SECTION II Participatory environment education and training: results and lessons learned from country experiences
The Indonesian archipelago comprises approximately 13 667 islands, of which only about
6 000 are inhabited. It includes five main islands, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Irian Jaya and Java where the majority of the population lives. The archipelago stretches about 5 150 km between Australia and the Asian continent and divides the Pacific and Indian Oceans near the equator. The total land area is approximately 181 million hectares.
In 1996, Indonesia's population was estimated at about 201 million, of whom nearly 70 percent were engaged directly or indirectly in the agricultural sector. Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world, after China, India and the United States. The population is unequally distributed among the islands; the island of Java which constitutes only about 7 percent of the total land area is inhabited by nearly 60 percent of the country's total population (or 120 million people).
Agriculture plays many important roles in Indonesia and significantly contributes to its socio-economic development. In 1995, it contributed about 17.2 percent to the GDP and provided food for a growing population and raw materials for the industrial sector. It has also provided productive employment opportunities and income for the huge population residing in rural areas. It also played a leading role in alleviating poverty and malnutrition through a structure and pattern of production that allowed small farmers and landless agricultural workers to share in the benefits of agricultural growth. In addition, the agricultural sector absorbed about 35.5 million workers, or more than 50 percent of the total national labour force, in 1990. The increased export of agricultural products has helped to improve the national balance of payments.
Over the past two decades, Indonesia's economic development had been quite dramatic: its economy grew at an annual rate of almost 7 percent. Per capita income rose more than 15-fold, from approximately US$70 in 1967 to more than US$1 000 in 1996 and the number of people living below the poverty line fell dramatically from 60 percent in 1970 to less than 11 percent in 1997.
In 1984, Indonesia for the first time was able to attain self-sufficiency in rice production. This success was attributed partly to increased rice-planted areas but more significantly to increased yields that resulted from application of modern agricultural technologies such as the widespread use of improved high-yielding varieties, increased application of chemical fertilizers and the practice of IPM. These practices will also be a strong basis for attaining self-sufficiency in other food grains, such as corn and soybean in the future.
The increased use of modern technologies in the agricultural sector has worried the government because such development was accomplished at the expense of serious environment degradation. Uncontrolled, excessive exploitation of natural resources and use of environmental detrimental technologies have created significant degradation. Land clearing, continuous and intensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, overfishing and agricultural disposal are among practices that contribute to the depreciation of the quality of agricultural environment and resources. In addition, expanded deforestation has increased the threat to environment conservation that creates negative impacts to sustainable agriculture. Shifting cultivation, improper land use, illegal logging and uncontrolled industrial forest plantation, as well as timber estate development are among the causes of deforestation.
With regard to the above concerns, the rural community is now facing new challenges. Excessive chemical use and uncontrolled waste disposal have brought about disharmony in the delicate environmental balance and reached an alarming level of tolerance. Tainted water and the destruction of useful living organisms that enhance farm productivity are often the result of careless human activities. The clearance of large tracts of forest for agricultural and industrial development has disrupted the conservation of groundwater and brought about soil erosion. This environmental discord can be attributed more to ignorance than deliberate and selfish acts of destruction. This critical situation calls for serious attention and efforts to prevent agricultural resources from further depletion and to conserve existing resources for future production.
The above environmental issues and concerns necessitated the government to establish the State Ministry for Population and Environment in 1983, which was subsequently split into two state ministries, the State Ministry of Population and the State Ministry of Environment. The State Minister of Environment was appointed to coordinate the implementation of sound practices of environment management. Rules and regulations including guidelines for better management of the environment have been released and environmental laws enforced in 1982.
One of the efforts to protect the agricultural environment was Presidential Decree No. 3/1986 which banned the use of 57 types of insecticides (mostly highly toxic organo-phosphates) on rice production. In the same decree, IPM was declared as the national pest control strategy which also called for large-scale training of field workers and farmers to implement the IPM activities.
In order to implement and support the above regulations, the competence of farmers had to be continuously improved in order to manage the natural resources as well as achieving a high level of productivity to sustain agricultural development. To this end, many extension programmes on land and water conservation have been promoted for adoption by the farmers who are in the upper and lower watershed areas. Field extension workers, as the closest agents to the farmers are responsible for providing knowledge to the farmers to sustain agricultural development and conserve the land-carrying capacity. Therefore, they should know and understand the importance of spatial planning and environmental management aspects of sustainable development. To fulfil these needs, environment issues were included as one of the courses in basic extension training. However, the materials provided in the training were not sufficient and did not allow the extension workers to comprehend fully the interrelation of environmental issues related to agricultural development.
