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Chapter 6

Multi-agency collaborations in developing EET programmes and materials in the Philippines

Dr Alfredo B. de Torres
Institute of Environment Science and Management
and College of Economics and Management
University of the Philippines at
Los Banos Philippines


The Philippines is one of the largest island groups in the world. Its 7 107 islands are spread over 300 000 square kilometres, in a scattered and discontinuous triangular pattern. It has 14 geographical administrative groupings or regions with 76 provinces, 64 cities, 1 532 municipalities and 41 153 barangays or villages. Its topography is varied with inactive and active volcanoes and mountains. It has been called one of the most disaster-stricken countries in the world since typhoons, floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have increasingly occurred in the islands.

The country is primarily agricultural; agriculture plays a pivotal role in its socio-economic development programmes. Agriculture serves as a main source of livelihood for a country with a 64 million population that has grown at an average rate of 2.5 percent. Its climate, topography and soil all favour extensive agricultural production throughout the year. An estimate of the country's total land area reveals that 41 percent is dedicated to agriculture. Of the total agricultural lands, 68 percent are food crop lands while 32 percent are commercial crop lands. The ongoing programmes of high input intensified agricultural production tend to produce on-site and off-site environmental degradation. Hence, as a new goal and challenge for the 1990s, agricultural efforts were formulated and implemented in the form of sustainable agriculture production. One of the strategies being employed is the development and adaptation of environmentally responsive management approach to resource use. This was in response to the rapid degradation of the country's land, water, coastal and marine resources that imperilled the long term viability and sustainability of primary agricultural production.

1.1 Environment and agricultural development challenges

The following elements of the national action agenda are presently being pursued: (1) formulation of viable resources use policy in order to preserve prime lands, water, coastal and main ecosystems for agricultural and agro-based industrial purposes; (2) acceleration of locally adaptable resource-conserving and pollution control technologies; (3) implementation of an active community-based resources management system through the devolution of the management of resource users; (4) development of upland farm areas using appropriate farming systems and erosion control devices; (5) implementation of measures to prevent the indiscriminate use of inorganic fertilizer and pesticides and other petroleum-based agricultural chemicals which cause pollution of water systems.

The cumulative interactions of modern agricultural practices on the environment have been felt through depletion and degradation of natural resources, pollution, deforestation, desertification, loss of biological diversity, silting of rivers, increase of solid waste and sewage emissions of toxic

chemicals, pesticide poisoning, euthropication and other effects that threaten humankind. These interactions stressed the need for a change in its future directions and for agricultural extension to make an impact on problems of wide public concern. EET should significantly prevail and transform public behaviours so that one should protect and conserve natural resources and become more environmentally friendly towards sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD). This SARD approach can be achieved only through strong extension networking relationships that facilitate education, training and information exchange on environmental issues. Training modules on environmental issues, problems and solutions should be developed for SARD extension agents in order for them to generate public opinions, responsibilities and concrete follow-up actions. The complexities of the SARD approach require initiatives and commitment to continuing development efforts not only by a mandated lead agency but also through multi-agency collaborative development efforts to reach larger target groups.

1.2 The institutional framework and training mandate

The Institute of Environmental Science and Management (IESAM) is one of the most active environmentally-oriented agencies in the country. With the given mandate on environment education research and extension training programmes, the IESAM of the University of the Philippines at Los Banos (UPLB) has appropriately been selected to serve as the lead agency to implement and coordinate the FAO-supported EET programme. The IESAM, established in 1987 at UPLB was born out of two programmes: Programme on Environmental Science and Management (PESAM) and the Master of Science in Environmental Studies (instituted in 1984). The PESAM was organized in 1977 with the main objective of influencing and helping build resource management systems that are productive, ecologically stable and socially acceptable. Furthermore, the IESAM could be described as an institutional response of UPLB to the need to develop human resources and expertise in promoting a systematic and holistic approach to complex environmental problems and issues. The major thrust of IESAM is to define, develop and test scientific methodologies and techniques for analysis, and for systems and procedures that are appropriate to environmental planning and management. Presently, the IESAM offers a Diploma on Environmental Management, Master of Science in Environmental Science and Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Science. The IESAM pursues its research, extension and academic programmes under four divisions: (1) environmental education; (2) upland agro-ecosystems; (3) aquatic resources; and (4) environmental planning and information systems.


