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Report of the second session of the Scientific Sub-Committee. Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, 23-25 September 2002


FAO Fisheries Report No. 705

RAFI/R705 (Bi)


ISSN 0429-9337

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
FAO Regional Office for Africa
Accra, 2003

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© FAO 2003

PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

This is the final report approved by the second session of the Scientific Sub-Committee of the Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF/SSC).

Distribution:

Participants in the Session
Members of CECAF
Other countries and interested national and international Organizations
FAO Fisheries Department
Fisheries Officers of the FAO Regional and Subregional Offices

FAO Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic/Comité des pêches pour l’Atlantique Centre-Est.
Report of the second session of the Scientific Sub-Committee. Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, 23-25 September 2002.
FAO Fisheries Report. No. 705. Accra, FAO. 2003. 73p.

ABSTRACT

This document is the final report of the second session of the Scientific Sub-Committee of the Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF), which was held in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, from 23 to 25 September 2002. Major topics discussed were: reports of the three working groups on artisanal fisheries, demersal species and small pelagics, future workplan of the working groups, capture statistics and ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

OPENING OF THE SESSION

1. The Second Session of the Scientific Sub-Committee (SSC) of the Fishery Committee of the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF) was held at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain from 23 to 25 September 2002. The Session was attended by thirty delegates from 17 Members of CECAF, and by observers from Angola, Namibia and the Ministerial Conference on Fisheries Co-operation Among African States Bordering the Atlantic Ocean (ATLAFCO). The List of participants and observers is presented in Appendix B.

2. Mrs Angeles Rodriguez Fernandez, Director of IEO in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, welcomed the participants to the Institute and expressed appreciation to the Sub-Committee for accepting the invitation of her centre as venue for the present Session.

3. Mr Benedict Satia, Chief, International Institutions and Liaison Service, FAO Fisheries Department, conveyed the warm greetings of Mr Jacques Diouf, Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), to the Sub-Committee, and extended the gratitude of the organization to the Government of Spain for hosting the Session and for providing extra-budgetary assistance for the organisation of the meeting. He reminded the Sub-Committee that it was expected to make realistic recommendations to the Committee for resources management in the CECAF region. The Sub-Committee was also expected to draw up a workplan for the future activities of its working groups. He also reminded the participants of the significance of the ecosystem approach to fisheries management and requested the Sub-Committee to take into account the fisheries related recommendations of the just concluded World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in its deliberations.

4. Mr Eduardo Lopez-Jamar Martinez, Deputy Director-General of the Spanish Institute of Oceanography, welcomed the participants to Spain and reminded them of the relationship between his Institute, set up in 1914, and CECAF. He remarked that this relationship had been mutually beneficial to both structures. He informed Members of the various research programmes conducted in the Institute. He remarked that fisheries statistics collected by IEO had always contributed significantly to the activities of CECAF working parties. He assured the Sub-Committee that the information collected would continue to be made available to its working groups because he strongly believed that IEO shares CECAF’s role in ensuring the sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources in the area covered by the Committee. In conclusion, Mr Lopez-Jamar reiterated his government’s continued support for the activities of CECAF.

ADOPTION OF THE AGENDA AND ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE SESSION

5. The Sub-Committee adopted the agenda that is given in Appendix A. The documents presented to the Sub-Committee are listed in Appendix C.

RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE SUB-COMMITTEE

6. The Sub-Committee made the following recommendations:

For Small Pelagics:

For Demersal Species:

For Artisanal Fisheries:

REPORT ON THE WORKING GROUP ON SMALL PELAGICS

7. The Working Group on Small Pelagics met in Banjul, The Gambia from 5 to 12 April 2002 to assess pelagic resources in Northwest Africa and to analyse fisheries management and exploitation options that would ensure optimal and sustainable use of the pelagic resources in the area. The Group had some difficulties in applying the modern stock assessment models such as Virtual Population Analysis (VPA) and Integrated Catch Analysis (ICA) because of insufficient age-length keys in the different stocks. Nevertheless, the group obtained results which enabled it make some management recommendations given in Paragraph 6.

8. Available data on Sardine (Sardina pilchardus), Sardinellas (Sardinella aurita and Sardinella maderensis), Horse Mackerels (Trachurus trecae and Trachurus trachurus) and Mackerel (Scomber japonicus), found between the Southern border of Senegal and the Northern border of Morocco, were used in the assessment.

9. Three stocks of Sardines were identified by the Group: Northern Stock (35° 45' - 32° N); Central Stock (32° N - 26° N) - Zone A & B; and the Southern stock (26° N - Southern limit of distribution) - Zone C.

10. The Sardinellas were identified as one stock of two species: Sardinella aurita and Sardinella maderensis, and the BIODYN model was used for their assessment. The results obtained provided useful information on the dynamics and possible state of the stocks. The catch level obtained in the assessment seemed to be consistent with the increasing trends in some CPUE series for certain fleets. However, as a measure of precaution, the 500,000 tonnes estimated catch of last year was retained for the maximum catch level for all fleets in the sub-region for 2003.

11. For Horse Mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (European) and Trachurus trecae (Cunene), the results indicated that the stock biomass of T. trachurus, which exhibited significant fluctuations in the last twenty years, had declined in recent years. On the contrary, T. trecae showed increasing trends in stock biomass.

12. In 2001, the Working Group identified two stocks of Chub mackerel; the Northern (Bojador to North of Morocco) and the Southern (Bojador to Senegal). Of these, only the Southern stock was analysed. The results showed a maximum biomass of 1.1 million tonnes in 1995 and a decreasing trend from 1996 onwards.

REPORT ON THE WORKING GROUP ON DEMERSAL SPECIES

13. The first meeting of the Demersal Species Working Group was held at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain from 17 to 20 September 2002. The general objective of the Working Group was to contribute to the improvement of the assessment of the demersal resources of West Africa and to analyse fisheries resources management options. Recommendations were made on the rational utilisation of the demersal resources based on the results of the assessments conducted by the Group.

14. The species for which data was analysed included Pagellus bellotti, Pseudotolithus sp, Dentex canariensis, Galeoides decadactylus, Brachydeuterus auritus, Octopus vulgaris, Sepia spp., Loligo vulgaris, Merluccius merluccius, Merluccius senegalensis, Merluccius poli, Parapenaeus longirostris and Penaeus notialis.

15. The 22 scientists, members of the Working Group, formulated resource management options and elaborated a future research plan.

REPORT ON THE WORKING GROUP ON ARTISANAL FISHERIES

16. A consultative meeting to define the Terms of Reference of the Artisanal Fisheries Working Group was held in September 2001 in Cotonou, Benin. The first meeting of the Artisanal Fisheries Working Group was held in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire in July 2002. At that meeting, the group reviewed the status of artisanal fisheries in the region and identified the constraints that work against the efficient evolution of the sector. It also made recommendations and elaborated a work plan. Its major recommendations retained by the Sub-Committee for the approval of the Committee are reproduced in Paragraph 6.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE ACTIVITIES OF THE WORKING GROUPS

17. The Sub-Committee acknowledged the work undertaken by its three Working Groups. It noted that the work of its Working Group on Small Pelagics was intimately linked to the work of the Nansen Programme (GCP/INT/730/NOR) and that the Netherlands Government through the Netherlands Institute of Fisheries Research (RIVO) and the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) of Norway provided additional financial resources. The contribution of the Spanish Government to the work of the Demersal Working Group and that of the Sustainable Fisheries Livelihoods Programme (GCP/INT/735/UK), funded by the United Kingdom Government’s Department for International Development (DFID) to ensure the work of the Artisanal Fisheries Working Group were also noted. The Sub-Committee expressed its gratitude to these institutions/organizations and projects.

