TROPICAL SECONDARY FOREST
MANAGEMENT IN AFRICA:
Reality and perspectives
Zambia Country Paper
Makumba, I. N.
Senior Extension Officer
Ministry of Tourism Environment and Natural Resources
Lusaka, Republic of Zambia
WORKSHOP ON TROPICAL SECONDARY FOREST MANAGEMENT IN AFRICA:
In collaboration with ICRAF and CIFOR
Nairobi, Kenya, 9-13 December 2002
Zambia is a landlocked country with a total land area of about 752,600 km2. The country is situated on the great plateau of Central Africa, with an average altitude of 1, 200 m above sea level. The predominant vegetation type is Miombo woodland. The intensity of natural vegetation cover diminishes from the high rainfall zone (northern part of the country) to the low rainfall zone (southern part of the country). About 25 per cent of the total land area is used for agriculture, 2 per cent urban development, 39 per cent wildlife and forest development, 22 per cent is arable land, and 12 per cent is unspecified areas.
The mining industry continues to be the mainstay of Zambia's economy providing about half of the government's total revenue. Zambia's economy has had serious problems since the early 1980s. Poor management and declining world copper prices has led to a decline in the mining industry. The country is endowed with vast natural resources such as forests, which have greater potential in contributing towards national development and alleviation of poverty.
Zambia's forest area consists of Forest Reserves, Game Management Areas, National Parks and Customary land. Forest reserves are gazetted areas directly under government control. Forest Management in Zambia has not been planned for a long time now. The current management plans are outdated. A national forest inventory has not been done since the 1960's. The only management tool used is the control of exploitation of timber resources through licensing. The Forestry Department uses the "coupe" system in forest reserves. The areas are demarcated prior to allocation to wood harvesters. It is in these areas that post extraction secondary forests are found. Cultivated areas left to regenerate naturally through a fallow system make up the Swidden secondary forests. The importance of these secondary forests in Zambia cannot be overemphasized. They provide a wide range of benefits such as building materials, fuel-wood and food. The forests also play an important role in watershed and soil conservation. They protect the environment thus enhancing food production.
The poor socio-economic status in the country has caused pressure on forests leading to environmental degradation. Deforestation and forest degradation have been major problems. The government of Zambia has reviewed its national forestry policy and put in place new legislation. The objective of the 1998 forestry policy is to ensure sustainable forest management and utilization using participatory approaches involving all stakeholders. It encourages collaborative forest management aimed at ensuring that local communities benefit from the management of natural resources. The policy is being implemented and is supported by new legislation, The Forests Act No. 7, of 1999. However, this Act has not yet been operationalised.
In order to enhance sustainable forest management and utilization of secondary forests, there is need to put in place management systems in light of the prevailing socio-economic conditions. Forest inventories need to be carried out to provide information for updating old management plans. Agriculture and tree planting should be integrated. Furthermore, forest extension, and forest product and market research should also be strengthened in order to achieve sustainable forest management and utilization.
The forestry sector in Zambia is very important to national development and human welfare. Forests provide a variety of benefits, which include food, fuel wood, building materials and medicines. The forests protect the environment thus enhancing food production. However, the country experiences a high level of environmental degradation. The most pressing problems in the forestry sector are deforestation and forest degradation, soil erosion and fertility loss, watershed degradation, and loss of biodiversity.
Deforestation and forest degradation, which are major problems in the forestry sector, can be attributed to a number of reasons. These include illegal and uncontrolled charcoal production, overexploitation, uncontrolled bush fires, land clearing for agriculture, and illegal settlements. Large tracts of forests, especially near urban areas, have disappeared because wood is one of the main sources of energy for cooking and heating to more than 80 per cent of the households. The declining socio-economic situation and increasing poverty has exacerbated the situation. Many people are turning to forest resource exploitation as a means of livelihood, providing an alternative source of income and employment.
It has been observed that given time and appropriate management systems degraded forests are able to regenerate and continue to offer the diverse needs of the people. It is therefore very important that the current status of secondary forests and their potential is determined. Appropriate management strategies should then be put in place in order to promote the sustainable development and management of this important natural resource.
However, nearly all forests in Zambia at present are managed without management plans. The country lacks up-to-date forest inventory data. The only management tool in the Forest Reserves under the Forestry Department has been licensing. A license simply states the minimum amount of timber to be removed annually. This system has not worked due to a number of problems, which, among others, include inadequate capacity of the Forestry Department.