The AAET is an operational unit under the MOA and is responsible for agricultural personnel training, including extension trainers and agricultural extension workers. The agricultural extension training for extension personnel is divided into pre-service and in-service training. Pre-service training is conducted through the formal education system while in-service training is organized and conducted by the AAET.
In-service training is categorized into short-term and long-term training courses which are conducted either in-country or overseas. The in-country short-term training course is coordinated by the AAET and implemented through its agricultural in-service training centres (AISTCs). Currently, there are 32 AISTCs located all over the country, including the national centre which organizes short-term training courses for subject matter specialists (SMSs) and extension trainers. Short-term training programmes are also conducted in cooperation with the universities and/or other educational institutions. Only the SMSs and extension trainers may qualify for the overseas short-term courses and academic training programmes. These are usually provided under the auspices of foreign-assisted projects.
The short-term training of agricultural extension personnel is organized on the principles of occupational competency. The main goal is to help trainees improve their skills and knowledge and develop positive attitudes needed for better job performance as well as provide more opportunities for promotion in their careers. In this regard, the subject matter contents in the in-service training are mostly related to basic knowledge and skills which are commonly needed by extension workers.
There are currently about 524 trainers employed in the 32 AISTCs. They are responsible for the training of approximately 38 000 agricultural extension workers. These trainers are generally university graduates in different disciplines. On average, each AISTC employs two trainers who specialize in agricultural extension.
The concern for the environment and the desire for meaningful actions widely provide an impetus for the MOA through AAET to institutionalize environment education into its agricultural training programme. Environmental issues had been introduced in agricultural education and training in the 1980s and integrated in the existing curriculum of basic agricultural extension training for agricultural extension workers. The two-hour lesson covered only issues concerning general policy and problems of natural resources and environment conservation. These were apparently not enough for the agricultural extension workers to master necessary environmental knowledge and skills to manage agricultural practices leading to sustainable agriculture. Almost all newly employed extension workers have very little, if any, knowledge and skills on natural/environment management and practices. This has resulted in a heavy burden on extension training to fulfil the pressing need for qualified extension workers in handling environment-related issues of agricultural development.
Lack of practical and easy-to-learn training/extension materials on natural/environment conservation and its relation to sustainable agricultural development are among the major constraints faced by agricultural extension. The development of such materials demands serious efforts supported by adequate funding and expertise. The extension materials produced by the MOA are very limited in terms of subject matter variations while learning materials from other institutions, including universities, are even less available. In addition, many extension workers and field-based officials are not sufficiently motivated to work on natural and/or environment conservation caused by ignorance on the one hand and lack of positive aspiration toward quality of life on the other. These unfavourable attitudes have impeded the efforts of agricultural extension services to promote sustainable agriculture.
Inspired by an earlier FAO-assisted pilot project implemented in 1987 in two districts, Grobogan District, Central Java Province and Central Lombok District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, SDRE initiated a collaborative activity with AAET to develop an EETM for agricultural extension workers in Indonesia. This activity was in line with the efforts to solve the above problems. The AAET as an agricultural training and education institution, under the MOA highly appreciated FAO/SDRE's initiative.
The support of FAO has motivated the AAET to develop similar training modules on different subject areas. In addition, different formats and packages of the same training module have been developed for different target groups.
In the development of the EETM, the AAET collaborated with other institutions to identify and select technical contents. Staff from the State Ministry of Environment, Bogor Agricultural University, University of Indonesia, as well as agricultural master trainers and extension workers were involved in a workshop to discuss the topics to be included in the EETM. The workshop was also used as a forum to share information and experiences on EET activities among the participating institutions.
The implementation of EET programmes under the Ministry of Agriculture is currently carried out by the 32 AISTCs in the country. These training centres are under the jurisdiction of the AAET. To ensure that the EETM is mainstreamed into the AISTC's training programme, several staff members from the AISCTs were involved from the beginning of the project's implementation. In the development of EETM-1 (the basic level), two master trainers and the head of the AISTC in Cihea were involved as module writers. The tryout session of EETM-1 was also conducted at the AISTC in Cihea, facilitated by the module writers and assisted by four other agricultural trainers.
