better farming series42
FAO Economic and Social Development SeriesNo. 3/42
using fodder from trees
and shrubs to feed livestock
in the tropics


by Dr O.B. Smith
International Development Research Centre
West and Central Africa Regional Office
Dakar, Senegal

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

David Lubin Memorial Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Smith, O.B.
Using fodder from trees and shrubs to feed livestock in the tropics.
(FAO Better Farming Series, no. 42)
ISBN 92-5-103476-1

1. Browse plants 2. Trees 3. Cultivation 4. Livestock 5. Animal feeding
I. Title II. Series

FAO code: 11 AGRIS: F01; L02

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.


The titles published in this series are designed as hand-books for intermediate-level agricultural education and training courses. They may be purchased as a set or individually.

  1. The plant: the living plant; the root
  2. The plant: the stem; the buds; the leaves
  3. The plant: the flower
  4. The soil: how the soil is made up
  5. The soil: how to conserve the soil
  6. The soil: how to improve the soil
  7. Crop farming
  8. Animal husbandry: feeding and care of animals
  9. Animal husbandry: animal diseases; how animals reproduce
  10. The farm business survey
  11. Cattle breeding
  12. Sheep and goat breeding
  13. Keeping chickens
  14. Farming with animal power
  15. Cereals
  16. Roots and tubers
  17. Groundnuts
  18. Bananas
  19. Market gardening
  20. Upland rice
  21. Wet paddy or swamp rice
  22. Cocoa
  23. Coffee
  24. The oil palm
  25. The rubber tree
  26. The modern farm business
  27. Freshwater fish farming: how to begin
  28. Water: where water comes from
  29. Better freshwater fish farming: the pond
  30. Better freshwater fish farming: the fish
  31. Biogas: what it is; how it is made; how to use it
  32. Biogas 2: building a better biogas unit
  33. Farming snails 1: learning about snails; building a pen; food and shelter plants
  34. Farming snails 2: choosing snails; care and harvesting; further improvement
  35. Better freshwater fish farming: further improvement
  36. Raising rabbits 1: learning about rabbits; building the pens; choosing rabbits
  37. Raising rabbits 2: feeding rabbits; raising baby rabbits; further improvement
  38. Better freshwater fish farming: raising fish in pens and cages
  39. Raising ducks 1: how to begin
  40. Raising ducks 2: further improvement; a larger flock
  41. Raising ducks 3: further improvement; taking care of a larger flock
  42. Using fodder from trees and shrubs to feed livestock in the tropics


The first 26 volumes in FAO's Better Farming Series were based on the Cours d'apprentissage agricole prepared in Côte d'Ivoire by the Institut africain de développement économique et social for use by extension workers. Later volumes, beginning with No. 27, have been prepared by FAO for use in agricultural development at the farm and family level. The approach has deliberately been a general one, the intention being to create a basic model that can be modified or expanded according to local conditions of agriculture.

Many of the booklets deal with specific crops and techniques, while others are intended to give farmers more general information that can help them to understand why they do what they do, so that they will be able to do it better.

Adaptations of the series, or individual volumes in it, have been published in Amharic, Arabic, Bengali, Creole, Hindi, Igala, Indonesian, Kiswahili, Malagasy, SiSwati, Thai and Turkish. This volume has been prepared by the FAO Animal Production and Health Division (Dr P.L. Puglièse).

Requests for permission to issue this manual in other languages and to adapt it according to local climatic and ecological conditions are welcomed. They should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

Booklets 27 to 41 in the FAO Better Farming Series were written and illustrated by Tom Laughlin, working closely with the technical divisions concerned.

Rome, © FAO 1994

Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.



Some common fodder trees and shrubs

Feeding fodder from trees and shrubs

Growing fodder trees and shrubs

Practical tips

Books to read