2.1 The need for the EET programme

The need for EET in the Philippines is more urgent now than before in view of the alarming rate of environmental degradation and natural resources depletion. The extent of environmental problems is depicted by forests that diminish at a faster rate than the increasing number of people. During the last 50 years, the country lost 94 percent of its total virgin forest, from an estimated 12 million hectares to only around 700 000 hectares today; the virgin mangrove swamps have been destroyed by 70 percent over the last three decades; the endemic Philippine flora is about 60 percent extinct; 18 species of Philippine fauna are on the list of endangered species (DENR, PSSD, 1990). Greatly alarmed by the above, the Philippine Government adopted the Philippine strategy for sustainable development (PSSD) in 1989 as a framework for dealing with environment and development issues. In the same year, the Environmental Management Bureau with financial support from UNDP organized a multi-sectoral workshop to draw up a "National strategy on environmental education". The document identified key strategies and programmes for the formal and non-formal EET.

The Environmental education network of the Philippines, Inc. (EENP) was initiated and organized by IESAM-UPLB in 1986 in order "to promote environmental education and awareness in the Philippines". EENP is now an active association of 37 academic and research institutions and a federation of NGOs in the Philippines concerned with formal and non-formal education programmes in environment.

It is in this light that the role of SARD extension personnel in EET programming has become more relevant. The need to produce and disseminate this environmental information, education, and communication (IEC) material this EETM such as among others, to the rural/farming communities and to the general public has become more relevant, urgent and necessary. It is expected that extension personnel of the various agencies' efforts and action plans will rally the general public, in particular the rural farming communities, the necessary awareness for environmental education and sustainable agriculture and rural development.

2.2 The coming of FAO's initiatives

The introduction of the EETM development project in the Philippines was most welcome and timely in several respects, in particular for the needed involvement of extension personnel from various agencies. It started with the author's participation as a paper presenter and resource person at the six-day, first regional workshop on environment education through agricultural extension, held from 20 to 25 June 1994 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and organized by the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (UPM) and FAO. At this workshop, participants learned and discussed an Indonesian prototype EETM and explored possible in-country adaptations, testing/validation and other requirements. An activity proposal was prepared in consultation with IESAM-UPLB consortium for the development, testing and production of EETM for use in training agricultural extension workers in the Philippines and other countries in Asia.

Initially, the following institutions/agencies with selected experienced professionals were involved: IESAM, College of Economics and Management (CEM), Development Foundation Inc. (UPLB-DFI), the Agriculture Training Institute (ATI), Regional Centre for Training of Extension Trainers (RCTET of UPLB/ITREP), Southeast Asian Regional Centre for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA) and the Research Management Centre (RMC). The intended primary and secondary beneficiaries were the extension personnel of these collaborating agencies, the NGOs, their clientele-systems and ultimately the rural people in the farming communities. Finally, of the seven institutions/agencies invited to collaborate, six attended the orientation meeting. They were all heads of their agencies whom the author had contacted earlier. They signified their interest and commitment to participate in the EETM's development efforts. Of the six representatives, five members along with their assistants participated as the core group of module writers/developers. Consequently, it was agreed to have monthly meetings and those who were not able to attend some of the meetings were personally visited by the author, who was also the CAC, at their respective offices to discuss the EETM's development activities. The members of the core group of module writers/developers, designations in their respective collaborating agencies, and assigned unit topics are indicated in Table 1.

Table 1:
Core group of module writers/developers


The EET programme has significantly established multi-agency as well as official and personal supportive networks at different levels: international, regional, national and local. A network here means the communication and cooperation of individual officials who share and translate into concrete actions a personal and/or institutional dedication to environmental issues. Each CAC of the project and concerned officials of the networks have shared their documented experiences under the FAO-supported EET programme. Each level of the networks conducted various forms of workshops, conferences, meetings and other informal gatherings with follow-up rippling plans of action. The involvement of concerned individuals/officials in the EETP process has gradually become intensive and extensive. This has resulted in a very high level of IEC awareness and effective organizational as well as leadership development. Although the EET programme "seed funding" from FAO has been relatively small in size, it has been matched with local counterpart funds and resources, committed and involved staff and exceptional support from participating agencies and/or networks.

