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PROGRESS OF PLANT BREEDING ACTIVITIES

Major breeding efforts in rice were initiated in the early 1960s and resulted in improved productivity, higher quality and increased tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Maximum impetus was achieved with the advent of the spontaneous mutant Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen which possessed a dwarfing gene. Dwarf, photo-insensitive and upright-effective plant types which were highly responsive to added dosages of inputs then gave new direction to the rice improvement programmes.

TABLE 4
Area, production and productivity in major rice-growing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, 1961-2001

Year

Harvested area
(ha)

Production
(tones)

Yield
(kg/ha)

ASIA

Bangladesh

1961-1970

9 370 861

15 802 748

16 845

1971-1980

9 940 803

18 055 771

18 127

1981-1990

10 347 583

23 113 077

22 339

1991-2001

10 289 477

30 061 061

29 113

China

1961-1970

30 162 485

87 884 753

28 917

1971-1980

35 746 469

130 577 484

36 582

1981-1990

33 245 134

173 304 957

52 155

1991-2001

31 261 571

190 102 951

60 848

India

1961-1970

36 205 674

54 936 203

15 150

1971-1980

38 893 616

68 900 266

17 675

1981-1990

40 907 272

92 838 813

22 633

1991-2001

43 500 709

122 763 183

28 197

Indonesia

1961-1970

7 455 447

14 335 000

19 103

1971-1980

8 509 539

23 423 955

27 451

1981-1990

9 828 140

39 021 574

39 607

1991-2001

11 323 628

49 097 329

43 370

Japan

1961-1970

3 242 050

17 103 656

52 795

1971-1980

2 640 900

15 360 451

58 113

1981-1990

2 219 500

13 436 600

60 550

1991-2001

1 964 818

12 273 280

62 918

KoreaRep.

