showing similar genetic or phenotypic characters are found.
An authority designated by and responsible to the Government of a country participating in the OECD Scheme for Foresty Reproductive Material for the purpose of implementing these Rules on its behalf.
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF BASIC MATERIAL
Selected stands may consist of trees of indigenous or non-indigenous origin, which have the characters listed below.
Selected stands shall be situated at a sufficient distance from poor stands of the same species or from stands of a related species or variety which can form hybrids with the species in question. This requirement is particularly important when the stands surrounding indigenous stands are not indigenous.
The stands must show a normal degree of individual variation in morphological characters.
4. Volume Production:
Volume production of wood normally is an essential criterion for the acceptance of selected stands. Volume production of wood must normally be superior to the accepted mean under similar ecological conditions.
5. Wood Quality:
The quality of the wood shall be taken into account and, in some cases, may become an essential criterion.
6. Form or Growth Habit:
The trees in selected stands must show particularly good morphological features, especially straightness and circularity of stem, favourable branching habit, small size of branches and good natural pruning. In addition, the proportion of forked trees and those showing spiral grain should be low.
7. Health and Resistance:
The trees in selected stands must in general be free from attacks by damaging organisms and show resistance to the adverse climatic and site conditions in the place where they are growing.
8. Effective Size of the Population:
Selected stands must consist of one or more groups of trees well distributed and sufficiently numerous to make possible adequate interpollination. To avoid the unfavourable effects of inbreeding, selected stands shall consist of a sufficient number of individuals on a given area.
9. Age and Development:
Selected stands shall consist of trees of such an age, height or stage of development that the criteria given above can be clearly judged.
|CERTIFICATE OF PROVENANCE|
|_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _||_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ +|
|Issued under the OECD Scheme for|
|_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _||FOREST REPRODUCTIVE MATERIAL|
|Name of produce +||_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _|
|Nature of source *||Identified||Selected Stand(s)||Orchard||Clone|
|PROVENANCE OR REGION OF PROVENANCE|
|Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Reference No.+ in nat. list _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Altitude _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _|
|Further information_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _|
|_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _|
|ORIGIN *||Indigenous||Unknown||Introduced from _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _|
Optional information _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
|PRODUCE||Nature||Age||Quantity||Packages, No. and Nature|
|Parts of Plants|
It is certified that the forest reproductive material described above has been produced in accordance with the OECD Scheme for Forest Reproductive Material and has been registered under Master Certificate No. _ _ _ _ _ _.
|Designated Authority||_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _19_ _ _|
|_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _|
|Name and Address||Date and Signature|
+ to be stated on the labels
* delete the words that do not apply
R. H. Kemp CFI, Oxford. Research Scheme R 2145.
Reconnaissance, data collection and seed collection by provenances of Pinus caribaea and Pinus oocarpa in Central America.
Selection of second-priority species, particularly Pinus pseudostrobus (including P. tenuifolia) and Pinus strobus var. chiapensis.
Selection of superior phenotypes of any of the above species, accompanied when possible and desirable by collection of seed or grafting material.
2. Work done
2.1 Pinus caribaea. Reconnaissance and seed collection were directed mainly to the coastal lowland occurrences although several inland stands were visited as well. Collections were made on eight sites in 1969–70 in Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua (12°13'N 83°42'W to 16°20'N 89°25'W). The number of trees selected was generally 50–60, varying from 28 to over 100 on each site. A total of 22½ kg of seed was obtained with an average of 40 000 – 50 000 viable seed per kg. Some sites are, however, inadequately represented and reconnaissance of areas for seed collection in May–July 1971 has been undertaken.
2.2 Pinus oocarpa. Reconnaissance was made following a general zonation by latitude and topography, with particular attention to lower altitudes and to areas isolated by topographic barriers. In 1971, 24 seedlots of P. oocarpa from the CFI collections were available in sufficient quantity for inclusion in the International Provenance Trial (seed from Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua). In addition, seed was collected from a number of individual trees for taxonomic and genetic studies. A total of approximately 32 kg of cleaned seed was obtained. A reserve of seed is kept from the Provenance Trial for later establishment of selection and conservation stands.