18. The Scientific Sub-Committee took note of the difficulties that the Working Groups had encountered in their work, in particular the Demersal Working Group. The time taken for the preparation of data and the limited time available to the Groups have been observed to have made it difficult to undertake their work effectively. The Sub-Committee reiterated the importance of scientists coming to meetings with compiled data and suggested that the time available for future Working Groups be increased.

19. The Sub-Committee endorsed the reports of the three working groups and requested that the summary reports of the three working groups be attached to the present report. These reports are given in Appendix D, E, and F respectively.

FUTURE RESEARCH

20. The Sub-Committee endorsed the following recommendations for Small Pelagics: The exchange of otoliths among scientists in the region should be strengthened and a first workshop on age reading about Sardinella should be organized. The acoustic surveys should be continued; a regional programme to assess the entire stock including the coastal component of Horse Mackerel and other small pelagic species should be established and monthly sampling on board industrial vessels to establish species composition, length and age distribution, etc. be conducted. In addition, stock assessment methods that should incorporate environmental factors and age reading for the most important species should be initiated; while for Mackerel further studies on stock density should be conducted.

21. The Sub-Committee agreed that the establishment of a sub-working group for small pelagic resources in the Southern area of the CECAF region and the continuation of the R/V DR FRIDTJOF NANSEN surveys as well as the calibration exercise undertaken in the context of joint surveys with research vessels of the sub-region were priority actions.

22. The Sub-Committee endorsed the following specific recommendations in connection with pelagic species. With respect to sardines, a biological sampling programme for all fisheries in the Northwest Africa area and covering the entire fishing season and all fleets should be established; sampling for age composition for the entire length distribution as well as studies on the harmonization of age/size interpretation should be undertaken.

23. The Sub-Committee endorsed the following recommendations with respect to Demersal Species: In the South there is a need to strengthen capacity and harmonize the collection of biological and statistical data of principal species and also to continue the Nansen Surveys. In the North emphasis should be placed on intensifying work on spatio-temporal distribution, reproduction biology and recruitment of major species during trawl surveys and to set up scientific data exchange programmes between research scientists in the sub-region.

In the case of Cephalopods: The main themes are studies on inter-specific relationships between octopus communities, studies on interactions between the octopus fisheries and other species, notably cuttle fish and the squid, further development of an approach of direct estimation methods based on experimental projections and a quantitative geographical treatment as well as relevant genetic analysis of the octopi from different regions.

Concerning Hakes: The main actions include stock assessment through trawl surveys in the context of joint surveys in the region of Senegal-Morocco and updating biological information and catch information concerning Spanish trawls and longlines, while for shrimps the main recommendation is joint exploration surveys on deep water shrimps (P. longirostris) in the Senegal-Morocco region.

FUTURE WORKPLAN

24. The Sub-Committee agreed on its future workplans. The workplans for Small Pelagics, Demersal Species and the Artisanal Fisheries Working Groups are given in Appendix G.

OTHER MATTERS

International Support to the Nansen Programme - Fisheries Management and Marine Environment GCP/INT/730/NOR activities for 2001 and 2002

25. The Sub-Committee noted that the Programme organized two training courses and three workshops and also conducted four surveys during the inter-sessional period. These activities are summarized in Appendix H.

26. The Sub-Committee was informed that the Nansen Programme envisaged a series of training courses and workshops as well as an intensification of surveys between now and December 2003.

Capture statistics

27. An overview of the variations of catches for the year 2000 in the Eastern Central Atlantic was presented on the basis of document CECAF/SSC2/2002. In 2000, total catches in the area amounted to 3.5 million tonnes, a decrease of 1.4% with respect to the previous year (1999). Among the 10 major fishing countries in the area, Netherlands and Morocco have reported the highest increase while catches from Spain and the Russian Federation have shown a significant decrease. The analysis of the 2000 data by ISSCAAP (“International Standard Statistical Classification for Aquatic Animals and Plants”) groups, which had been recently revised, revealed an increase of small pelagic catches (in particular of chub and horse mackerels). It also showed a decrease of coastal and demersal fish catches with the only exception of flatfishes, which increased remarkably. Catches of valuable species such as tunas, crustaceans and cephalopods decreased by about 12-15%.

28. The recommendations of the first Session of the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee in the area of fisheries statistics were reviewed. The abolition of the STATLANT 34 B was implemented and the data produced by the Las Palmas Survey have been made available in the Fishstat Plus format. Improvements in the management of the Las Palmas Survey database will be shortly discussed by FAO and IEO. The Sub-Committee was reminded that although the STATLANT 34 B was abolished, it was very important that countries continued to collect data on fishing effort using their own forms. The Sub-Committee was requested to lay emphasis on improving the quality and timeliness of fishery statistics and information collected by countries.

29. The Sub-Committee appreciated the fact that an electronic version of the STATLANT 34 A, which included a revised list of species, had been prepared. The meeting was also informed of the availability of the technical handbook “Sample-based fishery surveys”, which provided a simple and step-by-step guidance for developing and implementing cost-effective and sustainable fishery surveys. Further information was given about the beginning of a project to prepare a revised version of the FAO Species Identification Sheets for the Eastern Central Atlantic, in collaboration with the Institute of Marine Research, Norway and the Spanish Institute of Oceanography.

Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management

30. The Sub-Committee followed with interest the presentation by Mr Birane Samb on the outcome of the FAO Expert Consultation on the production of guidelines on Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management. The Meeting was organised by FAO and was held in Reykjavik, Iceland, 16-19 September 2002. Mr. Samb recalled that the “Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem” adopted in October 2001 had recommended that guidelines be elaborated on the subject.

31. The Consultation agreed that the guidelines should have three main sections and proceeded to develop the elements for the various sections. The first of the three sections would be an introduction which would indicate the different parameters of ecosystems and the various international instruments related to sustainable development, taking into account socio-economic considerations. Section two of the guidelines would outline possible management measures (fishing effort, capacity, close seasons and areas, protected areas, protection of the environment, etc). Section three would address the processes and mechanisms to facilitate the application of ecosystem approach to fisheries management such as participatory management, elaboration of management plans, taking into account all the users (fishers, tourism, agriculture, industry, etc) and the need for effective Monitoring, Control and Surveillance. The aspects of research and the definition of terms were also developed. It was envisaged that the FAO Secretariat would finalize the draft guidelines by December 2002.

Ministerial Conference on Fisheries Co-operation Among African States Bordering the Atlantic Ocean (ATLAFCO)

32. The Representative of ATLAFCO informed the Sub-Committee of recent developments within the Ministerial Conference on Fisheries Cooperation Among African States bordering the Atlantic Ocean. The information is summarized in Appendix J.

RENEWAL OF THE MANDATE OF THE WORKING GROUPS

33. The Sub-Committee agreed to renew the mandate of its three working groups for another two years. The Terms of Reference agreed at the First Session of the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee remain unchanged.

34. The Sub-Committee noted progress in twinning arrangements regarding resource survey in which research vessels in the region were assisting in the evaluation of stocks in other countries. The Sub-Committee further noted that Spain planned to undertake such activities in Guinea-Bissau and Gabon very shortly. The Sub-Committee recommended that members should collectively address requests for such survey activities, as it was possible the European Union would positively respond to them. It was, however, emphasized that in making such requests, it should be borne in mind that a two-year interval may be required before the surveys were undertaken.