This paper aims at providing an overview of secondary forests in Zambia. It gives information on the current status, characteristics, socio-economic importance, management practices, institutional and political issues, main lessons and conclusions, and gives recommendations regarding management to ensure development and wider application of sustainable secondary forest management.
Zambia is a landlocked country with a total land area of about 752, 600 km2. The country is surrounded by Mozambique, Malawi, Tanzania, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. It lies on a plateau ranging from 900 to 1,500 m above sea level. Its population is about 9.3 million with an average growth rate of about 2.9 per cent between 1990 and 2000 (CSO, 2001).
The mining industry in Zambia, as the mainstay of the economy, provides about 50 per cent of the government's revenue and 85 per cent of the country's export earnings. The country's economic performance deteriorated during the 1980s due to the declining copper production and international market prices. This has resulted into many socio-economic difficulties, the major one being high poverty levels.
Development reports indicate that there is a strong relationship between poverty and environmental degradation. Less than half of the country's population is formally employed. This implies that the majority has to look for other sources of income for their survival. The exploitation of natural resources therefore offers an alternative in meeting people's basic needs (ECZ, 2001).
The country's vegetation is classified into four major categories. These are Closed Forests, Open Forests, Termitaria and Grasslands (Storrs, 1995). The Closed Forests are limited in extent covering only about 3.5 per cent of the country's land area. The Open Forest or Savannah Woodlands, which are the dominant vegetation type, occur in four types. These are Miombo, Kalahari, Mopane, and Munga woodlands. The most extensive is the Miombo Woodland, covering over 42 per cent of the total land area (ECZ, 2001).
The Miombo woodland is a two-storeyed woodland with an open or lightly closed canopy of semi-evergreen trees 15-21 m high characterized by species of Brachystegia, Isorbelinia, Julbernardia, and Marquesia macroura. There may or may not be a vaguely defined lower storey characterized by species such as Albizia antunesiana, Anisophyllea boehmii, Brachystegia stipulata, Dalbergia nitidula, and a few others. The undergrowth consists of either a dense grass/suffrutex layer 0.6 m - 1.3 m high or a dense evergreen thicket 1.3 m - 3.6 m high. Suffrutices are a very marked feature of Miombo woodland. Over time, numerous fires have modified the vegetation, from inaccessible thick primary forest, to produce the current woodlands (Fanshawe, 1971).
The Kalahari Woodland embraces all woodlands on Kalahari Sands. The vegetation is derived from the partial destruction of dry deciduous Baikiaea forest. It forms a catenary regression from Baikiaea forest to suffrutex savanna to grassland on Kalahari Sands. Five stages are distinct in composition namely Guibourtia woodland, Burkea-Erythrophleum woodland, Burkea-Diplorhynchus scrub, Diplorhynchus scrub and Parinari suffrutex savanna. The Kalahari woodland is wide spread in the Western Province and western half of the North-western Province (Fanshawe, 1971).
The Mopane woodland is a one storeyed woodland with an open deciduous canopy 6 - 18 m high. The dominant Colophospermum mopane is pure or almost pure. Scattered elements of the Munga woodland occur in places represented chiefly by Acacia nigrescens, Adansonia digitata, Combretum imberbe, Kirkia accuminata and Lannea stuhlmannii. Mopane woodland is found in the valleys (Fanshawe, 1971).
The Munga woodland, usually called savanna woodland, is a park-like, 1-2 storeyed deciduous woodland with scattered or grouped emergents to 18 m high, characterized by Acacia, Combretum and Terminalia species. The undergrowth is absent, patchy or very dense and thicket-like, 1.3 - 4.5 m high, semi deciduous or deciduous (Fanshawe, 1971).
Termitaria woodland is found scattered throughout Zambia wherever soil is not pure sand. All the basic physiognomic vegetation types - forest, woodland, thicket, scrub and grassland - can be found on termitaria woodland. Termitaria occurs all over the country except on the Kalahari sands proper, some very sandy plateau soils, montane and swamp forests and flood plain grassland (Fanshawe, 1971).
More than 50 per cent of land in Zambia is covered with forests and woodlands with an estimated area of about 44.6 million hectares. The Forestry Department has carried the mandate to manage the country's forest resources over the years, since its establishment. The department looks after a total area of about 7.2 million hectares of forests. The current forest management practices are traditional, selective cutting and tree licenses (Forest Law Enforcement) (Siame, 1997).