The documented reports of the multi-agency that followed the EET programme included basic and modified location specific modules. These modules and other environment-related materials (videos, photo slides, case studies, poems, songs, etc.) have also been developed, reproduced and utilized by concerned individuals, professionals and other interested agencies. It may also be noted that the adaptability and replication of the training module development process as well as the methodologies that produced basic principles and guidelines can readily be applied using this EETM as a model for other subject matter areas other than environment.


4.1 Participatory process and methods in developing environment training curriculum

4.1.1 Composition of the core team

The core team of the project was composed of three levels: the group multi-disciplinary-based of core group of module writers/developers (see Table 1); the core panel of resource persons, experts and/or reviewers and the core support/administrative staff (see Table 2). The initial group of module writers was selected and personally approached by the CAC on the basis of their professional expertise and positional status in their respective units/agencies. They are well reputed professionals with experience in module writing/developing as well as in administering training programmes. For instance, the Director of RMC had developed and utilized both locally and internationally the series of "Modules learning package on research management", jointly implemented with the SEARCA. The Associate Dean of the College of Agriculture and concurrent Director of RCTET produced and utilized the series of "Modules on Extension"; the Director of IESAM, his assistant and the university extension specialist were intensively involved in the environmental resource management programmes (ERMP) sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). The director and his assistant from the ATI-DA produced the module on "Agribusiness management" and the CAC was also the former Senior Programme Officer of the Centre for Integrated Rural Development for Asia and Pacific (CIRDAP) produced and utilized the module on "Integrating environmental concerns into integrated rural development programmes".

In conclusion, it may be said that all the members of the core group have been intensively and/or extensively exposed in various ways of conducting and administering education and training programmes and in training module writing and development.

Table 2:
Core panel of resource experts/reviewers and support staff

4.1.2 The development and initial utilization process

The EETM development process by the UPLB (Philippines) EETM Consortium followed the following carefully coordinated development steps:

1. Statement of objectives and clientele-system

The EETM was designed for use as a basic course in environmental education for extension workers, in particular for agricultural extension trainers in government agencies. This objective was to develop the creative awareness and productive capability of government extension workers in disseminating and communicating to the farm leaders and rural farm communities important information and practical action-oriented practices in environmental protection and consideration to facilitate SARD.

2. Selection of strategic institutions, collaborating agencies and core group of EETM personnel

The UPLB-EETM Consortium could be considered as a university-initiated activity. With the environment as its subject, the IESAM was an appropriate designated lead coordinating and implementing agency. Through informal consensus, and after the Kuala Lumpur Regional Workshop, the author took up the leadership and designated the IESAM director as co-coordinator. The most important and relevant extension units of UPLB and experienced personnel have been successfully encouraged to participate by the CAC. The involvement of the ATI-DOA was strategic since the ATI-DOA system has a network of more than 40 agriculture extension training centres in the country. Later, other extension agencies like the DAR and the Cooperative Development Authority (CDA) have also been strategically involved as partner collaborating agencies.

3. Identification/selection of core panel of resource experts and module reviewers

The core group of module writers agreed to have a core group of selected reviewers to further improve the structure and substantive contents of EETM. On the basis of the suggestions from the writers, the experts have been approached verbally and through letters of confirmation from the CAC.

4. Orientation meeting

The first meeting of the core group was in the form of an orientation meeting presided by the CAC. The important items discussed and agreed upon were: FAO's EETM development initiatives, the KL workshop outputs, the Indonesian EETM prototype, the activity proposals as well as the project leadership and personnel involvement, the scheduled regular monthly meetings and assignment of EETM topics write-ups on the basis of the TNA.

5. TNA

Among the core group members, the TNA was assigned to one staff member of IESAM who had conducted such a study. The topical areas of concern for EETM have been facilitated by TNA. Accordingly, the topics have been modified on the basis of the expertise and consensus of the core group. A relevant passage of the TNA is indicated below (Tiwari, 1994 and Librero, 1995):

"Agriculture development efforts should not only focus at increased production but also on saving, protecting and preserving the environment and natural resources to realize better farming and sustainable development. The goal of environmental education is to help people become aware of and concern about the environment and its associated problems. Extension workers need to be trained along environmental concerns (protection and management) since 78 percent of the farmers have identified the extension workers as their main source of information. Majority have ranked the need to reorient the extension workers regarding environmental education and training."