1961-1970

1 188 500

5 010 500

42 112

1971-1980

1 212 620

6 688 334

55 074

1981-1990

1 236 746

7 743 890

62 604

1991-2001

1 090 264

7 005 308

64 372

Myanmar

1961-1970

4 707 580

7 741 980

16 432

1971-1980

4 811 390

9 499 970

19 762

1981-1990

4 646 050

14 009 155

30 160

1991-2001

5 685 651

17 674 763

30 989

Nepal

1961-1970

1 125 195

2 158 374

19 187

1971-1980

1 238 168

2 335 957

18 861

1981-1990

1 375 861

2 819 244

20 384

1991-2001

1 467 051

3 525 740

23 935

Pakistan

1961-1970

1 394 481

2 336 340

16 489

1971-1980

1 740 355

4 091 321

23 481

1981-1990

2 010 420

4 928 510

24 528

1991-2001

2 243 436

6 344 184

27 966

Philippines

1961-1970

3 185 991

4 392 683

13 780

1971-1980

3 526 044

6 316 049

17 873

1981-1990

3 331 499

8 647 519

25 940

1991-2001

3 674 666

10 721 653

29 106

Sri Lanka

1961-1970

542 835

1 132 667

20 710

1971-1980

726 916

1 564 796

21 348

1981-1990

796 499

2 374 347

29 862

1991-2001

803 250

2 580 046

32 121

Thailand

1961-1970

6 654 600

12 070 300

18 112

1971-1980

8 101 508

14 932 710

18 448

1981-1990

9 403 179

19 072 402

20 257

1991-2001

9 364 161

22 343 745

23 815

Viet Nam

1961-1970

4 796 878

9 244 019

19 291

1971-1980

5 190 382

10 886 159

21 022

1981-1990

5 736 960

15 925 601

27 709

1991-2001

6 998 927

26 495 964

37 627

AFRICA

Egypt

1961-1970

403 400

2 093 600

51 867

1971-1980

443 434

2 379 727

53 732

1981-1990

409 487

2 449 603

59 773

1991-2001

582 196

4 841 486

82 699

Guinea

1961-1970

320 900

310 800

9 748

1971-1980

449 259

403 893

8 992

1981-1990

459 758

390 929

8 658

1991-2001

460 632

669 223

14 442

Côte d’Ivoire

1961-1970

267 930

270 620

9 979

1971-1980

360 400

433 700

12 066

1981-1990

458 800

529 940

11 559

1991-2001

564 516

925 589

16 969

Nigeria

1961-1970

206 600

264 100

12 553

1971-1980

310 400

533 200

16 897

1981-1990

849 600

1 758 132

20 798

1991-2001

1 895 927

3 130 545

16 688

Sierra Leone

1961-1970

300 087

396 708

13 168

1971-1980

385 000

532 430

13 821

1981-1990

370 960

492 300

13 335

1991-2001

289 268

364 184

12 404

Tanzania

1961-1970

109 100

120 605

11 341

1971-1980

207 882

274 700

13 576

1981-1990

305 162

491 846

15 867

1991-2001

421 856

601 676

14 407

LATIN AMERICA

Brazil

1961-1970

4 140 172

6 380 752

15 482

1971-1980

5 403 023

7 847 737

14 508

1981-1990

5 409 362

9 484 352

17 623

1991-2000

3 885 094

9 887 952

25 695

2001

3 147 440

10 207 200

32 430

Chile

1961-1970

29 882

7 901

26 463

1971-1980

29 275

9 112

30 812

1981-1990

36 096

14 229

39 281

1991-2000

27 817

12 004

43 022

2001

28 550

14 361

50 179

Columbia

1961-1970

286 740

645 548

22 961

1971-1980

354 020

1 468 997

41 133

1981-1990

417 944

1 855 004

44 860

1991-2000

419 483

1 832 368

43 594

2001

429 175

2 106 755

49 088

Ecuador

1961-1970

104 539

229 787

22 259

1971-1980

101 842

286 113

28 268

1981-1990

198 496

594 570

29 827

1991-2000

350 466

1 185 686

33 722

2001

380 272

1 377 180

36 216

Venezuela

1961-1970

98 534

181 327

18 023

1971-1980

131 860

371 543

27 565

1981-1990

157 092

460 769

30 444

1991-2000

158 921

696 926

44 095

2001

140 000

690 000

49 286

TABLE 5
Number of varieties released (by location and period)

Country/region

Pre-1965

1966-1970

1971-75

1976-1980

1981-85

1986-1991

Total

Africa

3

7

8

17

26

42

103

Bangladesh

1

7

8

11

4

33

64

Myanmar (Burma)

0

4

6

21

37

8

76

China

0

1

8

30

31

12

82

India

10

67

136

139

125

166

643

Indonesia

1

2

5

21

10

9

48

Korea

0

5

11

35

40

15

106

Nepal

0

0

1

10

4

2

17

Pakistan

0

4

2

3

3

0

12

Philippines

3

4

13

23

8

2

53

Sri Lanka

3

14

4

8

21

3

53

Thailand

1

2

4

8

5

3

23

Viet Nam

0

16

6

16

16

5

59

Latin America

7

9

48

32

43

100

239

Total

29

142

260

374

373

400

1 578

TABLE 6
Number of varieties released in India (by ecosystem)

Ecosystem

No. of varieties released

Percentage

Irrigated

374

59.0

Rainfed shallow lowland

123

19.5

Rainfed upland

87

13.7

Rainfed semi-deep water

30

4.7

Deep water

14

2.2

Hill ecology

5

0.7

Total

633


One of the major indicators of progress in plant breeding activities is the number of varieties released and grown over a period of time (see Table 5). Between 1965 and 1991, Asia had the largest area under rice with many countries growing rice as a staple food and it developed the maximum number of varieties, followed by Latin America (239) and Africa (103). Within Asia, it is India that developed the greatest number of varieties during this period (643), followed by Korea (106), China (82), Myanmar (76), Bangladesh (64) and Viet Nam (59).

Further analysis indicates that the maximum number of varieties were released during the period 1986-1991 (400 varieties), followed by 1976-1980 (374) and 1981-85 (373). During the period 1965-1991, the number of varieties released during each 5-year period was greatest during the 1970s and 1980s.