However, the country experiences a high level of environmental degradation. The most pressing environmental problems in the forestry sector are deforestation and forest degradation, soil erosion and fertility loss, watershed degradation, and loss of biodiversity (MENR, 1999). This is as a result of illegal activities and overexploitation of the forest resources. The pressure on the forests has been more evident near the big towns and along the main roads, where the demand for wood as a source of energy is very high. With increased population, the demand for food and areas for cultivation is increasing. Consequently, deforestation is increasing.
It has therefore been realized that in order to enhance sustainable forest management and utilization, involvement of other stakeholders is cardinal. Therefore, the new Forestry Policy of 1998 has incorporated stakeholder participation, especially the local communities who almost solely depend on the forest resources for their livelihood.
In Zambia all land is owned by the state. The major land uses are Agriculture and Forestry. A significant amount of the land use is in the form of protected areas. Man-made activities include crop/livestock farming as well as mining. Agricultural activities form the major component of land use in rural Zambia as well as in the designated areas for agricultural development (ECZ, 2001).
This paper provides a broad overview of secondary forests in Zambia with particular reference to extent, status, management, policies and institutional settings that affect their development and management, and the socio-economic and ecological benefits that secondary forests offer to the local population.
Most vegetation in Zambia is in a disturbed and dynamic state. The increase in the human population, with consequent increase in shifting cultivation which uses fire as a tool, has resulted in almost wholesale destruction of the original tree cover and its replacement by secondary vegetation in-situ or invasive vegetation from outside (Fanshawe, 1971).
All vegetation follows a catenary gradient chiefly influenced by biotic factors, though not the same for all types, considering reversibility of the different vegetation types. For instance Montane, Munga and Mopane woodlands are all reversible because the catenary gradient is biotically controlled and lies wholly within the vegetation type. Termite mound vegetation falls into the same category as long as the gradient is biotically controlled. Miombo and Kalahari woodlands do not revert to forest because of the vigour of the invasive miombo elements in composition with the weakness of the retreating forest elements. Miombo woodland and miombo/Kalahari woodland, in practice grow back unchanged. Fanshawe (1971) further states that the Miombo and Kalahari woodlands are derived from the partial destruction of the forest types. They are vegetation types invading forest remnants, and not replacing a forest, which has been destroyed.
Zambia's forest area comprises Forest Reserves, Game Management Areas, National Parks and Customary Land. Forest Reserves are gazetted forest areas directly under the control of government through the Forestry Department. Gazetted forests cover 9 per cent while 8 per cent is under National Parks and Game Management Areas. Zambia has a total of 481 Protected Forest Areas. 181 are National Forests while 300 are Local Forests (Jachmann, 2000). In National Forests, logging and collection of forest produce is regulated by the Forestry Department whereas Local Forest Reserves are meant to serve the needs of the local people in the surrounding area. The government through the Forestry Department equally regulates the local forests. Forests also occur in Game Management Areas, National Parks and Customary Land (ECZ, 2001).
The Forest Reserves are further categorized as production forests and protection forests. Production forests are managed for present and future production of forest requirements. Protection forests are managed and maintained as conservation areas for environmental stability. It is in the areas designated as production forests that most clearly distinct secondary forests are found in Zambia.
For the purpose of this presentation, "secondary forests are forests regenerating largely through natural processes after significant human and/or natural disturbance of the original forest vegetation at a single time or over an extended period, and displaying a major difference in forest structure and/or canopy species composition with respect with nearby primary forests on similar sites".
The clearly recognized types of secondary forests in Zambia are Post extraction and Swidden fallow secondary forests. Post fire secondary forests are also recognizable in Zambia. The extent of these forests in terms of area covered is not known. No attempt has been made to gather and document information on secondary forests in the country. Their occurrence, though, is quite clearly noticed.
Fanshawe (1971) noted that Miombo re-grows virtually unchanged following clearing. This is because regeneration consists of stump/root sucker re-sprouting and recruitment from old stunted seedlings already present in the grass layer at the time of cutting. After one year the sapling population in re-growth may consist of one-third coppiced stumps and two-thirds seedlings recruited from the seedling pool. As a result, tree density in re-growth Miombo is higher. The high level of recruitment into the sapling phase from the seedling pool that has hitherto been stunted suggests that further development of seedlings with well established roots is suppressed by the woodland canopy through shading (Chidumayo, 1997).
Tree density and survival rate are higher in re-growth. Continued recruitment into the sapling phase from the seedling pool is not balanced with recruitment into the seedling pool. This results in the continuous reduction in the seedling pool, although these changes do not reduce tree species diversity due to high survival rate of stumps. Vegetative reproduction contributes more and more to re-growth after each successive cutting.
