Preparation of
Foot-and-Mouth Disease
Contingency Plans



FAO Animal Health Manual
No. 16

ISSN 1020-5187


Cover:

Photos: FMD vaccination in Tunisia, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Nelore cattle in Brazil.

Overlay: Figure from Meyer, R.F., Pacciarini, M., Holyard, E.J., Ferrari, S. et al. Genetic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus from field outbreaks to laboratory isolation. Virus Research, 32: 299-312 (1994), with permission from Elsevier Science.

William A. Geering
Consultant, EMPRES/lnfectious Diseases Group, FAO, Rome
Former Director, Animal and Plant Health,
Bureau of Resource Sciences
and Deputy Chief Veterinary Officer,
Australia

Juan Lubroth
Senior Officer, EMPRES/lnfectious Diseases Group,
FAO, Rome

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2002

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-104867-3

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing Management Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org

© FAO 2002


Contents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 SUGGESTED FORMAT AND CONTENTS OF A NATIONAL FMD CONTINGENCY PLAN

Nature of the disease
Risk analysis for FMD
Prevention strategies
Early warning contingency plan
Strategies for control and eradication of FMD
Organizational arrangements for FMD emergencies
Support plans
Action plans
Appendixes

CHAPTER 2 NATURE OF THE DISEASE

Definition
World distribution
Aetiology
Epidemiological features
Clinical signs
Pathology
Immunity
Diagnosis

CHAPTER 3 RISK ANALYSIS FOR FMD

Introduction
Principles of risk analysis
Who should carry out the risk analyses?
Risk assessment for FMD
The value of risk assessment for FMD

CHAPTER 4 PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR FMD

Introduction
Import quarantine policy
Barrier and border quarantine policy
Swill feeding controls
Containment of livestock

CHAPTER 5 EARLY WARNING CONTINGENCY PLANNING FOR FMD

Introduction
Training of veterinarians and other animal health staff in early recognition of FMD and collection and dispatch of diagnostic specimens
Livestock farmer and trader awareness/education
Specialist diagnostic team
Laboratory diagnostic capabilities
International Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres
Special disease surveillance requirements for FMD endemic countries

CHAPTER 6 EARLY REACTION CONTINGENCY PLANNING FOR A FMD EMERGENCY

Introduction
Epidemiological features influencing FMD eradication strategies
Strategies for FMD eradication
Zoning
Stamping out
Vaccination programmes supplemented by other FMD control measures
Wild or feral animal involvement in FMD outbreaks
Public awareness and education campaigns
International requirements for the verification of FMD eradication and national or zonal freedom from the disease
International collaboration

CHAPTER 7 FMD CONTROL AND ERADICATION CAMPAIGNS IN AN ENDEMIC SITUATION

Introduction
Vaccination campaigns in an endemic situation
Cessation of vaccination programmes

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS DURING A FMD EMERGENCY CAMPAIGN

Responsibilities and command structures
Consultative Committee on Emergency Animal Diseases (CCEAD)
National Animal Disease Control Centre
Local Animal Disease Control Centres

CHAPTER 9 SUPPORT PLANS

Financial plan
Resource plan
Legislation

CHAPTER 10 ACTION PLAN

Investigation phase
Alert phase
Operational phase
Stand-down phase

CHAPTER 11 TRAINING, TESTING AND REVISION OF CONTINGENCY PLANS

Simulation exercises
Training
The need for regular updating of FMD contingency

APPENDIXES

1. Collaborating centres
2. OIE experts and reference laboratories/ FAO reference laboratories for FMD

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