The numbers of varieties released in each ecosystem in India are listed in Table 6. The greatest number of varieties were released for the irrigated ecosystem (59%), followed by rainfed shallow lowlands (19.5%), rainfed uplands (13.7%), rainfed semi-deep water (4.7%), deep water (2.2%) and hills (0.7%).

A list of the varieties developed and released by Bangladesh is given in Table 7. During the 24-year period from 1970 to 1994, 31 varieties were released for the different seasons: aman (July-Oct.), aus (Mar.-Aug.) and boro (Dec.-May). The yield potential of these lines ranged from 3.0 to 5.50 (±1.0) t/ha. Modern varieties cover a sizeable area in Bangladesh, making a significant contribution to higher production and productivity.

TABLE 7
High-yielding modern rice varieties bred by BRRI, Bangladesh

Variety name

Growing
season

Growth duration
(days)

Yield of rough rice
(t/ha)

Year of
release

BR1 (Chandina)

T. Aus

115+5

4.5+0.5

1970

Boro

145+5

5.5+0.5

BR2 (Mala)

T. Aus

120+5

4.0+0.5

1971

Boro

155+5

5.5+1.0

BR3 (Biplab)

T. Aus

125+5

4.5+0.5

1973

Boro

165+5

5.5+1.0

BR4 (Brrisail)

T. Aman

140+5

5.5+1.0

1975

BR5 (Dulabhog)

T. Aman

140+5

3.0+0.5

1976

BR6 (IR 28)

T. Aus

105+5

3.0+0.5

1977

Boro

135+5

3.5+1.0

BR7 (Brribalam)

T. Aus

125+5

3.5+1.0

1977

Boro

150+5

4.0+0.5

BR8 (Asha)

T. Aus

120+5

4.0+0.5

1978

Boro

160+5

5.0+1.0

BR9 (Sufala)

T. Aus

115+5

4.0+0.5

1978

Boro

150+5

5.0+1.0

BR10 (Progati)

T. Aman

145+5

5.5+1.0

1980

BR11 (Mukta)

T. Aman

140+5

5.5+1.0

1980

BR12 (Moyna)

T. Aus

125+5

4.0+0.5

1983

Boro

135+5

4.5+1.0

BR14 (Gazi)

T. Aus

120+5

4.5+0.5

1983

Boro

155+5

5.0+1.0

BR15 (Mohini)

T. Aus

125+5

4.0+0.5

1983

Boro

165+5

5.5+0.5

BR16 (Shahibalam)

T. Aus

125+5

4.0+0.5

1983

Boro

165+5

5.0+1.0

BR17 (Hashi)

Boro

155+5

5.0+1.0

1985

BR18 (Shahjalal)

Boro

165+5

5.0+1.0

1985

BR19 (Mongol

Boro

165+5

5.0+1.0

1985

BR20 (Nizami)

Upland Aus

115+5

3.5+0.5

1986

BR21 (Niamat)

Upland Aus

105+5

3.0+0.5

1986

BR22 (Kiron)

T. Aman

135+15

4.5+0.5

1988

BR23 (Dishari)

T. Aman

130+15

4.5+1.0

1988

BR24 (Rahmat)

Upland Aus

105+5

3.5+0.5

1992

BR25 (Naya Pajam)

T. Aman

135+5

4.5+0.5

1992

BR26 (Sraboni)

T. Aus

110+10

3.5+0.5

1993

BR 27

B. Aus

110+5

4.0+0.5

1994

T. Aus

110+5

4.0+0.5

BR 28

Boro

195+5

4.5+0.5

1994

BR 29

Boro

155+5

5.0+0.5

1994

BR 30

T. Aman

140+5

4.0+0.5

1994

BR 31

T. Aman

135+5

4.5+0.5

1994

BR 32

T. Aman

120+5

5.0+0.5

1994

Table 8 lists the varieties released for the various ecosystems in Africa; while Tables 9a-9d list the varieties released in Nigeria in various periods. During the 15-year period 1955-1970, 12 varieties were released: the greatest number (9) were released for the rainfed lowland ecosystem, followed by two varieties each for upland and deep-water ecosystems. During the 13-year period 1971-1984, 16 varieties were released, of which 12 for rainfed lowland and irrigated, 3 for deep-water and 1 for upland ecosystems. The yield potential of these varieties ranged from 1.5 to 5.0 t/ha.