Succession is significantly affected by the initial floristic composition (Egler, 1952). Species that are dominant at the time of felling Miombo are likely to dominate the re-growth. Chidumayo (1997) observed that species continued to dominate the early succession in re-growth, in a stand dominated by Julbernardia globiflora in the seedling pool.
The most common practice is to selectively retain some trees in fields at the time of clearing. However, farmers establishing new fields may leave shelterbelts or boundary strips of indigenous woodland of variable width for soil and water conservation. Natural regeneration is encouraged from stumps and roots on contour bands and boundary strips by allowing coppice to develop. The re-growth is then managed, unconsciously, by thinning to harvest small wood products, such as construction wood. Otherwise, the fields are abandoned and the areas regenerate without any intervention. Seedlings from naturally sown seed in cultivated fields can be nurtured for the production of specific products. Depending on the forest type, the dominant species remain unchanged. The undergrowth is however replaced by some shrub and grass species.
Any disturbance, especially fire or cultivation, in dry evergreen forests results in degrade to Chipya, Miombo or Kalahari woodland. The end product of disturbance varies depending on the degree of disturbance. Total destruction results in the replacement by fire-hardy Chipya species, with one or more Chipya indicators - Afromomum, Pteridium or Smilax - and invasion by Hyparrhaenia species. Partial destruction of dry evergreen forests results in invasion by Miombo species. The derived Chipya woodlands gradually degrade to scrub Chipya and finally to suffrutex grassland (Fanshawe, 1971).
Destruction of Baikiaea (Dry Deciduous) forest results in a secondary type of Baikiaea forest composed of invasive elements from the adjoining Munga or Kalahari woodlands. Destruction of this forest type is usually by fire. About two years after a crown fire there is dense cover of almost pure Acacia ataxacantha, which thickens up in the next two years to almost impenetrable thicket 2-3 m high. Over time, without disturbance, this reverts to Baikiaea.
Forests are important to people's livelihoods as they provide a wide range of both direct and indirect benefits. They provide local communities with traditional medicines, fuel wood, food and building materials. The population increase, unemployment, decline in agricultural earnings as a result of adverse weather conditions and non-availability of inputs, have created pressure on forests as a resource. As the population grows, there is an increasing need for more food and equally more energy for cooking and lighting. A greater part of the population depends on forest products for their livelihood. Non-wood forest products are also a key source of income through activities such as bee keeping, hunting, and collection of mushroom, caterpillars, and fruit collection.
The liberalization of the economy has also contributed to the pressure on forests. Many people have been forced out of employment as a result of many state-owned enterprises being sold off to the private sector. In order to meet their daily needs, the affected people have tended to encroach into forest areas.
A high demand in wood fuel consumption has resulted in further degradation of secondary forests through overexploitation. Furthermore, the increased use of charcoal rather than wood worsens the problem as firewood is traditionally collected from dead, dry trees whilst charcoal uses living trees. The occurrence of dead trees in most of the secondary forests is very minimal.
Secondary forests play a major role in environmental stability, especially in watershed and soil protection, land stabilization, and biodiversity maintenance and enhancement. They build up and retain soil fertility, protect soil from erosion, help in producing continuous flow of clear water, and protect crops and settlements against the desiccation of winds or excessive temperature. The evapo-transpiration over large areas sustains humidity and local rainfall (Siame, 1997).
Lack of agricultural inputs, fertilizers, and health care are often greater concerns for rural populations than fuel wood. For this reason, it has often been difficult to motivate people to plant trees or to promote interest in forestry related issues.
The government recognizes that Non Governmental Organizations play a critical role in national development by complementing government's efforts in reducing poverty. A number of NGOs are involved in forestry activities. Such include CARE International and World Vision International. However, no particular NGO is specifically involved in management of secondary forests in Zambia. CARE International for example is encouraging sustainable management and utilization of forest resources in refugee camps. This is in an attempt to mitigate the impact of the influx of refugees on forest resources.
Generally, forest management practices in Zambia fall into three main categories. These are traditional, selective cutting and licenses. Traditional forest management includes the use of fire as a management tool and coppicing. Prescribed control burning is done between April and July when the forest vegetation still contains some moisture, to allow the removal of lateral leaves while the apical shoots remain intact. Selective cutting involves removing a given number of stems per hectare in order to promote growth of the remaining stems and to encourage natural regeneration of light demanders. In the tree licenses method, commercial license holders are given a minimum cut per month of 200 m3.