Similarly, in the preparation of EETM-2 (the advanced level), four master trainers assisted by ten agricultural trainers of the AISTC in Cihea were involved in the formulation of the module. The AISTC in Cihea was selected for the development of both the EETMs because of its close proximity to the AAET office in Jakarta and the staff's capability to write modular training materials.
In addition, many staff and heads of the AISTCs as well as other related institutions were also involved in the technical review and content validation workshops which were conducted to ensure the quality and applicability of the training modules.
The involvement of the AISTC staff in the EETM development process has motivated them to use their own budget allocation to implement the EETM in their existing extension training programmes. This initiative made it easier for the AAET to hasten the integration of the EETM into the existing training programmes at the AISTCs.
To strengthen the activity, FAO provided technical and funding support to assist AAET develop the EETMs. The contributions by FAO totalled US$25 000 to develop EETM-1 and US$13 000 to develop EETM-2. These funds covered the following EETM development activities: module writing, tryout activity, revision, reproduction and training of master trainers. FAO's financial contribution was also supplemented by AAET and AISTCs' own funds which were used to cover transportation and pre-testing activities conducted at the AISTCs. It is estimated that AAET contributed approximately US$22 000 towards the development and implementation of both the EETMs.
The development of EETM aims to provide training materials for the agricultural master trainers who in turn will train field extension workers on environmental problems and issues, particularly those related to sustainable agriculture and rural development. Thus, the primary target beneficiaries of the EETM are the master trainers of the AISTCs and the ultimate target beneficiaries the field extension workers. Due to the limited budget, only 69 master trainers (of 524 trainers) at the 32 AISTC's were trained on the utilization of the EETMs. These master trainers were expected to build a teaching team of three people and train them on the utilization of the EETMs.
To carry out the above, the senior author of this chapter (who was at the time the AAET's Director of Agricultural Extension Education) was assigned as the country activity coordinator (CAC) of the FAO-sponsored EETM activities assisted by a task manager (the second author of this chapter) who was responsible for the implementation of administrative and technical aspects. In carrying out the administrative work, the task manager was assisted by the Agricultural Extension and Education Bureau.
Both the EETM-1 and EETM-2 have been incorporated into the existing training curricula at the AISTCs for both extension training and agricultural technical training programmes. EETM-1 has also been introduced to other training programmes provided by other agricultural staff trained at AISTCs. For this purpose, EETM-I has been modified by AISTCs to meet the needs of different target audiences.
In late 1994 the Director-General of AAET sent a policy-directive asking AISTCs throughout the country endorsing the utilization of the EETM for the training of extension trainers and field extension workers. To date, 36 master trainers have been trained on EETM-1 and another 33 on EETM-2. At each AISTC, a teaching team which comprised of two or three trainers was assigned. It was reported that during the 1994-1996 period each of the AISTCs had conducted training courses for at least two batches of field extension workers annually. Each training course was attended by 30 field extension workers. The EETM had been partially or wholly integrated into the existing training curriculum, depending on needs and time availability. The target groups of the EETM included agricultural field extension workers, forestry field extension workers, transmigration field workers and district, subdistrict and village administration officers. As of December 1996, the total number of field extension workers trained on the EETM conducted at the AISTCs was approximately 4 500. In addition, about 500 field facilitators from various NGOs and over 1 000 other related field workers have been trained using local government budget. For this purpose, an additional 5 000 copies of the EETMs were reproduced by local governments.
The trained master trainers found that the EETM had been an invaluable resource which was very helpful in the preparation and delivery of training materials on the environment. Other trainers who were not involved in the development of the module were also able to utilize the EETMs as the modules contained self-explanatory training materials.
4.1 Participatory process and methods in developing EET module/curriculum
In developing the EET curriculum and modules, participatory processes and methods were applied. The EETM was developed following these procedural steps:
To ensure its applicability and quality, the EETM was prepared by knowledgeable and qualified persons with expertise in technical contents, training methodologies and curricular/training module development. Five professional staff/resource persons with the above mentioned competencies were appointed as module writers for the development of the EETM. Three of them were recruited from the AISTCs which were later assigned to conduct the Training of Master Trainers (TOMT). The other two persons were recruited from the office of the AAET. These module writers later served as the TOMT facilitators.