TABLE 8
Varieties selected through New INGER, released and grown by farmers in Africa

Variety

Cross

Source

Selection criteria

Ecology

Year of release

Burkina Faso

IR 64

GP 15/TN1

IRRI

Poor soil, low nutrient

Irrigated

1989

ITA 123(FKR 28)

Mutant of OS 6

IITA

Grain quality

Irrigated

1983

RP 1125-1526-2-2-3 (FKR34)

Vikram/Ptb 2

India

High yield

Irrigated

1984

SAHEL 108 (IR 13240-108-2-2-3)

IR 305/Babawee//IR 36

IRRI

High yield, blast, high input

Irrigated

1992

TOX 728-1

Mahsuri/IET 1444

IITA

Adaptability, blast, lodging

Rainfed

1984

FARO 43(CAN 6675)

IREM 293-B/IAC 81-176

Brazil

Blast, lodging

Upland

1992

FARO 45(ITA 257)

IRAT 13/Dourado Precoce#689//TOX 490-1

Nigeria

High yield

Upland

1987

TOX 1011-4-A2

IRAT 13/DP 689//TOX 490-1

WARDA

Blast, drought

Upland

1992

WAB 56-125

IDSA 6/IAC 164

WARDA

Blast, drought

Upland

1992

WAB 56-39

IDSA 6/IAC 164

WARDA

High yield, blast

Upland

1992

WAB 56-50

IDSA 6/IAC 164

WARDA

Acidity, blast, drought

Upland

1982

Cameroon

BKN 7033


Thailand

High yield

Irrigated

n.a

BKN 7167


Thailand

High yield

Irrigated

n.a

IR 46

IR 1814//IR 1366-120-3-1/IR

IRRI

High yield

Irrigated

n.a


1539-37-3-1





WAB 387-B-B-1-2

ITA 184/ROK 16

WARDA

High yield

Upland

n.a

WAB 96-1-1

ITA 257/YS 121

WARDA

Low input, weed

Upland

n.a

Chad

BW 348-1


Sri Lanka

High yield

Rainfed

1997

CT 6240-12-2-2-3-6P

N Govie/IRAT 124//COL.1/M 312A

CIAT

High yield

Rainfed

1996

FARO 20

BPA 76

Philippines

High yield

Rainfed

1996

TOX 728-1

Mahsuri/IET 1444

IITA

Adaptability, blast, lodging

Rainfed

1993

Côte d’Ivoire

WITA 1

ITA 212/IR13149-19-1

WARDA

Iron toxicity, blast

Irrigated

1997

WITA 3

11975/IR 13146-45-2-3

WARDA

Iron toxicity, blast

Irrigated

1997

WITA 7

TOX891-212-1-201-1-105/TOX3056-5-1

WARDA

RYMV, blast

Irrigated

1997

WITA 8

TOX891-212-1-201-1-105/TOX3056-5-1

WARDA

RYMV

Irrigated

1997

WITA 9

IR 2042-178-1/CT 19

WARDA

RYMV

Irrigated

1997

WAB 638-1

DR 2/DR 2

WARDA

Quality

Rainfed

1997

WAB 450-11-1-P31-1 -HB (NERICA2)

WAB 56/104/CG 14

WARDA

Weed, early

Upland

2000

WAB 450-1-B-P-38-HB (NERICA 1)