2.3 Other species. Observations were made on Pinus pseudostrobus, P. tenuifolia and some valuable broadleaved species of Meliaceae and Juglans. A small quantity of seed of Swietenia macrophylla was collected.
3. Future programme
Depending on the results of the seed collection of the upland stands and the completion of a detailed second-stage provenance collection of Pinus oocarpa throughout its range in Honduras, it seems probable that extension of the project to September 1973 may have to be considered.1 Complementary provenance sampling of Pinus caribaea will begin in May 1971 simultaneously on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua and in the inland stands of Honduras, and it is expected to continue until the end of July. To complete the coverage of the natural forests of Pinus oocarpa Mr. Kemp hopes to undertake a visit to Mexico in January 1972. Seed collection in Central America will be directed to collecting seed from superior phenotypes of selected provenances and to obtaining larger supplies of the provenances for the establishment of selection stands. The work will be continued in 1973 and 1974. The collection of seed of Pinus strobus var. chiapensis may have to be postponed until 1972. The envisaged collection of seed of Juglans spp. will probably be undertaken in the proposed project extension, in 1973.
Rootstocks of Pinus caribaca and Pinus oocarpa are being raised in Honduras in case they should be needed to form a gene bank of individuals that appear to be of exceptional interest and in some danger of being lost. However, wherever seed collection is possible from such trees this will be done in preference to collecting grafting material.
Data collection is being continued for all species, including collection of herbarium, wood and resin samples.
The issuing of seed for an International Provenance Trial on Pinus caribaea and Pinus oocarpa will start in 1971. The trials will consist of 16 provenances of P. oocarpa and 12 provenances of P. caribaea (10 provenances of P. caribaea var. hondurensis and one provenance each of var. caribaea and var. bahamensis).
1 Extension to 1974 has been proposed
P.O. Olesen The Malawi Forest Research Institute
Seed collection of Pinus patula (Schl. and Cham.) for Malawi with the purpose of testing different provenances of the species, of improving the genotype of the stock through selection of the seed source and of widening the gene-pool.
Seed collection of other promising species with the object of finding species suitable for large-scale plantations in Malawi, thus decreasing the country's dependence on a single major species. Promising Mexican species are Pinus leiophylla Schl., P. douglasiana Martinez, P. pseudostrobus Lindl. and P. tenuifolia Benth.
2. Work done
See table on page 56.
3. Collections obtained
The writer brought back the collection of Pinus patula. The remaining seed is still in Mexico, and the exact quantity is unknown. However, it is thought that a total of about 175 pounds of seed (= 79.3 kg) was obtained.
Summary of the species and number of collections made:
|a) Collected by Olesen:|
|Pinus patula||9 collections|
|Pinus leiophylla||1 collection|
|Abies religiosa||1 collection|
|b) Collected in co-operation with the E.A.A.F.R.O. expedition:|
|Pinus douglasiana||1 collection|
|Pinus hartwegii||1 collection|
|Pinus leiophylla||1 collection|
|Pinus montezumae||3 collections|
|Abies religiosa||2 collections|
|c) Obtained from Mexican sources:|
|Pinus ayacahuite||2 collections|
|Pinus michoacana||1 collection|
|Pinus montezumae||1 collection|
|Pinus patula||1 collection|
|Pinus pseudostrobus||1 collection|
|Pinus tenuifolia||1 collection|
|Abies religiosa||1 collection|
|Cupressus lindleyi||1 collection|
|Total: 28 collections from 11 different species.|
2. Work done
|Species||Collection number||Location||Altitude||Stand structure||Natural regener.||Age and size of dom. trees||No. of trees collected||Seed weight|
|Pinus patula||1||20°7'N, 99°39'W||2400 m||pure||good||70–80 years|
|2||20°50'N, 99°14'W||2400 m||pure & mixed||sparse||25 years|
|15||145 000||Pure stands in the south|
|3||20°9'N, 98°11'W||2000 m||pure & mixed||in places||45 years|
|2800 m||mixed||good||70 years|
|6||19°50'N, 97°34'W||2600 m||mixed||in places||40 years|
|9||19°38'N, 97°7'W||2600 m||mixed & pure||sparse||45 years|
|10||19°33'N, 97°6'W||3000 m||pure||good||30 years|
|15||121 000||Driest area collected|
|11||18°55'N, 97°10'W||2300 m||mixed||abundant||80 years|
|15||135 000||Annual rainfall >225mm|
|12||18°10'N, 96°58'W||2500 m||mixed||in places||80 years|
|Pinus leiophylla||7||19°19'N, 99°19'W||2400 m||mixed|
|18||19°26'N, 100°8'W||2800 m||pure ±||none||70 years|
|Pinus montezumae||14||19°21'N, 98°42'W||3300 m||pure ±||some||80 years|
|17||19°26'N, 100°8'W||2800 m||pure||80 years|
|Abies religiosa||5||19°44'N, 98°5'W||2800 m||mixed||in places||70 years|
|16||19°40'N, 100°53'W||2800 m||mixed||in places||80 years|
1 Abbreviated from Rhod. J. Agric. Res. 7 (1969)
E. Mortenson EAAFRO 1969
Collection of seed for alternative species in East African plantations, possessing greater pest resistance, better wood qualities and higher economic value than the species used up to now.