In addition to the module writers, a steering committee consisting of the Director of Agricultural Extension Education and the Director of Agricultural Personnel Training was set up to provide directions to the module writers and support the implementation of the training module.
Focus group interviews and participatory workshops were conducted to determine training needs, training objectives and content, evaluation procedures, and training methods for the module. These workshops were conducted using the participatory approach.
To assess the training needs of agricultural extension workers, an interview of a group of field extension workers (FEWs) and agricultural trainers was carried out. The topics covered in the interview were related to their tasks as trainers, advisers, and motivators in rural communities. Extension working programmes were used as a reference in interviewing FEWs. The information gathered from agricultural trainers was used as a cross-check. This training needs assessment activity was conducted by the module writers in Cianjur District. As a follow-up, a participatory workshop involving agricultural trainers, staff of the State Minister of Environment, University of Indonesia, Bogor Agricultural University, agricultural extension workers, and the module writers was also conducted.
The findings of the interview and the existing curriculum of extension training were reviewed. Agricultural trainers expressed their lack of knowledge on environment issues to train the agricultural extension workers who also raised environmental issues faced in the field. The rest of the participants shared their knowledge on how to solve the problems and issues raised. Based on the results of the workshops, the participants concluded that the primary users of the EETM would be the agricultural master trainers at the AISTCs who would in turn train the FEWs as the second level of target beneficiaries.
The modular format was selected the learning package, because it had proved to be effective in stimulating active learning. It was also considered effective for developing learning materials based on learners' needs. In addition, a module would be very practical in view of its flexibility for revision and updating the contents and methods to suit specific needs. A modular instruction would also be an effective adult educational method.
Based on the recommendations of the workshops, the module writers did literature study and reviewed materials relevant to the needs of the target group and formulated learning goals and objectives in consultation with the steering committee.
To determine the evaluation procedures, module contents, and training/learning methods, several workshops were organized, participated in by the module writers, agricultural master trainers, as well as agricultural extension workers. Based on the outcome of these workshops, the contents of the module were prepared and complemented with appropriate multi-media training support materials.
A review meeting to improve the structure and content of the module was conducted before it was ready to be tried out. The focus of this review meeting was to determine the relevancy and appropriateness of the module to support the teaching-learning process.
A second review meeting to validate and legitimize the module contents (see section e. below) was conducted after the tryout session. This meeting focused on related and important information sources required to support the instructional steps.
Both review meetings were conducted using the simulation method whereby the participants role-played as trainees and the module writers as facilitators/trainers. During the review meeting, a unit of EETM was selected and presented in the simulation and another unit was discussed among the participants. Based on recommendation the EETM was revised accordingly.
The revised module was pre-tested with the agricultural extension workers. This activity was facilitated by the module writers and assisted by agricultural trainers of Cihea-AISTC where the test was carried out. The tryout was conducted by following procedures described in the module.
The evaluation results of the try-out was used to revise and improve the training module. In the case of EETM-1, the revised module was distributed to selected training centres for try-out with the intended target group of the module, i.e. the agricultural extension workers. The try-out was conducted as a part of the existing training curriculum in which some parts of the module related to the trainees' needs were presented. However, in some training centres the try-out of the EETM was conducted as a separate training course in which the whole module was presented. The try-out activity conducted by the training centres was funded through the centres' own budgets. Further improvements of the module were made based on the evaluation results of the try-out.
A workshop was conducted to validate the technical contents of the module. This was participated in by the module writers, heads of the AISTCs, agricultural master trainers, teachers of agricultural high schools for development (AHSDs), subject matter specialists, extension workers and officials from related institutions including NGOs. As an illustration of content validation, one learning activity covered in the module was presented and by using a simulation method whereby participants were asked to respond as if they were extension workers. The suggestions and recommendations elaborated by the participants were used as inputs to revise the EETM.
The procedural steps/activities of the EETM development process are illustrated in Figure 1.
The development process of the module was discussed among the environment education network members in four FAO-sponsored regional EET workshops: Kuala Lumpur (1994), Bali (1995), Beijing (1996) and Toronto (1997). These workshops/meetings recommended specific standard procedural steps and activities that should be followed as a generic module development process. The structure and contents, however, may be modified and adapted to suit the local situations of the network member countries.