WAB 56/104/CG 14

WARDA

Weed, early

Upland

2000

WAB 56-104

IDSA 6/IAC 164

WARDA

Blast

Upland

1997

WAB 56-125

IDSA 6/IAC 164

WARDA

Blast, drought

Upland

1997

WAB 56-50

IDSA 6/IAC 164

WARDA

Acidity, blast, drought

Upland

1997

WAB 96-1-1

ITA 257/YS 121

WARDA

Low input, weed

Upland

1997

Gambia

IR 28128-45-3-3-2

IR 36/IR 10154-23-3-3//IR9129-209-2-2-2-1

IRRI

Poor soil

Irrigated

n.a

IR 64

GP 15/TN1

IRRI

Poor soil, low nutrient

Irrigated

1993

ITA 212

BG 90-2*4/TETEP

IITA

Salinity

Irrigated

1992

ITA 222

Mahsuri/IET 1444

IITA

Salinity

Irrigated

1992

Rohyb 4

RH 2/T 52-10-1

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

n.a

Rohyb 6

CCA/RH 22

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

n.a

ROK 5

SR 26/Wellington

Sierra Leone

Salinity

Mangrove

1990

WAR 1

IR 4595-4-1-5/Pafant 213

WARDA

Salinity, acidity, high input

Mangrove

1992

WAR 115-108-1-8

Rohyb 15/WAR 3-3-B-2//IR 14753-120-3

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

1993

WAR 77-3-2-2

IR 4595-4-1-5/Pafant 213

WARDA

Salinity, Lodging, acidity, high input

Mangrove

1992

WAB 56-50

IDSA 6/IAC 164

WARDA

Acidity, blast, drought

Upland

1995

Ghana

TOX 3108-56-4-2-2-2

DJ 12-539/IR 46

IITA

Grain quality, Insect/disease resistance

Rainfed

1997

Guinea

Gambiaca


Benin

Shallow rainfed

Irrigated

1975

B 38 D2


Sierra Leone

Salinity

Mangrove

1995

BW 295-5

OB 678/BW 254-1

Sri Lanka

High yield

Mangrove

1997

Rohyb 6

CCA/RH 22

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

1993

ROK 5

SR 26/Wellington

Sierra Leone

Salinity

Mangrove

1992

WAR 1

IR 4595-4-1-5/Pafant 213

WARDA

Salinity, acidity, high input

Mangrove

1998

WAR 73-1-M-1

Rice mill/I. Mahsuri

WARDA

Salinity

Mangrove

1996

WAR 77-3-2-2

IR 4595-4-1-5/Pafant 213

WARDA

Salinity, Lodging, acidity, high input

Mangrove

1996

BG 90-2

(Peta 3*TN1)/Remadja

Sri Lanka

High yield

Rainfed

n.a

Bouake 189

B 189B-52-8-3-1

Indonesia

Favorable, high yield

Rainfed

n.a

Suakoko 8 (ROK 24)

Siam 25/3*Malunja

Liberia

Iron toxicity

Rainfed

1994

CK 7


Brazil

High yield, blast

Upland

n.a

IDSA 16(IRAT 216)

IRAT 11/IRAT 13

Côte d’Ivoire

High yield

Upland

n.a

IDSA 6

Colombia/M 312A

Côte d’Ivoire

Blast, high yield, drought

Upland

1995

IDSA 85

Araguaia/Cuiabana

Côte d’Ivoire

Grain quality

Upland

1998

IRAT 112

IRAT 13/Dourado Precoce

Côte d’Ivoire

Blast

Upland

1985

IRAT 114 (FARO 39)

IRAT 13/IRAT 10

Burkina Faso

Blast, drought

Upland

1985

LAC 23

Local selection

Liberia

Drought

Upland

n.a

TOX 1011-4-A2

IRAT 13/DP 689//TOX 490-1

WARDA

Blast, drought

Upland

1995

WAB 450-1-B-P-28-HB (NERICA 3)

WAB 56/104/CG 14

WARDA

Weed, early

Upland

1998

WAB 450-1-B-P-38-HB (NERICA 1)

WAB 56/104/CG 14

WARDA

Weed, early

Upland

1998

WAB 450-1-B-P-91-HB (NERICA 4)