6. Module development planning and implementation

The topics or respective EETM units were categorically assigned to each writer to be accomplished within a three-month period. The Indonesian EETM prototype module and experience in module writing served as basic guidelines to come out with the first draft of the EETM. The monthly meeting discussed developments, topical and sub-topical outline, module structure and suggested literature available at IESAM including the environment information kit of the IIRR.

The review panel has been consulted on the basis of what has been accomplished to date. Thus, the informal meetings and follow-up visits to the writers' offices facilitated the completion of the first draft. The suggestions and/or reactions in a constructive atmosphere from the core group of writers and experts greatly improved the substantive structure and content of the drafts/write-ups. The coordinators further reviewed and consolidated the first draft of EETM: one package for the writers' file and information and another one in loose sheets by unit which was prepared and made ready for reproduction for the TOT.

7. TOT

In August 1995, the first EETM tryout/validation seminar was co-sponsored by FAO and CIDA (ERMP) and held at IESAM with 21 participants coming from five collaborating institutions: the DOA, ATI; the DAR; UPLB College of Agriculture; member institutions of EENP and DENR. The three-day discussions and participants' feedback improved the contextual presentation of each unit which has been modified and revised. This revised version has been consolidated and repackaged for another experts' review and consequently made ready for the Bali (Indonesia) workshop.

8. Regional sharing of results and experiences

The Bali (Indonesia) regional workshop in October 1995 gave each participating country the opportunity to share the EETM development process and a forward arrangement for the proposed initial utilization (training of masters trainers) of the improved module prepared. The feedback obtained from this workshop was shared with the writers and further improved the final draft of EETM. Ten copies of the revised version were subsequently submitted to SDRE, FAO, Rome.

9. Utilization of EETM: training of principal/master trainers

FAO subsequently funded the utilization of EETM for master trainers in April 1996. Twenty participants from four extension agencies attended the three-day training of master trainers. The purpose of this training was for the participants to finally utilize the EETM by conducting a "stand- alone training programme" using the whole package of EETM or integrating the parts of EETM into their basic extension training curricula courses programme. This strategy has been reflected in their action plans for training respective field trainers.

10. Training of field trainers

The participants who had been trained as principal/master trainers were expected to conduct the second level training or to re-echo the utilization of the EETM among the regional/provincial field level officers. This was done by the four collaborating agencies during the month of May-June 1996 with a total of 742 field trainers trained for the purpose. Other agencies have also conducted third level training in their areas of assignment by incorporating parts of EETM into their existing training programme. This was executed on the basis of their action plans which they developed at the end of their training programmes.

11. Inter-agency consultative forum

As a built-in exercise to obtain feedback from the activities of the master trainers, a one-day consultative forum was convened among the participating/collaborating agencies (ATI-DOA, IESAM and DAR) on 7 June 1996 at UPLB. The representative master trainers from collaborating agencies submitted their respective reports which included their experiences and problems in conducting the EETM at field level. The sustainability and institutionalization of EETM were discussed through enunciated policy guidelines and administrative ordinances including reproduction and dissemination of EETM. At the conclusion of this forum, these agencies agreed to further reproduce the EETM. The FAO Representative in the Philippines was the keynote speaker.

4.2 The training module

The EETM developed and reproduced by the UPLB consortium is composed of an introductory section and five technical learning units covering 20 sub-units or lessons/activities.

The EETM was designed for 18-24 hours or three days with action planning at the end of the course and/or field practicals or visits for environmental case study. The rationale and contents of the EETM and the structure are shown in Tables 3 and 4:

Table 3:
The Rationale and Contents of the EETM


Table 4: The EETM contents


Training Needs in Environmental Education for Extension Workers in the Philippines

Unit I:

Agriculture in relation to environment

Lesson 1.

Development and environment

Lesson 2.

Agriculture and environment

Lesson 3.

Forestry and environment

Lesson 4.

Pesticide and environment

Lesson 5.

Population and environment

Unit II: Helping farmers in their environment for sustainable farming

Lesson 1.

Productivity, equability and sustainability

Lesson 2.

