FAO ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PAPER 156

Guidelines for coordinated
human and animal
brucellosis surveillance

CONTENTS


Prepared by
A. Robinson
for the
Animal Production and Health Division
FAO Agriculture Department

EMERGENCY PREVENTION SYSTEM
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2003

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

The designations “developed” and “developing” economies are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country, country territory or area in the development process.

The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations nor of their affiliated organization(s).

ISBN: 92-5-104952-1

ISSN 0254-6019

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing and Multimedia Service, Information Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy, or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org.

© FAO 2003


CONTENTS

Foreword
Acknowledgements

INTRODUCTION
REVIEW OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BRUCELLOSIS
CRITICAL ISSUES IN DESIGNING A BRUCELLOSIS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

1. Identify indicators of human and animal health events
2. Establish clearly defined objectives
3. Develop specific case definitions
4. Identify existing data sources, or develop new data collection systems, including a flow chart
5. Pilot test the methods in the field
6. Define role of the laboratory in brucellosis surveillance
7. Control validity of the system
8. Analyse and interpret surveillance data
9. Develop dissemination methods
10. Evaluate brucellosis surveillance systems

SURVEILLANCE OF HUMAN BRUCELLOSIS

Case definition for human brucellosis
Laboratory criteria
Case classification
Sources and types of human surveillance
Data analyses and presentation of reports
Surveillance indicators

SURVEILLANCE OF ANIMAL BRUCELLOSIS

General features

1. The major species of Brucella infecting animals and humans in the country
2. Estimates of current or baseline levels of infection in the primary animal reservoirs
3. Definitions
4. Type of livestock production, marketing and slaughter systems
5. Availability of information on livestock numbers and identification in herds, flocks and villages
6. Stage of brucellosis control programme
7. Laboratory support and testing strategies
8. Data recording systems for surveillance
9. Brucellosis surveillance indicators
10. Epidemiological analyses of surveillance data
11. Political and legal factors in surveillance
12. Financial and administration factors in surveillance
13. Culture, motivation and education factors in surveillance

SURVEILLANCE OF BOVINE BRUCELLOSIS

1. High or unknown prevalence phase with no control programmes
2. Mass vaccination phase
3. Test and removal, segregation or slaughter phase
4. Freedom phase: herds, regions and countries

SURVEILLANCE OF PORCINE BRUCELLOSIS

Identification of the agent
Serological tests

Requirements for Vaccines and Diagnostic Biologicals

1. High or unknown prevalence phase with no control programmes
2. Mass vaccination phase
3. Test and removal, segregation or slaughter phase
4. Freedom phase

SURVEILLANCE OF OVINE AND CAPRINE BRUCELLOSIS

Identification of the agent
Serological and allergic skin tests
Requirements for vaccines and diagnostic biologicals
1. High or unknown prevalence phase with no control programmes
2. Mass vaccination phase
3. Test and removal, segregation or slaughter phase
4. Freedom phase
5. Maintenance of officially free status
6. Suspension and recovery of officially free status

SURVEILLANCE IN CAMELS, WILDLIFE AND OTHER SPECIES
INTERSECTORAL COLLABORATION AND COOPERATION IN BRUCELLOSIS SURVEILLANCE
SUMMARY
INFORMATION RESOURCES FOR BRUCELLOSIS

Internet resources
Printed resources

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