2. Work done (see table on pages 59 to 62).
2.1 Cuba. Because of the local annual need of 80 – 90 million plants, provenance trials and seed orchards of Pinus caribaea have been established. It is probable that large quantities of seed of P. caribaea from Cuba will be available within the next four or five years.
2.2 Guatemala. Most of the pine species to be found in Guatemala occur in the highland areas between the Mexican border and Guatemala City. Guatemala will probably be the best source of seed for East Africa in the years to come. The climate is fairly hot and dry. Pinus oocarpa and Pinus caribaea grow at comparatively low altitudes and their stem form is good. Seed collection can be arranged through sawmill owners and the local population.
2.3 Republic of Honduras. Collection of Pinus oocarpa from the Departments of San Francisco Morazan and Olancho will probably be important in the future. It is possible that a big integrated papermill will be in operation in Olancho by 1972. This will make the whole district more accessible and will facilitate seed collection. The primitive conditions of today make seed collection difficult, but these areas have a high potential for seed production. The stands are of such good quality that seed from bulk collections of felled trees can safely be accepted.
The Pinus caribaea forests of the Mosquito pine savanna are continuous with the Nicaraguan P. caribaea forests, and if collections can be obtained from Puerto Cabezas it will not be necessary to collect specifically from Honduras. The inland stands do not seem to have a high enough quality to justify collection.
2.4 Nicaragua. This is a low-lying country where the pines reach their southernmost distribution in the western hemisphere (12°/13°N.). The pines grow in very infertile soils. Past exploitation has reduced the forests and heavy restrictions on cutting have become necessary. Although the phenotype of the mature trees is not very good it is probably acceptable, as most of the young trees seem to have a fairly good stem form.
Organization of seed collection in Nicaragua is very difficult. In addition, high rainfall in the area makes seed extraction problematic. The seed is supposed to ripen in the period February to March, which is the driest season and the best time for collecting seed. Probably the seed will, however, ripen from December onwards.
2.5 Costa Rica. There are no natural pine forests in Costa Rica. Native, fastgrowing hardwoods are probably not of interest for East Africa since the climate in Costa Rica and Central America is much more humid than in East Africa. The general impression of the cultivated pines in the highland areas was disappointing.
2.6 Mexico. In order to collect seed of the forest trees in Mexico it is necessary to obtain a permit from the Secretaría de Agricultura y Ganadería. It is often difficult for both Mexican citizens and foreigners to obtain such a permit, and where a permit is given the usual rule is that half of the seed collected has to be given to Mexican forest authorities. The forests are to a great part heavily exploited, flowering and seed production are irregular and land ownership is usually complex. Seed collection was restricted to the central and southern parts of Mexico.
A total of 323 kg of seed was thus collected in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. The collection comprised eighty-four provenances of pines, four of Abies religiosa and one of Cupressus lindleyi. The cost was on an average 433 shs. per kg. A further 62 kg of seed of Pinus oocarpa var. ochoterenai has been bought from Guatemala.