Fertilizer use for sustainable farming

Lesson 3.

Integrated pest management for sustainable farming

Lesson 4.   

Waste management proper use and handling of agriculture chemical for sustainable farming

Lesson 5.

Land and water management for sustainable farming

Unit III: Environmental education messages and lesson lesigns

Lesson 1.

Basic ecological concepts

Lesson 2.

Basic environmental principles

Lesson 3.

Designing effective environmental messages

Unit IV: Issues and cases of environmental pollution and degradation

Lesson 1.

Each ecosystem is connected to other ecosystems through flows of energy and materials


a) The case of lower Agno river watershed

Lesson 2.

Pollution, a type of environmental degradation, has negative effects on agricultural productivity


a) The Antamok open-pit mining in Benguet province


b) The pollution of Parongking river, Pangasinan

Lesson 3.

Mitigating measures are available to prevent degradation of the environment

Unit V: Reorienting the role of extension workers

Lesson 1.

A review of extension

Lesson 2.

Implications for the practice of extension

Lesson 3.

Verbalizing reorientation needed

Lesson 4.

Determining training needs related to reorientation


The EETM is entitled "Training module on environmental education for extension workers" and the cover page has a round picture at the centre showing the agricultural extension workers conducting a rapid rural appraisal (RRA). Below this are logos of FAO and UPLB symbolically showing that the module was a joint programme of FAO and IESAM-CEM-UPLB in collaboration with the ATI-DA, DAR and the CDA. The description of the IESAM-UPLB and FAO in relation to environmental education and SARD is indicated in the following page. A one-page foreword is given by the UPLB Head Chancellor Ruben L. Villareal and a preface page by the CAC. These pages are followed by the table of contents.

The "Trainer guides and materials" were also provided in the form of charts and matrix showing the rationale, units and modular unit's contents. A two-page "Orientation to the training module" was also provided indicating the: (a) purpose; (b) introduction of the course participants and trainers/secretariat; (c) orientation to the training course including: (i) purpose of the training; (ii) course materials; (iii) logistics; (iv) the module structure; (d) field visits; (e) preparations for individual plans of follow-up actions.

The last two pages of these guides and materials contain: (1) the role of institutor-trainees (to facilitate the process of learning); (2) a checklist for instructors; (3) learning objectives of the module.

Finally, the introductory chart provides an outline of the module and is summarized as follows:

Unit 0:

Introduction: training needs in environmental education for extension workers in the Philippines (1.5: 2 hours)

Unit 1:

Agriculture in relation to environment (5 lessons for 3.5 hours)

Unit 2:

Helping farmers in their environment for sustainable farming (5 lessons for 3.5 hours)

Unit 3:

Environmental educational messages and lesson designs (3 lessons for 3 - 4 hours)

Unit 4:

Issues and cases on environmental pollution degradation (3 lessons for 3.5 hours)

Unit 5:

Reorienting the role of the extension workers (4 lessons for 3.5 hours).

The whole module can be covered in 18.5 to 20 hours with optional action planning or field visits. A summary of the module contents is presented in Table 4: The EETM contents.

4.3 Training implementation

The EET activities started with an orientation training-cum-meeting involving institutions/agencies and 13 member professionals. This was followed by TNA and writing workshop involving 34 participants. The TRM, the CVS and the TOT involving 21 participants were also conducted. During the TOT session, handouts/learning support materials (in loose units including posters, slides, videos, info kits and audio cassettes) were distributed to the participants.

On the utilization aspects of the EETM, the module was used to initially train a total of 742 participants from the four collaborating agencies. Based on the action plan, these 742 participants would eventually train 6 000-7 000 people at field level.


The developed EETM had a built-in action plan which specified what actions the trainers or participants will carry out after the training. As indicated earlier, participating collaborating agencies who have sent their representatives as master trainers have undertaken a follow-up field re-echoing for their field workers using the EETM or the modified EETM. The following notes were extracts from their reports.

5.1 The DAR central office (DARCO)

5.1.1 DARCO EETM utilization: The DAR experience

The DAR institutionalized the integration of population and development (POPDEV) concerns in the agrarian reform community (ARC) development programme. The department conducted five batches of POPDEV field trainers' training covering a total of 127 trainers from 15 regions, 65 provinces and DAR central office. One of the training modules developed is on environment, specifically on SARD. The fourth day of the POPDEV field trainers' training focused on an environment training module, entitled "Caring for mother earth". During the training session, selected units of the EETM were distributed as hand-outs and supplementary reading to the participants.