ELECTION OF CHAIRPERSON AND VICE-CHAIRPERSON

35. The Sub-Committee re-elected by consensus, Messrs. Birane Samb and Kwame Koranteng as Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson respectively, in conformity with Paragraph 5 of the Terms of Reference of the Scientific Sub-Committee.

DATE AND PLACE OF THE THIRD SESSION

36. The Sub-Committee acknowledged the offer of the Mauritanian Delegation to host the Third Session in December 2003. The Director-General of FAO in consultation with the Chairperson of the Sub-Committee will decide on the date and place of the Third Session.

ADOPTION OF THE REPORT

37. The report of the Second Session of the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee was adopted on 25 September 2002.

VOTE OF THANKS

The Sub-Committee expressed its appreciation to the Government of the Kingdom of Spain and in particular to the Spanish Institute of Oceanography for hosting the Session.

APPENDIX A: Agenda

1. Opening of the Session

2. Election of the Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson

3. Adoption of the Agenda and Arrangements for the Session

4. Report on the Working Group on Small Pelagics

5. Report on the Working Group on Demersal Resources

6. Report on the Working Group on Artisanal Fisheries

7. Resource Management Options and Recommendations

8. Future Workplan

9. Any Other Matters

10. Date and Place of the Third Session

11. Adoption of the Report

APPENDIX B: List of Delegates and Observers

Benin

GBAGUIDI, Amélie
Chef, Contrôle et suivi des produits halieutiques
B.P. 383
Cotonou
Tel: (229) 33 15 51/33 18 31
Fax: (229) 33 59 96
E-mail: aziable2002@yahoo.fr

Cameroon

BABA, Malloum Ousman
Directeur des pêches
Ministère de l’elevage, des pêches et des industries animales (MINEPIA)
Yaoundé
Tel: (237) 231 60 49
Fax: (237) 231 30 48
E-mail: minepia@camnet.cm

Cape Verde

MONTEIRO, Carlos
Biologiste/Responsable statistique
Ministère de la Pêche et de l’agriculture
I.N.D.P.
P. O. Box 132, Sao Vicente
Tel: (238) 32 13 74
Fax: (238) 36 16 16
E-mail: monteiro_carlos@hotmail.com

Congo, Republic of

BITOUMBA, Andre
Docteur en sciences biotechniques des pêches/Directeur de l’hydrobiologie de l’aménagement et de la législation
Direction générale de la pêche et des ressources halieutiques (DGPRH)
B.P. 1650, Brazzaville
Tel: (242) 66 71 90
Fax: (242) 81 10 97
E-mail: bagamboula@yahoo.fr
Minifor@congonet.cg

Côte d’Ivoire

Cuba

Democratic Republic of Congo

SHANGO, Mutambue
Directeur adjoint de l’ERAIFT/ Chercheur, Ministère de l’agriculture et de l’élevage
Le Château, B.P. 15373
Kinshasa 1
Tel: (243) 89 69 357
E-mail: mutambwe@yahoo.fr

Equatorial Guinea

France

Gabon

Gambia

MENDY, Asberr N.
Fisheries Officer (Research)
Fisheries Department
Department of State for Fisheries and
Natural Resources
6, Muammar Ghaddafi Avenue
Banjul
Tel: (220) 20 23 55 / 22 87 27
Fax: (220) 22 41 54
E-mail: gamfish@gamtel.gm
Anmendy@yahoo.com

Ghana

QUAATEY, Samuel Nii Kpakpa
Assistant Director of Fisheries
Marine Fisheries Research
P. O. Box BT-62, Tema
Tel: (233-22) 20 23 46
E-mail: mfrd@africaonline.com.gh

Greece

Guinea

DIABY, Sankoumba
Chef de Section
Aménagement des pêcheries artisanales maritimes
Direction nationale de la pêche maritime
B.P. 307, Conakry
Tél: (224) 41 52 28
Cel: (224) 22 37 62
E-mail: sankdiaby@yahoo.fr

Guinea-Bissau

Italy

Japan

Korea

Liberia

Mauritania

DIOP, Mika
Directeur adjoint
I.M.R.O.P.
BP 22, Nouadhibou
Tel: (2222) 57 49 035
Fax: (222) 57 45 081/379
E-mail: dvis@toptechnology.mr
Mika_drf@yahoo.fr

Morocco

MEHDI, El Ouairi
Chef d’URD
I.N.R.H
2 Rue de Tiznit
Casablanca
Tel: (212) 22 22 20 90
E-mail: elouairi@inrh.org.ma

IDRISSI, M’hamed
Chef, Centre régional
I.N.R.H.
Km. 7 Route Bonjdor
B.P. 21
127 bis (civ.), Dakhla
Tel: (212) 48 93 01 56/57/58
Fax: (212) 61 45 71 13
E-Mail: mha_idrissi2002@yahoo.com
Mha_idrissi@hotamil.com

Netherlands

CORTEN, Ad
Coordinator
Dutch/Mauritanian Research Project
RIVO
P. O. Box 68
1970 AB Ymuiden
Tel: (31) 255 564 644
E-mail: ad@rivo.dlo.nl

Nigeria

SOLARIN, Boluwaji B.
Chief Research Officer
Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research
PMB 127
29 Victoria Island
Lagos
Tel: (234) 126 175 30
E-mail: niomr@linkserve.com.ng
Niomr@hyperia.com

Norway

Poland

Romania

Sao Tome and Principe

BANDEIRA, Maria Manuela
Técnica Biologa de Pesca
Ministère d’Agriculture y Pesca
Direccao des Pescas
CP 59
Tel: (239) 22 20 91/22 55 99
E-mail: dpescas1@cstome.net

Senegal

BARRY, Mariama Dalanda
Directrice
CRODT
B.P. 2241
Dakar
Tel: (221) 834 8041
Fax: (221) 834 2792
E-mail: maria_dalanda@yahoo.fr

SAMB, Birane
Fishery Biologist
CRODT
B.P. 2241
Dakar
Tel: (221) 834 8041
Fax: (221) 834 2792
E-mail: bsambe@yahoo.fr

Sierra Leone

SEISAY, Mohamed B. D.
Principal Fisheries Officer
Ministry of Fisheries and Marine
Resources, Marine House
11, Old Railway Line
Brookfields
Freetown
Tel: (232-22) 24 04 85
Fax: (233-22) 24 11 17
E-mail: mohamedseisay@yahoo.co.uk

Spain

BALGUERIAS, Eduardo
Investigador
Centro Oceanografico de Canarias
Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia
Carretera San Andres
45 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Tel: (34) 922 549 400
Fax: (34) 922 549 554
E-mail: ebg@ieo.rcanaria.es

QUINTERO, Eugenia
Investigadora
Centro Oceanografico de Canarias
Instituto Espanol de Oceanografía
Carretera San Andrés
45 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Tel: (34) 922 549 400
Fax: (34) 922 549 554
E-mail: meq@ieo.rcanaria.es

SANTAMARIA, María Teresa
Doctor Investigador
Centro Oceanográfico de Canarias
Instituto Espanol de Oceanografía
Carretera San Andrés
45 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Tel: (34) 922 549 400
Fax: (34) 922 549 554
E-mail: mtgs@ieo.rcanaria.es

SOBRINO, Yraola Ignacio
Doctor Investigador
Centro Oceanográfico de Canarias
Instituto Espanol de Oceanografía
Carretera San Andrés
45 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Tel: (34) 922 549 400
Fax: (34) 922 549 554
E-mail: Ignacio.Sobrino@cd.ieo.es