However, almost all Protected Forests Areas in the country at present are managed without adherence to forest management plans. The existing management plans have become outdated and require revision to respond to modern demands in sustainable forest management and utilization. Effective implementation of these plans requires resources, which are not adequately available within the Forestry Department. The major management tool in the Forest Reserves under the Department has been licensing. A license states the minimum amount of timber to be removed annually. The licensing system has to a greater extent failed. The reasons include improper monitoring and control (PFAP, 1998).
In Zambia, there is no deliberate policy specifically addressing the issue of secondary forest management. All the forests that may be categorized as secondary forests are not managed with any prescribed actions. The management of such forests is therefore, more often than not, on an ad hoc arrangement by the various interest groups exploiting them.
The Forestry Department has used the "coupe" system (Forest Law Enforcement) in forest reserves (Protected Forest Areas). Areas are demarcated prior to allocation to wood fuel harvesters. "Coupes"/strips to be cleared alternate with shelterbelts. The initial purpose of the shelterbelts was to serve as seed sources for regeneration in the charred "coupes". The shelterbelts also minimized hydrological disturbances to catchments. Once adequate re-growth has occurred in the "coupes", which is usually after ten (10) years, the shelterbelts may be cleared with the re-growth strips performing the role of shelterbelts.
The forests are harvested either by selective or clear-cutting. Selective cutting involves the cutting of trees of a particular size range and/or species while clear-cutting either all trees or the majority of trees with a few left uncut. Because selective harvesting creates irregular gaps in the canopy, natural regeneration is also irregular and patchy and the resultant stand age/size is uneven. The exploited area will remain open allowing more light which is vital for coppice and seedling growth. It is a requirement that stumps of cut trees are less than 30 cm above the ground and are cut at an angle to prevent water collection and consequently stump rot (Luhanga, et al., 1996; Chidumayo, 1993).
Due to population increase, the pressure on forest resources has grown leading to over-exploitation in cultivation by short fallow periods and clearing more land for agriculture. In the Chitemene and other forms of shifting cultivation, trees are either pollarded by de-branching or coppicing, with the objective of hastening regeneration of biomass and the canopy.
The major constraints in forest management include lack of resources, outdated data and lack of adequate knowledge and skills on latest management techniques of tropical forests.
The government owns all land in Zambia. Land tenure is divided into two categories, State Land and Customary Land. State Land is largely used for urban settlement, mining, power generation and permanent commercial farming. Land holding in state land is based on renewable leasehold titles of up to 99 years. Traditional chiefs and their Village Headmen who control land allocation administer Customary Land (MENR, 1994). They decide on land usage according to requests from local community members.
The traditional leadership, however, has limited authority on trees outside Protected Forest Areas, that is, trees on customary land. Any economic activity involving such trees requires a permit from the Forestry Department. Local people are free to use the resource for domestic purposes (PFAP, 1998). In a number of cases chiefs have instituted traditional management systems in areas outside protected forests. The Forestry Department only recognizes such areas and further encourages sustainable management and utilization practices instituted by the locals.
Forests are classified as Forest Reserves, forests in open areas, Game Management Areas, National Parks and trees outside forests. These classes can be defined as follows:
These are areas managed by the Forestry Department. The Chief's power may override the Forestry Department's decision making in Forest Reserves located in traditional land.
Forests in open areas
These are areas that belong to the Chief who can decide on land-use change according to Villagers' request
Game Management Areas
These are areas reserved for wildlife management. Local people can collect firewood.
These are protected areas where no human activities are allowed.
Trees outside forests
These are areas with trees but not classified in the previous classes.
Property rights may be defined as entitlements defining owners' rights and duties in the use of a particular resource. In Zambia property rights over most of the land is not clearly defined to make people more legitimate to land. Property rights have generally moved from communal in the pre-colonial period, to state and private ownership in the colonial and post-independence era. The replacement of communal ownership of biological and other resources by state and private ownership, which saw the government encroaching into customary land to develop forests, wildlife and water resources, was based on the premise that the government could share the benefits more appropriately (MENR, 1999).
However, in many cases the transfer of property rights from local resource users to the central government, combined with subsequent lack of law enforcement, has resulted in defacto open access, overuse and misuse of these resources.
The right to use one's property is highly individualized provided related legal requirements are followed. Once an individual has been allocated a parcel of land, ownership is perpetuated through cultivation and may be inherited upon the death of the owner. Exclusive rights entail the holder to exclude others from enjoying the same land. The right to transfer land or assign or sub-divide to a certain individual requires the Presidents consent through the Commissioner of Lands.