5.1.2 Institutionalization of EETM and other environmental-related concerns in the ARC development programme

The department's policy thrust of developing viable ARCs takes into account ecosystems development as a key result area (KRA). This provides a conducive environment for the institutionalization of environmental concerns including the EET programme in the training and extension system of DAR. The institutionalization process is likewise reinforced by the pledge of commitment signed by the DAR's secretary in support of the Philippine Population Management Programme (PPMP) wherein environmental concerns is a key component. The following activities were further reported to facilitate the institutionalization process:

  1. Training, extension and advocacy-conduct of training on re-utilization of EETM at the national, regional and provincial levels to create a multi-level, locally-based pool of trainers and advocates; provision of EETM training at the agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARB) level; provision of EETM orientation to agrarian people's organizations (PO's) education committee to encourage EETM integration in their training and extension activities; development of appropriate environment IEC materials to complement training and extension activities, linking with relevant government organizations, NGOs and academics to access and share relevant environment materials; inclusion of environmental concerns in the information dissemination component, particularly in the print and broadcast media; and regular involvement in environmental-related special events (e.g. World Food Day, Earth Day, World Environment Day, etc.) and planning of community activities to coincide with those special events.
  2. Planning integration on environmental concerns in the planning and budgeting process, including annual and physical targets to ensure funding requirements.
  3. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) - integration of EETM activities in the overall ARC M&E system, specifically in the periodic ARC review and planning session (RPS) at the national, regional and provincial levels and the process documentation mechanism for ARCs.

5.1.3 DAR's EETM utilization (regional office: southern Tagalog region)

The report on the second level trainers' training on EETM DAR Region IV showed the following:

  1. participants: there were 21 ARC coordinators of six provinces excluding the master trainers and guests;
  2. strategies:

5.2 ATI/DA

The brief report of ATT's master trainers indicated that they have presented their action plans to their authorities and to the technical staff/management committee (MANCOM). However, at that time, they were not able to generate comments in view of the massive information campaign "Gintong Ani (Grains Productivity Enhancement) Programme" of the department. However, they promised to help print the EETM and distribute them to concerned agencies, in particular to their training centers. They will also help incorporate EETM in their regular training programmes.

5.3 CDA

The CDA noted that all the cooperative development specialists and other personnel have been trained using EETM. The report noted that "it is the moral obligation of CDA as an extension arm and development agency of the government to be firm in its resolve of educating the people not only in terms of cooperative promotion and development, but also on environmental consciousness". Hence, there is an imperative need for the CDA field personnel to incorporate the EETM in all their extension and training activities.


This agency noted that fund constraints was one of the factors that inhibited the expansion of the training programme concerning the subject of ecology and environmental concerns in development. It was also noted that there was lack of programme thrust on education, extension and training to effect wider dissemination of EETM and related EIC materials on ecology and/or environmental concerns in development.


The scaling-up and/or roll-out of the EET programme could take two forms, namely as a stand-alone programme or as an incorporated programme into existing budgeted training programmes of key partner/collaborating agencies. While the latter form has been the most popular approach, its impact appeared to be limited because the different key partner agencies have their own priority training programmes and only a very limited time could be apportioned for the EETM. Therefore, the "stand-alone programme" has been the preferred approach and agreed upon by the key partner/collaborating agencies.

With the concurrence of FAO, an inter-agency meeting initially proposed and agreed to have the DAR as the lead implementing agency concerning the technical cooperation programme (TCP) on the EET programme. The TCP is to be prepared with the back-up of the FAO Manila (Philippines) office and the UPLB, in particular the IESAM. It may be noted that here in 1991, the DAR embarked on a project entitled "Integrating population education into the extension system of DAR" (PHI/90/P29) through the Bureau of Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Development (BARBD). This four- year project was a joint undertaking between DAR, the implementing agency and FAO, the executing agency. The project has a total budget of US $422 397 of which UNFPA contributed 63 percent and the Philippine government approximately 37 percent.