Togo

SEDZRO, Kossi Maxoe
Chef de la Division des pêches et aquaculture
Ministère de l’Agriculture, de l’élevage et de la pêche
B.P. 1095, Lomé
Tél: (228) 21 34 70
Fax: (228) 21 71 20
E-mail: peche@laposte.tg
Ksedzro69@hotmail.com

United States of America

OBSERVERS

Angola

LUYEYE, Nkosi
Head of Biology Department
Research Institute of Angola
IIM-Luanda
Ilha de Luanda
CP 2601
Tel: (244) 23 09 077
E-mail: nkluyeye@hotmail.com

Namibia

KIRCHNER, Carola
Principal Fisheries Scientist
Ministry of Fisheries and Marine
Resources
P. O. Box 912
Swakopmund
Tel: (264) 644 101 133
Fax: (264) 644 043 85
E-mail: ckirchner@mfmr.gov.na

Ministerial Conference on Fisheries Cooperation among African States Bordering the Atlantic Ocean (ATLAFCO)

BENMOUSSA, Abderraouf
Conseiller scientifique au Secrétariat permanent
BP 476
Nouvelle cité administrative
Agdal, 10.000
Maroc
Tel: (212) 376 883 31/30
Fax: (212) 376 883 29
E-mail: benmoussa@mp3m.gov.ma

FAO FISHERIES DEPARTMENT

Headquarters

Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
Tel: (39-06) 57051

CARAMELO, Ana Maria
Fishery Resources Officer/Spécialiste des ressources halieutiques
Tel: (39-06) 57 05 58 63
E-mail: Ana.Caramelo@fao.org

COUTTS, Richard
Sustainable Fisheries Livelihoods Programme (SFLP) Coordinator/Coordonateur, Programme pour des moyens d’existence durables dans la pêche (PMEDP)
FIPL
Tel: (39-06) 57 05 60 27
Fax: (39-06) 57 05 67 81
E-mail: richard.coutts@fao.org

GARIBALDI, Luca
Fishery Statistician/Statisticien des pêches
Tel: (39-06) 57 05 3867
Fax: (39-06) 57 05 2476
E-mail: Luca.Garibaldi@fao.org

SATIA, Benedict
Chief/Chef
International Institutions and Liaison Service/Service des institutions internationales et liaison
Tel: (39-06) 57 05 28 47
Fax: (39-06) 57 05 65 00
E-mail: benedict.satia@fao.org

FAO REGIONAL OFFICE FOR AFRICA

P. O. Box 1628
Accra, Ghana
Tel: (233-21) 67 50 00/67 50 51-60
70 10 930
Fax: (233-21) 66 84 27/701 09 43

JALLOW, Alhaji M.
Senior Fisheries Officer and Secretary of CECAF/Fonctionnaire Principale des pêches et Secrétaire du COPACE
Tel Ext: 3193
E-mail: Alhaji.Jallow@fao.org

SECRETARIAT

JALLOW, Alhaji M.
Secretary of CECAF/Secrétaire du COPACE
FAO Regional Office for Africa/Bureau régional de la FAO pour l’Afrique
P. O. Box 1628
Accra, Ghana
E-mail: Alhaji.Jallow@fao.org

OKUNOR, Naa Teiko
Secretary/Secrétaire
FAO Regional Office for Africa/Bureau regional de la FAO pour l’Afrique
P. O. Box 1628
Accra, Ghana
E-mail: naateiko.okunor@fao.org

INTERPRETERS

LEBOULLEUX, Beatriz
Roger De Lluria

TEDJINI, Claire
Avda Presidente
Carmona 7
28020 Madrid
Spain

BUISSERET, Jacqueline
C/Putget, 28 A
E 08023, Barcelona
Spain

BOURGOIN, Christine

FAILLACE, Linda

BAS, Mireia

APPENDIX C: List of Documents

CECAF/SSC2/2002/1

Provisional Agenda and Timetable

CECAF/SSC2/2002/2

Report on the Working Group on Small Pelagics

CECAF/SSC2/2002/3

Report on the Working Group on Demersal Resources

CECAF/SSC2/2002/4

Report on the Working Group on Artisanal Fisheries


CECAF/SSC2/2002/Inf.1

Provisional List of Documents

CECAF/SSC2/2002/Inf.2

Provisional List of Participants

CECAF/SSC2/2002/Inf.3

Future Workplans

CECAF/SSC2/2002/Inf.4

Capture Statistics

CECAF/SSC2/2002/Inf.5

Ministerial Conference Document

APPENDIX D: Report of the working group on artisanal fisheries

1. The First Session of the Artisanal Fisheries Working Group of the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee was held at the Hamanieh Hotel in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire from 2 to 4 July 2002. Twenty-one participants from 15 countries of CECAF, the Sustainable Fisheries Livelihoods Programme (SFLP), FIRM (FAO Rome) and FAORAF, Accra, respectively attended the meeting. The invitees from Gabon and Mauritania could not attend for various reasons.

2. After a brief introduction by the Chairman of the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee, Mr Birane Samb, the Director of Fisheries of Côte d’Ivoire, Dr Blaguet Noel-Gaudens Bombo, welcomed the participants. He outlined the importance of the meeting in the artisanal fisheries development process in the sub-region before opening it for deliberations.

3. Following a brief self-introduction of the participants around the table, Mr Isaac Flowers of Liberia was elected Chairman of the Working Group and Mr Konan Angaman of Cote d’Ivoire Vice-Chairman. Mr Sankoumba Diaby of Guinea and Mr Oumarou Njifonjou of Cameroon were nominated as Rapporteurs.

4. The agenda for the meeting was adopted.

5. The participants reviewed and modified the Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Working Group developed by the Consultative Meeting of experts of artisanal fisheries held 19-21 September 2001 in Cotonou, Benin.

6. The Secretariat of the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee presented a working document on artisanal fisheries management in the CECAF region. The characteristic of the different fisheries was given, putting emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. The canoes, fishing gears, artisan fishers, and major species targeted were described. The important factors for a rational management of artisanal fisheries and the current constraints to resource management in the region were outlined. The resource management options were presented as (i) Government (ii) traditional and (iii) co-management. The generic process of co-management was explained and recommended as the most appropriate option for countries in the region. In conclusion, Alhaji Jallow emphasized the necessity for a good management system for the sustainability of the fisheries resources.

7. The participants appreciated the quality of the presentation. Considering that the document synthesized the regional character of fisheries, the discussion on the document was combined with that of the country reports.

8. The national reports from Benin, Cameroun, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Morocco, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo were presented in this format: the state of artisanal fisheries in the country, migrations, conflicts, resource management policy and participatory approaches applied in the sub-sector. The participants gave information on the national characteristics of artisanal fisheries, production levels, processing techniques and fisheries statistics. The Senegalese report highlighted a lot of information that is more or less common to other fisheries in West Africa. The lessons learned in artisanal fisheries management in each of the countries reported were discussed.

9. In most of the represented countries, over-exploitation of most of the target species and closed seasons were noted. Majority of the countries registered the presence of foreign migrant fishers whose activities impact negatively or positively on local fishers and resources. The major migratory movements observed are due, among other reasons, to a search for markets, better prices, avoiding social pressures and following the movement of target species.

10. The initiatives on participatory approaches in some countries were realised with the support of the Sustainable Fisheries Livelihoods Programme (SFLP) through community projects. Management plans exist in some countries like Morocco; a management plan for the cephalopod fishery of the Southern Atlantic, which is based on catch quotas combined with other measures like closed seasons and zoning.