In the future it is possible that seed could be obtained from Fábricas de Papel Tuxtepec at Oaxaca, mainly the species Pinus patula var. longepedunculata, P. ayacahuite and P. pseudostrobus oaxacana. From Chiapas it may be possible to obtain seed of P. tenuifolia, P. ayacahuite, P. pseudostrobus var. oaxacana and P. oocarpa var. ochoterenai.
LIST OF INTRODUCED PROVENANCES
|EAAFRO INTRODUCTION NO.||SPECIES VARIETY||COLLECTION LOCATION||ALTITUDE ABOVE SEA LEVEL|
|NO. OF TREES IN COLLECTION||AMOUNT OF SEEDS|
|WEIGHT OF 1000 SEEDS|
|GERMINATION % AFTER 7 DAYS||GERMINATION % AFTER 21 DAYS||NO. OF SEEDS||EST.NO.OF SEEDLINGS WHICH CAN BE GROWN|
|1419||P.ayacahuite||Concepcion Papalo, Quicatlan, Oaxaca, Mexico||2700||3||768.2||46.0||0%||8%||16700||1754|
|1492||P.ayacahuite||Rep. of Guatemala||-||-||1065.2||53.0||0%||6%||20098||1206|
|1494||P.ayacahuite||Desierto De Los Leones, Mexico, D.F., Mexico||3000||Bulk collection||988.2||299.5||0%||22%||3299||660|
|1578||P.ayacahuite||Campo Experimental,San Juán, Tetla, Puebla, Mexico||3000||12||733.6||314.0||0%||84%||2336||2036|
|1495||P.caribaea||Poptun Petén, Rep. of Guatemala||450||Bulk collection||9250.0||19.5||10%||14.5%||474359||68782|
|1496||P.caribaea||Slilma Sia, Comarca De El Cabo, Rep. of Nicaragua||-||-||151.6||14.0||2%||56%||10829||6281|
|1497||P.caribaea||Poptum, Petén, Rep. of Guatemala||450||-||4790.0||20.0||20.5%||46.5%||239500||113763|
|1498||P.douglasiana||Atenquique Concession area, Tecalitlán, Jalisco, Mexico||1200||5||6.3||14.0||-||-||450||-|
|1499||P.douglasiana||Paracho, Michoacan, Mexico||2300||1||31.0||23.5||-||-||1319||-|
|1500||P.lawsoni||Valle De Bravo, Mexico||2000||10||144.1||18.0||0%||32%||8006||2562|
|1501||P.leiophylla Bosencheve||Bosencheve National Park, Mexico, Mexico||2600||29||1180.0||8.5||5%||5%||138824||6941|
|1502||P.leiophylla||Bosencheve National Park, Mexico, Mexico||2600||11||520.3||10.5||14%||42%||49552||22546|
|1503||P.leiophylla||Las Cocinas, Michoacan, Mexico||2300||15||1510.0||7.0||4%||6.5%||215714||14021|
|1504||P.leiophylla||Dos Aguas, Michoacan, Mexico||2280||15||406.2||10.0||9.5%||15.5%||40620||6296|
|1505||P. leiophylla||Los Conejos, Michoacan, Mexico||2500||6||323.9||7.5||6%||6.5%||43187||2807|
|1506||P.leiophylla||B. Hallberg Farm, Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico||1750||30||12946.0||10.5||42%||66%||123295||81375|
|1507||P.michoacana||726 km from Mexico City on Carretera 190, Oaxaca, Mexico||850||7||299.2||58.5||0%||54%||5115||2762|
|1508||P.michoacana||San Lorenso, Mpi.de Uruapan Michoacan, Mexico||1800||-||2094.2||34.5||56.5%||59%||60701||35814|
|1509||P.michoacana||Taretan, Michoacan, Mexico||1250||10||478.7||41.0||0.5%||1.5%||11676||175|
|1510||P.montezumae||5 km West of Rio, Frio, Mexico D.F., Mexico||3100||-||2170.0||18.0||0%||1%||120556||1206|