The TCP is expected to be prepared with the participation of key partner agencies like the DOA (ATI), the CDA; the UPBL and other concerned and/or interested agencies including NGOs. Selected ARCs and 15 regional training centers will be identified for purposes of the programme area coverage.


Below is an account of what worked well and lessons learned.

7.1 What worked well?

  1. At the very start, the significance and urgency of the subject (environment), the approach (training module development and utilization), and the focused clientele system (agriculture extension workers) were identified.
  2. The EETM's plan of action did not start from scratch because the Indonesian module and other relevant EETM-related materials served as prototypes or models from which participating countries could base and adapt their own respective material development.
  3. The selection and/or appointment of the core group module writers/developers and supportive extension institutions/agencies who have been actively involved in the development, reproduction and utilization of EETM.
  4. The presence of committed, competent and experienced persons who lead and sustain the module development, reproduction, utilization and institutionalization of the EET programme.
  5. The continuing availability of the core group's time for discussion and consultation, technical review pre-test and validation seminars has been very critical for the completion of the EET programme.
  6. The inter-agency institutional support and the feedback reports of their "re-echoing" activities ensured their active participation and linkage/network a sense of belonging to the EET programme.
  7. The inter-country regional sharing of experience workshops/consultations was very useful for legitimization, development, endorsement and sustainability of the EET programme.

7.2 Lessons learned

  1. Relevant multi-disciplinary experts could be organized into useful core groups that could generate modules and/or education/training materials for participatory action training.
  2. The EETM development project positively contributed to the guidelines and lessons for cost-effective participatory training.
  3. The EETM's core group of module writers/developers gained useful experience in implementing this model project.
  4. The provisions of the initial small "seed grant" is a viable approach in developing this type of development project. This initial catalytic support from FAO has been matched with local counterpart funds and support.
  5. The EETM and environment-related materials have been adapted to specific conditions by the master trainers.
  6. The EETM's development efforts have been closely aligned with the national programmes for both sustainable agriculture and rural development and for poverty-alleviation programmes.
  7. Involvement in the EET programme has been gradually extensive among key partner agencies/institutions contributing to effective EETM's IEC awareness, development and utilization. In fact, a good mix of committed leaders and supportive key partner agencies was necessary to ensure follow-through and sustainability of EET efforts.
  8. The EETM's development process has been soundly grounded in widely accepted participatory action training. Individual action plans ensured that participants could sustain the EETM's activities in their own respective areas of assignment.
  9. The EET programme management has a built-in design for leadership commitment. The participatory action training-cum-planning strategy has a very positive impact on the participants' motivation and feeling of importance that they have positively contributed to the EET programme.
  10. The EET programme scheme positively contributes to the guidelines, principles and lessons for effective participatory action training through the modular approach.

7.3 Final remarks

1. The agricultural extension and related agencies including NGOs are numerous and invariably concerned with environmental issues. The number of extension or field workers is also huge compared to the capacity of the government training centres, in particular with the agencies that collaborated with the EET programme. These complexities and difficulties have rationalized the successful pilot approach of the EET programme in the Southern Tagalog (Region IV) Region in the Philippines with selected partner extension agencies. From this successful experience, it was expected that each partner agency by virtue of their action planning during the culmination of EETM would continue to conduct the training with the support of their local funds and using the developed and reproduced generic training module as modified to suit local needs. A TCP was thought of to expand the coverage of EETP in other areas/regions of the country. It is expected that apart from this expansion, more EETMs will be developed, i.e. from basic to more advanced modules addressing different clientele-systems and integrated with the training mandates of respective partner agencies.

2. What appeared to be small and local became global. The initial problems and constraints were not insurmountable provided the community of minds, spirits and efforts could band together to achieve the desired common goal. Hence, the success of EETM's major activities, outcomes and lessons imply that the modular approach to participatory training could generally be an effective tool for an extension education, training, information and dissemination campaigns. The modular approach indeed could be adaptable to other subject areas as a tool for education and training purposes. This has been successfully proved by the EETM.

Appendix 1

The activities undertaken by the UPLB consortium in the development and utilization of EETM may be summarized in the following three phases: consensus building, capacity building and consolidation and institutionalization:

Seminar on training of trainers

1. Consensus building

2. Capacity building

3. Consolidation and institutionalization

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