11. Numerous conflicts for access to fishing zones, resources and markets have been recorded in the operations of artisan fishers and between artisanal and industrial fleets. The introduction of outboard motors in the 70s has enabled the artisan fishers to operate beyond the coastal fringes to search for target species that have become scarce. In these new zones they compete directly with industrial vessels. In addition, there are regular incursions of industrial vessels in zones reserved for artisanal fisheries.

12. Co-management, considered as a viable option, was adopted by the participants as the artisanal fisheries management option in the CECAF region. Most of the co-management arrangements initiated in the countries of the region are considered as consultative. Co-management is a process and it should evolve towards an effective sharing of responsibility and authority for the management of the fishery between the state and the fisheries communities. This is more so because decentralisation is the current political option in the region.

CONSTRAINTS

13. The artisanal fisheries management constraints are summarised as follows:

14. In spite of the constraints, there is the political will to share responsibility for managing the fisheries resources between the administration and the fisheries communities through consultation and more involvement of the fisherfolk in the formulation and enforcement of the management measures. In most cases, that will reduce the costs.

RECOMMENDATIONS

15. Based on information from the presentations and discussions, the following recommendations were agreed:

ACTION PLAN

16. Three major activities will be conducted from now to the next working group session:

17. The results of the various activities of the members will be presented and discussed at the next session of the CECAF SSC Artisanal Fisheries Working Group.

APPENDIX E: Report of the working group on demersal species

INTRODUCTION

1. The FAO/CECAF Working Group on Demersals met in the Centro Oceanográfico de Tenerife (Instituto Español de Oceanografia), Spain from 17 to 20 September 2002. The overall objective of the working group was to contribute to the improved assessment of demersal resources in West Africa and the analysis of fisheries management and exploitation options aimed at ensuring optimal and sustainable use of demersal resources for the benefit of coastal countries. The meeting was funded by Spain and organized by FAO.

2. The species or groups of species analysed by the group in the CECAF region were: demersal fishes (Pagellus bellotti, Pseudotolithus sp, Dentex canariensis, Galeoides decadactylus and Brachydeuterus auritus); cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Sepia spp. and Loligo vulgaris); hakes (Merluccius merlucciu, Merluccius senegalensis and Merluccius poli) and shrimps (Parapenaeus longirostris and Penaeus notialis).

3. Altogether 22 scientists from 13 different countries participated. The chairman of the Group was Mr Mika Dioup from Mauritania.

2. DEMERSALS

2.1 South

Management recommendations

4. Due to uncertainties in the assessment and the inconsistencies in the input data, catch projections for demersal resources were not done. Therefore, the Working Group recommended that a precautionary approach, avoiding any increase in fishing effort, should be adopted for all the demersal species in the Gulf of Guinea.

Future research

5. The Working Group recommends an improvement in the biological and statistical data, which should be one of the first priorities. Furthermore, the following points should be carefully considered:

2.2 North

Management recommendation

6. Monitor the fishing effort for demersal fish in the Northern zone.

Future research

3. CEPHALOPODS

Management recommendations

7. The evaluations carried out using the BIODYN model give biomass levels comparable to those established by the 1997 Working Group on cephalopods. As octopus abundance is very fluctuating, it is recommended that yearly stock evaluations be carried out to decide annual catch levels.

Future research

4. HAKES

Management recommendations

1. Put the 70 mm mesh into general use for the black hake fishery and respect the rules relating to mesh size for the white hake fishery in order to reduce pressure on the juveniles.

2. Control the fishing effort that targets the white hake.

3. Through analyses carried out on the CPUE and fishing effort relating to the black hake, it is recommended that the current level of fishing effort be maintained and the trends in the abundance indices be followed.

Future research

5. SHRIMPS

Management recommendations

8. Maintain the current shrimp fishing effort.

Future research

6. GENERAL OVERVIEW AND CONCLUSIONS

9. The present meeting was the first meeting of the new CECAF Demersal Working Group. It is intended that this group will meet annually and build a reliable database and increase the expertise within the group. This will enable the group to make sound recommendations for the management of demersal stocks in the CECAF area.

10. During this year's meeting the emphasis was on improving the database and on developing working procedures within the group.

11. The Group noticed that there are many demersal stocks in the CECAF Region. Moreover, the northern sub-region of CECAF (Morocco, Mauritania, The Gambia and Senegal) and the southern sub-region (Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Liberia, Côte d’Ivoire, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, RP Congo and DR Congo) should be studied separately because of the different oceanographic conditions. These sub-regions are characterised by the Canary current system and the Gulf of Guinea large marine ecosystem respectively.

12. The Group has asked the SSC to review the conditions of the Demersals Working Group meeting as four days was insufficient time to thoroughly analyse all the stocks.

13. Because of the emphasis on data base improvement, less time was available for assessment. A number of preliminary assessments for various species did not produce reliable results, due to the lack of sufficient input data. It was also concluded that the most recent catch and effort data are required for stock assessments. For the next meeting, participants should bring all the data required for assessment and analysis, properly compiled.

14. An important input for stock assessment is time series of abundance indices. One type of abundance index is catches per unit of effort. Several series of CPUE data exist, and some of the existing series may be further refined by a more thorough exploration of existing data. In some cases (particularly in industrial fisheries), CPUE series are affected by changes in fishing strategy of the fleet. It is necessary, therefore, to have fishery independent series (e.g. research surveys, etc.) of stock abundance as well. The group strongly recommended that surveys be continued and that local institutes increase their own capacity to conduct surveys.

15. Although the group is not yet in a position to make detailed stock assessments, as a general recommendation it suggested adopting a precautionary approach, i.e. not to increase the combined catch of demersal species above the average level attained during the previous five years (1997-2001) and to reduce bycatch and discards.

APPENDIX F: Report of the working group on small pelagics

INTRODUCTION

1. The second meeting of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small Pelagic Fish off Northwest Africa was held in Banjul, Republic of the Gambia, from 5 to 12 April 2002.

2. The overall objective of the working group was to contribute to the improved assessment of small pelagic resources in Northwest Africa and the analysis of fisheries management and exploitation options aimed at ensuring optimal and sustainable use of small pelagic fish resources for the benefit of coastal countries.

3. The species to be assessed by the group were: sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sardinellas (Sardinella aurita and S. maderensis), horse mackerels (Trachurus trecae and T. trachurus) and mackerel (Scomber japonicus), in the region between the southern border of Senegal and the northern border of Morocco.

4. The working area for the working group is defined as the waters between the southern border of Senegal and the northern border of Morocco.

5. The terms of reference for the group were:

ASSESSMENT RESULTS

Sardine

6. Following the procedure of previous meetings (FAO, 1985; 1990; 1997; 2001) the Working Group adopted the existence of three stocks:

The Working Groups attempted to make separate assessments for the central stock (zone A and B) and the southern stock (zone C). The northern stock was not assessed, due to lack of data.

Central stock (zone A+B)

7. Models used were the separable Virtual Population Analysis (Pope 1977, 1979; Pope and Shepherd 1982; Stevens 1984), and the Excel version of Integrated Catch Analysis (ICA) (FAO 2001). The period 1995-2001 was used for the separable part of the VPA.

8. The analysis of the time series 1976 - 2001 by separable VPA yielded unrealistic results, both in terms of fishing mortality and level of biomass. High residuals were found for certain age groups, which could indicate possible errors in the input data.

