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Ideally the following trials should be conducted in replicate 1–2 t hatchery rearing tanks using initial nauplii concentrations of 100–150/1. Nauplii should be obtained from individual spawners, and more than one species tested. For example, depending on location: P. mondon, P. indicus, P. merguiensis, P. semisulcatus, P. japonicus, P. aztecus, P. duorarum, P. setiferus and P. vannamei.
A. RESEARCH PROPOSALS INVOLVING THE EXISTING DRY ACETES FEEDING STRATEGY
1. Acetes feed survey
2. Acetes feed quality
spoilage characteristics/shelf life - lipid oxidation, microbial spoilage
Seasonal variation in nutrient content
Stability in water - rate of nutrient loss depending on feed particle size and period in water
3. Role of natural phytoplankton in the nutrition of Acetes-fed larvae
Using standard hatchery procedures the following observations should be made in conjuction with larval growth and survival:
When monitoring larval growth and survival, the following additional data should be collected (if possible):
4. Comparative larval feeding trials with other existing hatchery feeding regimes
These feeding trials should be compared on the basis of larval growth and survival, dependability and cost/unit of production.
B. RESEARCH PROPOSALS INVOLVING MODIFICATIONS TO THE DRY ACETES FEEDING STRATEGY
1. Feeding regime
(a) To determine the optimum feed particle size for each larval stage.
|Present feed particle size||Suggested size ranges for testing|
|N3 – 6-Z2||50<125||10 – 200|
|Z3-M2||125<250||100 – 500|
|M3-P1||250<350||200 – 600|
(b) To determine the optimum feeding level for each larval stage.
Present feeding level is 0.10 mg/larvae/day at N3 – 6 and Z1, thereafter increasing by 20% day until P. Feeding levels of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 mg/larvae/day, and subsequent daily increments of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% should be tested. For example, the delayed larval development observed for Acetes fed larvae may have been due to under feeding.
(c) To determine the optimum frequency of feed presentation.
Present feeding frequency is four feeds/day at 0830, 1200, 1700 and 2400 h. In view of the potential loss of soluble nutrients through leaching, the effect of a range of different feeding frequencies should be tested. For large-scale hatchery operations the feasibility of using automatic feed delivery systems should also be tested.
2. Feed preparation and formulation
(a) Drying technique.
Effect of different drying techniques on feed performance; air drying (indoors/outdoors), freeze-drying or drum drying.
(b) Vitamin/lipid fortification.
The effect of adding a vitamin/lipid supplement to the dry Acetes prior to feeding should be tested. The aim of using such a supplement is to fortify Acetes with essential vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids, to make the particles more visible to the larvae (by using carophyll red as a pigment), and to increase the water stability of the feed particles and so reduce nutrient leaching (by emulsification with soy lecithin). Such a diet could also be tested during the nursery stage as a replacement for Artemia nauplii. A suggested vitamin/lipid supplement for testing could be as follows:
|Carophyll red1||0.5 g|
|Soy lecithin||1.5 g|
|Shrimp head oil2||5.0 g|
|Vitamin mix3||2.0 g|
1 10% suspension of canthaxanthin in an oil base
2 If not available, can be replaced with red fish oil or krill oil
3 To supply/kg finished diet: vitamin A, 6 500 IU; vitamin D3, 2 000 IU, vitamin E, 300 mg; menadione sodium bisulphite, 12 mg; thiamine mononitrate, 35 mg; riboflavin, 50 mg; D-calcium pantothenate, 150 mg; biotin, 0.5 mg; folic acid, 7.5 mg; vitamin B12, 0.05 mg; niacin, 220 mg; pyridoxine HCL, 30 mg; ascorbic acid, 2 000 mg; choline chloride, 1 000 mg; myo-inositol, 2 000 mg; antioxidant, 125 mg
The vitamin/oil premix should be prepared by first dissolving the carophyll red and soy lecithin in the fish or shrimp oil, followed by the vitamin premix. Mix and homogenize well and then apply to the dry basal protein source (i.e., Acetes; using 9 g of vitamin/oil premix for every 91 g of dry pre-ground Acetes). When using shrimp or fish oil, efforts should be made to procure sources which have been pre-stabilized with 250–500 ppm antioxidant.
3. Suitability of other crustacean preparations for larval feeding
Depending on availability, these could include M. affinis, M. dobsoni, P. stylifera, N. tenipes, O. nepa and Mesopodopsis spp.