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Alikunhi, K.H., et al., 1980 Observations on mass rearing of penaeid and Macrobrachium larvae, at the Regional Shrimp Hatchery, Azhicode, during 1979 and 1980. Bull.Dept.Fish.Kerala, 2(1):68 p.

Alikunhi, K.H., 1982 Report on mass rearing of shrimp larvae at the Regional Shrimp Hatchery, Azhicode, during 1981. Bull.Dept.Fish.Kerala, 3(1):40 p.

CRC, CRC Handbook of Mariculture, 1983 Volume 1 - Crustacean Aquaculture, edited by J.P. McVey, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, 442 p.

FAO, Yearbook of fishery statistics, 1983. 1984 Yearb.Fish.Stat., (56):393 p. (trilingual)

Girin, M., 1979 Some solutions to the problem of producing juvenile marine finfishes for aquaculture. European Mariculture Society, Special Publication No. 4, pp. 199–209

Grabner, M., W. Wieser and R. Lackner, 1981 The suitability of frozen and freeze-dried zooplankton as food for fish larvae: A biochemical test program. Aquaculture, 26:85–94

Hameed Ali, K., 1980 A new system for mass rearing of penaeid shrimp larvae. Proceedings of the first National Symposium on Prawn Farming, Bombay, 16–18 August, 1978; 254–62

Hameed Ali, K. and S.N. Dwivedi, 1977 Acceleration of prawn growth by cauterisation of eye stalks and using Acetes indicus as supplementary feed. J.Ind.Fish.Assoc.Bombay, 3–4 (1–2):136–38

Hameed Ali, K., S.N. Dwivedi and K.H. Alikunhi, 1982 A new hatchery system for commercial rearing of penaeid prawn larvae. Bull.Central Inst.Fish. Education, Bombay, 2–3:9 p.

Jones, D.A., 1984 Penaeid larval culture using microencapsulated diets. Paper presented at the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, Iloilo City, Philippines, December 4–7, 1984

Kanazawa, A., 1983 Penaeid nutrition. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Aquaculture Nutrition: Biochemical and Physiological Approaches to Shellfish Nutrition, edited by G.D. Pruder, C.J. Langdon and D.E. Conklin. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, pp. 87–105

Kungvankij, P., 1982 The design and operation of shrimp hatcheries in Thailand. In Working Party on small-scale shrimp/prawn hatcheries in South East Asia, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 16–21 November 1981. II. Technical Report, SCSFD & C.P., Manila, Philippines, May 1982, pp. 117–20

Kungvankij, P., et al., 1984 Shrimp hatchery design, operation and management. NACA Training Manual Series No. 1, November 1984, in press

Lewis, D.H., J.K. Leong and C. Mock, 1984 Aggregation of penaeid shrimp larvae due to microbial epibionts. Aquaculture, 27: 149–55

Liao, I., 1984 A brief review on the larval rearing techniques of penaeid prawns. Paper presented at the first International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, Iloilo City, Philippines, December 4–7, 1984, in press

New, M.B., 1976 A review of dietary studies with shrimp and prawns. Aquaculture, 9:101–44

Scura, E.D., J. Fischer and M.P. Yunker, 1984 The use of microencapsulated feeds to replace live food organisms in shrimp hatcheries. Paper presented at the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, Iloilo City, Philippines, December 4–7, 1984

Simon, C.M., 1981 Design and operation of a large-scale, commercial penaeid shrimp hatchery. J.World Maricult.Soc., 12(2):322–34

Watanabe, T., C. Kitajima and S. Fujita, 1983 Nutritional value of live food organisms used in Japan for mass propogation of fish: A review. Aquaculture,34:115–43


Ideally the following trials should be conducted in replicate 1–2 t hatchery rearing tanks using initial nauplii concentrations of 100–150/1. Nauplii should be obtained from individual spawners, and more than one species tested. For example, depending on location: P. mondon, P. indicus, P. merguiensis, P. semisulcatus, P. japonicus, P. aztecus, P. duorarum, P. setiferus and P. vannamei.