9. The application of ICA gave the following results:

- Spawning stock biomass increased from 1983 onwards to reach a maximum in 1986. It then declined gradually until 1992 when it dropped sharply.
- Fishing mortalities show a trend that is opposite to spawning stock biomass.
- The patterns of theoretical and observed catches are diametrically opposed.

10. On the basis of these results, the WG could not reach a conclusion concerning the state of the stock.

Southern stock (Zone C)

11. As for Zones A+B the Working Group reviewed the available information for the stock in zone C. It was noted that there were still important gaps in data from the past years and that the new data submitted at this year’s meeting were scarce and incomplete in terms of the type of information collected as well as in the representation of fisheries and fishing seasons.

12. The last attempt to assess this stock was made in 2001 by applying the Separable VPA using the Lowestoft software (Darby and Flatman, 1994). Results from the analyses showed high and no randomly distributed residuals. Also the regression statistics were not satisfactory. The Working Group in 2001 therefore concluded that the results of the analyses were not reliable, possibly due to anomalies in the input data.

13. Considering that there is no new information, the Working Group decided not to make a new attempt at the present meeting to assess the Sardine stock in Zone C.

Sardinella

14. No new studies on stock identity of sardinella have been carried out in the interim period since the last meeting of the Working Group in March 2000. Following the procedure for that meeting, the Working Group agreed on the existence of one stock for the two species of sardinellas (FAO, 2001).

15. The BIODYN model (Punt & Hilborn, 1996) has been used for the assessment (FAO, 2001). The parameters that gave the best fit were estimated for both species using the OBSTWO spreadsheet.

16. Although total catch data were available for both species of sardinella, very few data existed on effort that was directed specifically at these species. There is the Dutch fleet that targets sardinella, but the effort series is too short. Therefore, the WG proposed to use the CPUE of the artisanal fishery in Senegal as an index of abundance. In addition, the stock estimates by R/V DR FRIDTJOF NANSEN were used for the period 1995-2001.

17. A good simulation of the observed data series for Sardinella aurita and S. maderensis by the Schaefer model was obtained, except for the Nansen indices for S. maderensis. The MSY for Sardinella aurita was estimaded at 575,121t using the CPUE from the artisanal fishery in Senegal as an index of abundance and 508,112 t using the Nansen abundance index. The MSY for Sardinella maderensis (CPUE index artisanal fishery Senegal) was estimated at 208,968t.

18. It is noted that for S. aurita the two indices give similar estimates for MSY, with an SSQ that is much lower in case of the artisanal CPUE series. The results show a fluctuating CPUE, with an increasing trend during the last two years for both series of indices.

19. For S. maderensis the results of the model show a relative stable CPUE during 1990-2001, except for the years 1992-1993 and 1997-1998.

20. The results obtained provide useful information on the dynamics and possible states of the stock. On the basis of these results, a precautionary TAC of 600,000 for the two species combined would seem to be justified. This estimate is higher than the one given in last year’s report (500,000 tonnes). This seems to be consistent with the increasing trends in some CPUE series for certain fleets. However, considering the uncertainties in the results of dynamic models, the WG decided to retain the value of last year, i.e. 500,000 tonnes.

Horse mackerel

21. For a detailed description of the stock identity of the two species of Trachurus, the reader is referred to the report of the WG meeting in Nouadhibou in 2001 (FAO, 2001).

22. For exploratory purpose, a separable VPA was run for the two species (Trachurus trachurus and T. trecae). Thereafter, an Integrated Catch Analysis (ICA) was run for each of the species separately.

23. Data on age composition and mean weight-at-age of catches by year, used by the 1998 working group, were updated, the available series covering the period 1979-2000. For T. trachurus the catch-at-age series presented in last year's report was changed because the group believed that there are two stocks, one from zone A+B and northwards in Morocco, and another one being distributed from zone C southwards. The catch-at-age matrix from 1990 to 2000 was recalculated so that the total catch (in tonnes) was consistent with the total catch reported by each country.

24. The results of the separable VPA’s show that there are relatively high residuals in the analyses, especially for T. trecae.

25. The ICA was run successfully for T. trachurus. For T. trecae, the ICA did not find a reasonable solution. This may be explained by the large discrepancy between the stock trajectory of the separable VPAs (of the catch-at-age analysis) and the stock trajectory of the R/V DR FRIDTJOF NANSEN acoustic time series for this stock.

26. The results of the ICA for T. trachurus indicate that the stock has been through fluctuations during the last 20 years, and that the stock has been in a declining phase in recent years. The acoustic time-series for T. trecae shows the opposite trend with an increasing trend in stock biomass.

27. During the trial runs of the Excel-version of ICA, it was discovered that the program found several different solutions (minimum SSQs), with quite different SSB and F-levels. The present assessments must therefore be looked upon as preliminary and the stock and F-levels must not be used for management purpose. However, the trends in stock and F’s seem to be well estimated.

Mackerel

28. For the assessment of the mackerel, the WG (FAO, 2001) has assumed that there are two stocks in the region from Morocco to Senegal:

29. During this meeting, only the “southern stock” has been considered and an Integrated Catch Analysis (ICA) was run for this species.

30. Data on age composition and mean weight-at-age of catches by year, used by the 1998 working group, have been completed for recent years. The available series covers the period 1992- 2001.

31. The results of the ICA show that the total biomass reached a maximum in 1995 (1.1 million tonnes) and decreased from 1996 to 2001. The residuals obtained are generally satisfactory. The distribution of fishing mortality at age shows variations between years according to the change in strategy of the pelagic trawlers fleet in Morocco and Mauritania.

32. There is no information on the size distribution of mackerel in catches between Dakhla and Cape Barbas, where small fish is normally very abundant and sometimes caught in large numbers.

33. Generally, the estimations by ICA were in good agreement with the results of Russian acoustic surveys, which gives credibility to the calculations. The use of oceanographic factors to forecast chub mackerel abundance should be complemented by recruitment surveys that provide actual indices of recruitment strength.

MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS

Sardine

34. Because of uncertainties in the assessment, a prognosis has not been made and the results of the assessment should not be used for management purposes. Results of acoustic surveys indicate an increase in stock size during the last years.

Sardinella

35. In view of the uncertainty of results based on global models, the working group considers that the results obtained this year should not be used to revise the recommendation given last year. It is therefore recommended to set a precautionary TAC of 500,000 tonnes for both species combined in the total area. This figure corresponds approximately to the maximum level observed in the period 1990-2001.

36. It should be noted that the total catch in the region has dropped below 500,000 tonnes in the last three years, despite a substantial increase in fishing effort of the EU industrial fleet in Mauritania. Catches per unit of effort in the EU-fishery in Mauritania show a decline over the last four years, suggesting a reduction of the stock in this area. This information, combined with the prospects of poor recruitment, should be a good reason to set the TAC not higher than 500,000 tonnes.

Horse mackerel

37. The annual catches of the different species have fluctuated strongly over time, but all species show an increasing trend from 1990 to 2001. The CPUE data, calculated for vessels that targeted horse mackerel, show a declining trend. Moreover, the acoustic estimates of R/V DR FRIDTJOF NANSEN show a decreasing trend for both species of Trachurus. This decline is partly compensated by the increase in biomass of false scad.

38. Considering the many uncertainties in the assessment of these stocks, a precautionary approach should be taken in management of the stocks. For this reason, the WG recommends a restriction of fishing effort to the current level.

Mackerel

39. The results of the ICA analysis indicate a decreasing trend in biomass. Although the results are uncertain, due to inconsistencies in the input data, the Working Group considers that there is reason for a precautionary approach, avoiding an increase in fishing effort.