Since the inception of the EETM development project in 1993 in collaboration with FAO, the AAET developed two training modules, EETM-1 (the basic level) and EETM-2 (the advanced level). EETM-1 focuses on developing awareness of the extension workers and agricultural trainers on natural resources and environment at conservation whereas EETM-2 aims to develop the capabilities of the FEWs and agricultural trainers on the principles, problems and alternative solutions of environment management and practices towards achieving sustainable agriculture.
EETM-1 was presented in the form of loose pages collated in a binder of 210 x 297 mm or A4 size to allow flexibility for alteration or modification of learning content, methods and media. It was designed to be practical, handy and attractive and to serve either as self-learning and/or instructor-assisted material. Therefore, the module was divided into two parts: Trainer's guide and Trainee's work sheet. The Trainer's guide consists of a delivery guide, pre- and post tests covering problems and answers and training aids. The Trainee's work sheet consists of an introductory note, pre- and post-test questionnaire, job assignment sheets, self-evaluation sheets and information sheets.
EETM-2 was produced in the form of two separate booklets, the Trainer's guide and Trainee's work sheet which are similar to that of EETM-1.
The contents of EETM-1 cover the basic components of the environment; problems on agriculture related to environment and how to develop and evaluate a plan on environment conservation. The contents of EETM-2 were formulated as enrichment materials which were covered in EETM-1. The module focused on the basic concepts of environment and sustainable agriculture, problem assessment on farming system and farming systems design to conserve the environment.
To understand the contents of the modules more effectively, a learning procedure was established and summarized in Figure 2.
The learning objectives, module structure, and lesson hours of EETM-1 and EETM-2 are summaized in the following table :
Table 1: Summary of learning objectives of EETM-1 and EETM-2
4.3 Training implementation
The implementation of training using the EETM was conducted in three phases as follows:
A tryout training was conducted at a rural extension centre, Cianjur, for a batch of 15 FEWs. This tryout was facilitated by the module writers. Each module writer, assisted by an assistant trainer from the Cihea AISTC, was assigned to teach one skill element of the EETM. In this training, all learning activities were conducted following the procedure described in the module. During the presentation, other module writers observed the instructor teaching the module and took notes on delivery, learning process, duration, appropriateness of learning methods and relevance of information needed to be improved or revised. Meanwhile they made notes on the delivery steps.
On completion of training, each participant was requested to comment and evaluate the module regarding the relevance of the materials to their needs. Their recommendations were used as inputs to improve the module.
In the case of EETM-1, the revised module was tested again in 14 AISTCs to get more inputs from different target audiences. In the training implementation of the EETM, some AISTCs presented all the units in the module while others selected only one unit. Training was conducted either as a supplementary programme to the existing training curricula or separate training. Some recommendations were incorporated to improve the module. A total of 180 extension trainers and field workers participated in the pilot/tryout utilization of the EETM-1 and 30 for the EETM-2.
TOMT was conducted for one group of participants at national level. This was facilitated by the module writers as the principal trainers and assisted by four previously trained master trainers. A total of 36 master trainers for EETM-1 and 33 for EETM-2 from the 32 AISTCs were trained as of May 1997.
The TOMT used the micro-teaching method whereby the participants served as training managers and instructors. The participants were divided into small groups of five or six and each group was assigned to study an overview of the training module so that they could make the training plan. Using the module, each group was assigned a training activity for 10-15 extension workers. The training was carried out at a rural extension centre (REC). During the training, the TOMT participants were able to learn the weaknesses and strengths of the module.
The training of extension workers was conducted at AISTCs as an integrated activity to the existing extension training programme or as a separate training course. Time and budget constraints were the reasons for making decisions on the type of training strategy to be adopted.
In addition to basic extension training, the EETM was also incorporated in other agricultural training activities available at AISTCs, such as horticulture, farm management, livestock, fishery and agricultural processing. Some AISTCs, however, also incorporated the EETM-1 into non-agriculture related training such as administration training for agricultural personnel.
Some illustrations covered in the EETM-1 were modified and adapted to meet the needs of various training participants. For example, for cadres of family welfare movements who are women, the illustrations were changed to household-related activities.
As of December 1996, the total number of field extension workers trained on the EETM conducted at the AISTCs was approximately 4 500. In addition, about 500 field instructors from various NGOs and over 1 000 other related field workers have also been trained using local government budgets.
Using the same procedures, EETM-2 had been used to train about 300 FEWs since the TOMT was conducted in October 1995 up to April 1996.