Under Customary Land, land is assigned to members of the family permanently/temporarily while other areas are commonly held for pasture, game, and fruit production. Land and its forests and wildlife resources in uncultivated areas are communally utilized. Resources in cultivated areas may temporarily be communally utilized between periods of cultivation, especially through grazing. These terminal arrangements have been an obstacle to investment in fixed land resources, including land conservation structures or tree planting activities
All uses of trees is limited in Forest Reserves to permit holders, although in practice, enforcement is limited only to commercial exploitation.
The National Forestry Policy of 1998 aims at increasing the country's forest cover and subsequently the growing local needs of the people for forest products. The objective of the new Forestry Policy is to ensure rational and sustainable management and utilization of the forest resources using a broad-based and participatory approach to ensure that all stakeholders are recognized and active. The policy is based on the following principles: -
i) Trees are important to environmental preservation, ecosystem conservation and sustainable economic and social development.
ii) There is an inseparable relationship between humans, trees and land.
iii) There is a need to create responsible partnerships, with gender equity, among stakeholders in forestry activities, to ensure the permanence and stability of forests.
iv) There is a need to combine scientific and indigenous knowledge.
v) There is a need for enhanced private sector participation in forestry development.
Local community involvement in forest management has been on the increase. The development of participatory management systems, in which local communities play an important role in the management and protection of forests resources, has been rapid. These include Joint Forest Management (JFM). Joint Forest Management is a collaborative management approach, which has been adopted in Zambia and is based on the principle that local communities become directly involved in the management of public forests and in doing so, benefit directly from the use of the forests. The Forest Act of 1999 supports this concept (ECZ, 2001).
The forest sector has several linkages with other institutions whose activities rely on goods and services provided by forest resources. The Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources through the Forestry Department has the overall responsibility for forest resources development. The role of government is to formulate and review policy and co-ordinate its implementation.
A new autonomous body called the Forestry Commission will be established to take over the functions of the Forestry Department. It will be responsible for co-ordination, implementation and enforcement of the rules and regulations related to forestry development. The Commission through entering into management contracts and providing incentives will encourage people to get involved in forest management.
It is quite clear that there is lack of information on a number of issues related to secondary forests in the country. The available information does not specifically recognize the existence and importance of secondary forests.
The management of forests in Zambia has not been a planned activity for a long time now. The old management plans prepared in the early 1970s have become outdated. There has been no national extensive forest inventory since 1965. Forest management plans have usually been restricted to designated areas such as forest reserves and plantations. Since there has been no comprehensive forest resource assessment since the 1960s, the management plans have been based on rather inconsistent estimates (ECZ, 2001).
Sustainable management of the forests requires the development of management systems, which embrace the interests, and facilitate the participation of the local people. This creates a sense of belonging and commitment among the stakeholders to the cause of management. Production of operative management plans, development of databases, regeneration of over-exploited species, carrying out research on indigenous knowledge systems and other measures intended to enhance management is therefore a necessity (MENR, 1999).
The 1998 National Forestry Policy provides for coordination among stakeholders through strengthened institutional collaborative arrangements at all levels. It recognizes the development and promotion of holistic strategies that integrate conservation, development and management of forest resources with crop and livestock production, energy and water resources. A National Environmental Policy is being developed supported by the World Bank.
Secondary forests play an important role in the socio-economic development of the poor local communities and the nation as a whole. In order to effectively manage secondary forests on a sustainable basis, the following are recommended objectives and actions: -
i) To carry out an inventory of forest resources, including assessment of deforestation and its associated environmental costs.
ii) To develop forest and natural resource management plans for secondary forests.
iii) To improve forestry research, extension and management in issues related to the management and utilization of secondary forests.
iv) To incorporate into forest policy and legislation the private and community participation in secondary forest management, including the sharing of revenue and responsibilities with the local people.
v) To promote tree planting and agro-forestry activities in conjunction with Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Community Based Organizations (CBOs), and other organizations.
i) Identify and delineate secondary forests of socio-economic importance.
ii) Preparing operative management plans for secondary forests.
iii) Involving local communities and the private sector in sustainable utilization, development and management of forest resources by the provision of incentives and transfer of ownership of forest resources.
iv) Integrating agriculture, tree planting and natural forest management.
v) Revising the status of forest reserves.
vi) Developing silvicultural methods that meet the communities' socio-economic and environmental requirements.
vii) Strengthening the forest extension service.
viii) Strengthening forest product and market research.
ix) Developing appropriate funding and institutional mechanisms.
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