FUTURE RESEARCH

Sardine

40. A biological sampling programme has to be established for all fisheries in the area. This sampling programme has to cover the entire fishing season and all fleets. At least 100 fish should be measured per sample.

41. Sampling for age composition should cover the entire length distribution. In each length, ten otoliths should be taken.

42. All input data for the assessment models have to be ready on the first day of the WG meeting. The data series should include data for the previous year.

Sardinella

43. The R/V DR FRIDTJOF NANSEN surveys and the calibration exercises should be continued. Joint surveys with research vessels of the sub-region should be carried out.

44. An otolith exchange should be carried out as soon as possible and an age reading workshop organised.

45. Studies aimed at finding a representative index of fishing effort for sardinellas as well as on the application of analytical models should be stimulated and conducted.

46. A monitoring programme of the artisanal fishery for sardinella in Mauritania should be started.

Horse mackerel

47. It was noted that with the exception of recommendations 3 and 4 of the 2001 WG report, the recommendations of that meeting had not yet been implemented. Therefore, the WG reiterates them as follows:

48. At least monthly sampling on board industrial vessels to establish species composition, length and age distribution, etc, should be conducted. This activity should have the highest priority.

49. An age reading programme for the three species should be initiated.

50. All the historic data series on catches, effort and biological parameters should be utilised in future assessment.

51. The acoustic surveys should be continued and the acoustic estimates should be split by age groups, if possible.

52. A regional programme should be established to assess the entire stock including the coastal component of the horse mackerels and other species of small pelagics.

53 Stock assessment methods should be developed to use environmental factors to forecast possible changes in stocks, and to use the results of these methods as an additional source of information.

Mackerel

54 For a better assessment of the mackerel stocks, the WG makes the following recommendations (in order of priority):

MANAGEMENT CONCLUSIONS

55 During this year's meeting the emphasis was on updating the database as well as knowledge of assessment methods within the group. At the beginning of the meeting a two-day course in basic assessment methodology was held.

56 A number of preliminary assessments for various species were carried out, but with few reliable results. The reason for this was poor quality of the input data, and to some extent problems in using the existing models. During future meetings, this aspect of the work will require more attention. A Planning Group to discuss the data collection will be held in Senegal before the November-December Survey.

57 Although the group is not yet in a position to make short/long-term projections, it is expected that the pelagic stocks will decline further in case of an expansion of the (industrial) fishing effort in the area.

58 As a general recommendation the group therefore suggests to adopt a precautionary approach, and not to increase the combined catch of small pelagics above the average level attained during the most recent five years (1997-2001).

APPENDIX G: Work plans of working groups

Artisanal Fisheries Working Group Work Plan

Three major activities will be conducted from now to the next working group session:

The results of the various activities of the members will be presented and discussed at the next session of the CECAF SSC Artisanal Fisheries Working Group.

Small Pelagics Working Group Research Plan

With respect to sardines, a biological sampling programme for all fisheries in the Northwest Africa area, covering the entire fishing season and all fleets, should be established; sampling for age composition for the entire length distribution as well as studies on the harmonization of age/size interpretation should be undertaken.

Demersal Species Working Group Research Plan

With respect to demersal species: In the South there is a need to strengthen capacity and harmonize the collection of biological and statistical data of principal species and also to continue the Nansen Surveys. In the North emphasis should be placed on intensifying work on spatio-temporal distribution, reproduction biology and recruitment of major species during trawl surveys and to set up scientific data exchange programmes between research scientists in the sub-region.

In the case of Cephalopods: The main themes are studies on inter-specific relationships between octopus communities, studies on interactions between the octopus fisheries and other species, notably cuttle fish and the squid, further development of an approach of direct estimation methods based on experimental projections and a quantitative geographical treatment as well as relevant genetic analysis of the octopus from different regions.

Concerning Hakes: The main actions include stock assessment through trawl surveys in the context of joint surveys in the region of Senegal-Morocco and updating biological information and catch information concerning Spanish trawls and longlines, while for shrimps the main recommendation is joint exploration surveys on deep water shrimps (P. longirostris) in the Senegal-Morocco region.

APPENDIX H: International support to the Nansen programme - fisheries management and marine environment

Workshops/Training

Surveys

Publications/Reports

· Sardine otolith Workshop

· Surveys of the small pelagic fish resources off Northwest Africa

· Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of small pelagic resources

· Training of electronic technicians

· One survey of the pelagic and demersal fish resources in Gulf of Guinea

· Report of the Workshop on age readings for sardine

· Training course in survey methodology and the use of NAN-SIS


· Survey reports

· Working Group on the Assessment of small pelagic resources


· FAO Fisheries Report No. 657

· Workshop on the management of shared small-pelagic fish resources


· Report on the management of shared small-pelagic fish resources

· Post-survey meeting after each survey



1. WORKSHOPS/TRAINING

1.1 Sardine Otolith Workshop

The Workshop was held by the Atlantic Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (AtlantNIRO) in Kaliningrad, Russian Federation, from 28 to 31 August 2001. There was a total of fourteen participants from Russia, Spain, Morocco, Portugal and FAO. It was partly financed through Project GCP/INT/730/NOR.

Its objectives were: (1) to standardise the age reading methodologies and (2) to establish equal age reading criteria.

Results

Recommendations

1. A minimum of ten individuals from each half-centimetre length by month of catch should be analysed biologically.

2. All the pairs of otoliths must be taken and mounted on plastic slides with synthetic resin (©Eukitt).

3. The criteria adopted in this workshop must be applied to estimate the age of the Northwest African sardine.

4. The reliability of the age reading should be taken into account.

5. It is preferable that two readers from each country should read the otoliths, discuss and agree upon the age readings from their fisheries.

6. If some otoliths are in bad conditions and/or the reliability of the age is low then the otolith should be rejected.

7. If the difficulties in the age interpretation in otoliths are very persistent then it would be useful to use the scales and compare the results.

8. Age-length-keys for assessment purposes should be prepared by the workshop participants.

9. Every year an exchange of 50 otoliths from each country should be made among readers. If the results of the exchange show low precision in the age readings a workshop should be carried out.

10. In some otoliths (50) from the exchange the measurements (in millimetres) of the annual rings should be taken.

11. The work on daily increments should be encouraged, in order to improve the knowledge of sardine age estimation.

12. A guideline for age readings should be prepared by FAO/FIRM in 2002.

1.2 Training of Electronic Technicians

The training was organized on board of R/V «ITAF DEME» (Senegal) from 3 to 8 September 2001. It had several objectives: (1) To enhance the knowledge of the staff at CRODT in the use of the scientific echo sounder, EK60; (2) to train the staff in configuration and use of the BI500 system and processing of reports for further computations and biomass estimation; and (3) to assist in calibration of the 38 and 120 kHz echo sounder onboard the research vessel "ITAF DEME".

Conclusions

Recommendations

1. Mr Abdoulaye SARRE, from Senegal should attend a technical/operation course in EK60 and BI500 at Simrad-Norway.

2. Select one person from Senegal to take part in all steps of biomass calculation onboard the Nansen on the next survey in Senegal waters.

3. CRODT staff should be involved in the daily work with the BEI (BI500) system.

4. For the calibration of the "ITAF DEME" with "DR F. NANSEN" one should consider to have one experienced person from the Nansen team onboard the "ITAF DEME" to assist in the scrutinising of the echograms.

1.3 Training course in survey methodology and the use of NAN-SIS

The course was held in the FAO offices, Accra, Ghana, from 18 to 22 October 2001. There were participants from Benin, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Togo.