In order to effectively institutionalize the EETM in various training programmes in Indonesia, the following activities were carried out:
Upon completing the TOMT on the use of EETM, the trained master trainers were requested to establish a teaching team on environment education at their respective work sites. The task of the teaching team was to implement and modify, if necessary, the existing module to fit the needs of their particular target groups. They were also requested to develop other environment training modules as needed by the FEWs and other related agricultural personnel. The teaching team was also asked to submit semi-annual reports regarding the implementation progress and results of the EETM at their respective institutions to the AAET.
To expand the use of the EETM in addition to the AISTCs, the module was distributed to AHSDs, colleges for agricultural extension (CAEs) and other related institutions including NGOs at national as well as provincial levels. For this purpose, the AAET requested financial support from FAO to reproduce the EETM. In addition, another 10 000 copies were reproduced in 1995 by the AAET using its own budget to meet the increasing demand for the module.
To ensure a wider utilization of the EETM, a memorandum from the director-general of AAET was released instructing all the heads of AISTCs to use and integrate EETM into the curriculum of the existing agricultural extension training and other related agricultural training programmes.
The number of extension workers in Indonesia is extremely large (38 000) compared to the training capacity of the AISTCs. Therefore, the training of extension workers is also carried out at district level, i.e. at the district agricultural information and extension centres (DAIECs) which were established in 1996. Extension personnel are administered from these centres. In conducting the training, the DAIECs are technically supported by the AISTCs, particularly in the provision of qualified trainers and training curriculum development.
Other environment-related training modules will be developed by the AAET focusing on more specific and practical materials. Priorities will be set according to the needs of the intended beneficiaries. The plan is described in Figure 3.
It is also planned that specific EETM for other intended target beneficiaries such as agricultural teachers and farmers will be developed. This is described in Figure 4.
7.1 The development and production of FAO-assisted EETM has inspired the MOA to undertake follow-up actions. Since 1994 the AAET of the MOA has allocated a budget to reproduce the EETM and to train FEWs. Within 3 years, approximately 6000 FEWs and related officials were trained using EETM, and more than 15000 copies of the EETM were produced using national government, local government and private organization budgets. In addition, AAET is planning to develop more specific, advanced training modules on environment-related issues. Training modules on organic farming and on IPM vegetables are currently being developed.
7.2 The establishment of a teaching team (three to five persons) on environment training at each AISTC is a follow-up action of alumni of the TOT activities. The team is led by master trainers who have been trained through FAO-assisted or AAET training projects, and assisted by other local trainers who have been trained by the TOT alumni.
7.3 The EETM becomes a model for the development of other environment-related training modules by the AAET, as well as by the members of the FAO-supported network on EET network.
7.4 The initiative to develop generic modular EETM for training of agricultural extension workers is very useful in promoting sustainable agricultural and rural development.
7.5 The problems often faced by agricultural trainers are the lack of ready-to-use training materials. The availability of EETM has helped solve the problem. As a training package, the EETM provides handy training materials and gives the flexibility for master trainers to develop and modify the content and the format of the module based on the specific needs of the learners.
7.6 Preparing modular training materials needs cooperation with various related institutions. This cooperation is necessary not only for content validation but more importantly for gaining support from the respective institutions in the training implementation and utilization of the module.
7.7 The successful implementation of the EETM has made it easy for the AAET to propose and obtain the necessary budget to develop other related training modules.
7.8 Developing a well packaged, user-friendly and learner-oriented training module needs a special module-writing expertise. AAET often faces difficulties in developing training modules due to limited staff having such expertise. Therefore, the concerned institutions/agencies need to prepare their staff to have a competency in training module writing.
7.9 In institutionalizing the EETM, the selection of strategic institutions is a crucial factor to guarantee that the EETM be utilized and adopted by the concerned institutions. In the case of Indonesia, the assignment of AAET as the executing agency to develop the EETM is strategic since AAET has a direct command line to the concerned institutions, i.e. AISTCs, AHSDs, and colleges of agricultural extension (CAEs).
7.10 To institutionalize the use of EETM needs high-level policy and explicit endorsement by higher authorities of the concerned institution. A policy-directive letter from the Director-General of AAET requesting the Heads of AISTCs to use the EETM and conduct a regular evaluation on its implementation has had an effective impact in the institutionalization of the EETM.