1. Acetes feed survey

  1. Existing fishery - size, current use of Acetes, fishery forecasts
  2. Market availability - geographical and seasonal basis; cost depending on form available (fresh/dry)

2. Acetes feed quality

  1. Nutrient content

    1. proximate composition - moisture, protein, lipid, ash, crude fibre
    2. amino acid, fatty acid, mineral and possibly vitamin composition
    3. contaminants/anti-nutritional factors - pesticide residues, heavy metals, thiaminase activity
    4. spoilage characteristics/shelf life - lipid oxidation, microbial spoilage

  2. Seasonal variation in nutrient content

  3. Stability in water - rate of nutrient loss depending on feed particle size and period in water

3. Role of natural phytoplankton in the nutrition of Acetes-fed larvae

Using standard hatchery procedures the following observations should be made in conjuction with larval growth and survival:

  1. Phytoplankton species composition and population density in culture tank with larvae receiving normal crustacean tissue feed input
  2. Phytoplankton species composition and population density in culture tank containing no shrimp larvae but receiving normal feed input
  3. Phytoplankton species composition and population density in culture tank containing no shrimp larvae and receiving no feed input
  4. Phytoplankton species composition and population density in culture tank containing shrimp larvae but receiving no feed input
  5. Effect of lighting (indoor/outdoor tanks, covered or uncovered) on the above
  6. Effect of water exchange (% tank volume/day) on the above
  7. Effect of different crustacean tissue preparations on the above
  8. Effect of different feed levels and feed particle sizes on the above

When monitoring larval growth and survival, the following additional data should be collected (if possible):

  1. Feeding incidence of the larval population (presence of food particles in the gut or faecal strands)
  2. Behaviour of the feed particles in water - buoyancy, dispersion properties
  3. Incidence of larval deformities
  4. Information on water quality - oxygen, pH, ammonia, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, salinity
  5. Bacterial/fungal contamination of rearing water
  6. Development of micro-flora on crustacean feed particles in water

4. Comparative larval feeding trials with other existing hatchery feeding regimes

These feeding trials should be compared on the basis of larval growth and survival, dependability and cost/unit of production.


1. Feeding regime

(a) To determine the optimum feed particle size for each larval stage.

Present feed particle sizeSuggested size ranges for testing
N3 – 6-Z2  50<125  10 – 200
Z3-M2125<250100 – 500
M3-P1250<350200 – 600

(b) To determine the optimum feeding level for each larval stage.

Present feeding level is 0.10 mg/larvae/day at N3 – 6 and Z1, thereafter increasing by 20% day until P. Feeding levels of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 mg/larvae/day, and subsequent daily increments of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% should be tested. For example, the delayed larval development observed for Acetes fed larvae may have been due to under feeding.

(c) To determine the optimum frequency of feed presentation.

Present feeding frequency is four feeds/day at 0830, 1200, 1700 and 2400 h. In view of the potential loss of soluble nutrients through leaching, the effect of a range of different feeding frequencies should be tested. For large-scale hatchery operations the feasibility of using automatic feed delivery systems should also be tested.

2. Feed preparation and formulation

(a) Drying technique.

Effect of different drying techniques on feed performance; air drying (indoors/outdoors), freeze-drying or drum drying.

(b) Vitamin/lipid fortification.

The effect of adding a vitamin/lipid supplement to the dry Acetes prior to feeding should be tested. The aim of using such a supplement is to fortify Acetes with essential vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids, to make the particles more visible to the larvae (by using carophyll red as a pigment), and to increase the water stability of the feed particles and so reduce nutrient leaching (by emulsification with soy lecithin). Such a diet could also be tested during the nursery stage as a replacement for Artemia nauplii. A suggested vitamin/lipid supplement for testing could be as follows:

Carophyll red10.5 g
Soy lecithin1.5 g
Shrimp head oil25.0 g
Vitamin mix32.0 g

1 10% suspension of canthaxanthin in an oil base

2 If not available, can be replaced with red fish oil or krill oil

3 To supply/kg finished diet: vitamin A, 6 500 IU; vitamin D3, 2 000 IU, vitamin E, 300 mg; menadione sodium bisulphite, 12 mg; thiamine mononitrate, 35 mg; riboflavin, 50 mg; D-calcium pantothenate, 150 mg; biotin, 0.5 mg; folic acid, 7.5 mg; vitamin B12, 0.05 mg; niacin, 220 mg; pyridoxine HCL, 30 mg; ascorbic acid, 2 000 mg; choline chloride, 1 000 mg; myo-inositol, 2 000 mg; antioxidant, 125 mg

The vitamin/oil premix should be prepared by first dissolving the carophyll red and soy lecithin in the fish or shrimp oil, followed by the vitamin premix. Mix and homogenize well and then apply to the dry basal protein source (i.e., Acetes; using 9 g of vitamin/oil premix for every 91 g of dry pre-ground Acetes). When using shrimp or fish oil, efforts should be made to procure sources which have been pre-stabilized with 250–500 ppm antioxidant.

3. Suitability of other crustacean preparations for larval feeding

Depending on availability, these could include M. affinis, M. dobsoni, P. stylifera, N. tenipes, O. nepa and Mesopodopsis spp.

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