1.4 Second meeting of the FAO Working Group on the assessment of small pelagic fish off Northwest Africa

The Working Group was held in Banjul, The Gambia, from 5 to 12 April 2002. Altogether 17 scientists from nine different countries participated. The chairman of the group was Mr Reidar Toresen, expert in stock assessment of small Pelagics in IMR/Norway.

Recommendations

1. A planning group should meet for two days prior to the next Working Group meeting to formulate plans for improving the quality of the data in terms of: (1) biological sampling (2) standardized age reading between different countries; and (3) the level of sampling from the different fleet segments in the various fisheries.

2. A planning group should meet for three days prior to the October-December survey to formulate plans for calibration and coordination of surveys with the DR F. NANSEN and the national research vessels.

3. The possibility of carrying out recruitment studies should also be considered.

1.5 Workshop on the management of shared small-pelagic fishery resources

It was held in Banjul, The Gambia from 30 April to 3 May 2002. Twenty-five participants from The Gambia, Ghana, Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, Norway, the FAO, SRFC and the Ministerial Conference on Fisheries Cooperation among African states bordering the Atlantic Ocean (ATLAFCO).

Its main objective was "to examine the implications of national and joint management of shared stocks using Sardinella sp. and Trachurus sp. as case studies, to explore possible ways of how sustainable management of shared stocks can be achieved and to suggest the way forward for a regional management system for the adoption and implementation of fisheries management and exploitation options aimed at ensuring optimal and sustainable use of small pelagic fish resources for the benefit of coastal countries".

Conclusions

Recommendations

1. The work of the current FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small Pelagics in Northwest Africa should be furthered and strengthened in order to maintain a high level of resource assessment studies in the coming years and the long-term future. Fisheries biologists should continue to exchange information, meet at least once a year to examine the state of the stocks and provide advice to fisheries administrations on management measures. Joint surveys should be conducted by scientists of the national research institutions in the region using national research vessels.

2. Fisheries Scientific Institutions should identify research priorities and seek national budgetary allocations to sustain long-term research.

3. A precautionary approach towards the management of small pelagic stocks should be adopted to maintain a sustainable spawning stock.

4. Countries should develop national management plans in support of a future joint regional management system.

5. An appropriate regional management system should be established around a scientific working group or committee and a managament decision making consultation mechanism between the coastal states sharing small pelagic stocks in Northwest Africa. A proposed scheme is attached to the report.

6. FAO should prepare the draft text of the proposed scheme and the next Steering Committee of the NANSEN Programme should discuss the possibility of the Programme providing support to the countries concerned in holding a meeting to finalise and adopt the scheme as an international instrument.

7. Mauritania on behalf of the participants in the Workshop should formulate a draft outline of a plan of accompanying measures, such as capacity building to be submitted to the next Steering Committee of the Nansen Programme.

8. The participants should sensitise their respective Governments on the need for funds to continue the activities, which are currently undertaken by the FAO Working Group on Assessment of Small Pelagic Stocks in Northwest Africa after the present funding ends.

2. SURVEYS

2.1 Surveys of the small pelagic fish resources off Northwest Africa (Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia)

Two acoustic surveys were carried out in the region in 2001 and two in 2002.

2.2 Survey of the pelagic and demersal fish resources in the Gulf of Guinea

It was carried out off the coasts of Benin, Togo, Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire from 16 July to 9 August 2002.

3. PUBLICATIONS

3.1 Published Reports

FAO. 2001. Report of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small Pelagic Fish off Northwest Africa. Nouadhibou, Mauritania, 24-31 March 2001/Rapport du Groupe de travail de la FAO sur l’évaluation des petits pélagiques au large de l’Afrique nord-occidentale. Nouadhibou, Mauritania, 24-31 mars 2001. FAO Fisheries Report/FAO Rapport sur les pêches. No. 657. Rome, FAO. 2001. 133p.

FAO. 2002. Report of the Pre-survey Meeting to Plan the Year 2000 Survey with the R/V Dr. Fridtjof Nansen in the Western Gulf of Guinea (Benin, Togo, Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire). Tema, Ghana, 26 August 2000/ Rapport de la Réunion de préparation et de planification de la campagne 2000 avec le N/R Dr. Fridtjof Nansen dans la région occidentale du Golfe de Guinée (Bénin, Togo, Ghana et Côte d’Ivoire). Tema, Ghana, 26 août 2000. FAO Fisheries Report/FAO Rapport sur les pêches. No. 663. Rome, FAO. 2002. 50p. FAO Fisheries Report No. 657.

FAO. 2002. Report of the Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) Otolith Workshop. Kaliningrad, Russian Federation, 28--31 August 2001/Rapport de l’Atelier sur l’otolithe de sardine (Sardina pilchardus), Kaliningrad, Fédération de Russie, 28--31 août 2001. FAO Fisheries Report/FAO Rapport sur les pêches. No. 685. Rome, FAO. 2002. 49 p.

FAO 2002. Report of the Workshop on the Management of Shared Small Pelagic Fishery Resources in Northwest Africa. Banjul, Republic of the Gambia, 30 April - 3 May 2002/Rapport de l'Atelier sur l’aménagement des ressources partagées de petits pélagiques en Afrique du Nord-Ouest. Banjul, République de Gambie, 30 avril - 3 mai 2002. FAO Fisheries Report/FAO Rapport sur les pêches. No. 675. Rome, FAO. 2002. 35p.

3.2 Reports to be finalised

3.3 Planned reports

4. WORKPLAN OCTOBER - DECEMBER 2002

Workshops/Training

Activity 2.1.2

26-28 Oct.

A planning group to formulate plans for calibration and coordination of surveys with the DR. F. NANSEN and the national research vessels

Dakar, Senegal

Surveys

Activity 2.1.3

29 Oct. - 20 Dec.

Survey of the small pelagic resources of Northwest Africa

Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia

5. WORKPLAN 2003

(Note that changes may be made to the 2003 Working Plan. A revised plan will be proposed at the meeting of the Steering Committee in June 2003)

Workshops/Training

Activity 2.2.3

31 Mar. - 9 April
(10 days)

3rd meeting of the FAO Working Group on the assessment of small pelagic fish off Northwest Africa

Casablanca, Morocco

Activity 2.2.4

May
(3 days)

One meeting on socio-economics

Dakar, Senegal

Activity 2.2.1

October
(4 days)

Workshop on age-readings of horse mackerel and mackerel

Nouadhibou, Mauritania

Activity 2.3.1/2.3.3

November
(3 days)

Workshop on proposals of management mechanisms for the shared stocks in Northwest Africa (3 days November, Banjul)

Banjul, The Gambia

Surveys

Activity 2.1.3

18 May - 8 July

Survey of the small pelagic resources of Northwest Africa

Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia

Activity 2.1.3

29 Oct - 20 Dec.

Survey of the small pelagic resources of Northwest Africa

Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia

Activity 2.1.2/2.1.4

Adapted to surveys

Intercalibration

Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal

Meetings

Activity 1.2

March

Annual meeting between the Coordinating Unit of the Nansen Programme and FAO

Rome, Italy

Activity 1.4

June

The Nansen Programme Steering Committee for Northwest Africa and the Nansen Programme Annual Forum

Bergen, Norway

Back COVER

This document is the final report of the second session of the Scientific Sub-Committee of the Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF), held in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, from 23 to 25 September 2002. Major topics discussed were: reports of the three working groups on artisanal fisheries, demersal species and small pelagics, future work plan of the working groups, capture statistics and the ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

Printed by The Advent Press, Accra, Ghana


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