WAB 56/104/CG 14

WARDA

Weed, early

Upland

1998

Wabis 675


WARDA

Weed, high yield

Upland

1998

Guinea Bissau

BG 367-4

BG 280-1*2/PTB 33

Sri Lanka

High yield

Mangrove

1994

BG 380-2

BG 90-2*4/OB 677

Sri Lanka

High yield

Mangrove

1994

BG 400-1

OB 678/IR 20/H 4

Sri Lanka

High yield

Mangrove

1994

CK 4

Tchinkan 30/IR 4422

Guinea

High yield

Mangrove

1993

DJ 684-D


Senegal

High yield

Mangrove

1993

RD 15


Sierra Leone

High yield

Mangrove

1992

Rohyb 4

RH 2/T 52-10-1

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

1993

Rohyb 6

CCA/RH 22

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

1993

ROK 5

SR 26/Wellington

Sierra Leone

Salinity

Mangrove

1984

WAR 1

IR 4595-4-1-5/Pafant 213

WARDA

Salinity, acidity, high input

Mangrove

1993

WAR 102-1-3-1

Djukeme/IR 3464-96-3-3-1-1

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

1993

WAR 115-111-2-3

Rohyb 15/WAR 3-3-B-2//IR 14753-120-3

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

1993

WAR 77-3-2-2

IR 4595-4-1-5/Pafant 213

WARDA

Salinity, Lodging, acidity, high input

Mangrove

1993

WAR 81-2-1-2

Miniku 33A/Bayerputih 462-10

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

1993

BG 90-2

(Peta 3*TN1)/Remadja

Sri Lanka

High yield

Rainfed

1990

IDSA 16 (IRAT 216)

IRAT 11/IRAT 13

Côte d’Ivoire

High yield

Upland

1997

IRAT 109

IRAT 13/IRAT 10

Côte d’Ivoire

High yield

Upland

1997

IRAT 110

IRAT 13/IRAT 10

Côte d’Ivoire

High yield

Upland

1997

IRAT 112

IRAT 13/Dourado Precoce

Côte d’Ivoire

Blast

Upland

n.a

Pekin


Gambia

High yield

Upland

1997

WAB 56-50

IDSA 6/IAC 164

WARDA

Acidity, blast, drought

Upland

1997

Liberia

WAB 56-104

IDSA 6/IAC 164

WARDA

Blast

Upland

1998

WAB 56-50

IDSA 6/IAC 164

WARDA

Acidity, blast, drought

Upland

1998

WAB 96-1-1

ITA 257/YS 121

WARDA

Low input, weed

Upland

1998

Madagascar

WITA 10

IR 2042-178-1/CT 19/IR 9828- 91-2-3

WARDA

RYMV

Irrigated

n.a

Mali

AD 9246

ADT 31/AD 198

India

High yield

Irrigated

2000

BG 90-2

(Peta 3*TN1)/Remadja

Sri Lanka

Grain quality, high input, lodging

Irrigated

1987

ECIA 362-2-1-4

Caribe 1/P 896-8-7-3-2-1

Cuba

High yield

Irrigated

1999

IR 1561-228-3-3

IR 579-48-1-2/IR 747B2-6-3

IRRI

High yield

Irrigated

n.a

IR 32307-107

IR 13240-108-2-2-3/IR 9129-202-2-2-2-1

IRRI

High yield, grain quality

Irrigated

1995

Leizhong 152


Taiwan Province of China

High yield

Irrigated

1999

RPK N2



High yield, grain quality

Irrigated

1999

BG 90-2

(Peta 3*TN1)/Remadja

Sri Lanka

High yield

Rainfed

n.a

Bouake 189

B 189B-52-8-3-1

Indonesia

Favorable, high yield

Rainfed

n.a

Khaodawk Mali 105


Thailand

Grain quality

Rainfed

1998

Mauritania

SAHEL 108 (IR 13240-108-2-2-3)

IR 305/Babawee//IR 36

IRRI

High yield, blast, high input

Irrigated

1996

SAHEL 20 (BW 292-3)

IR 2071-586/BG 400-1

Sri Lanka

High yield, blast, high input

Irrigated

1996

SAHEL 202 (ITA 306) (FARO 37)

TOX 494-3696/TOX 711/BG 6812

IITA

High yield, blast, high input

Irrigated

1996

Niger

BG 90-2

(Peta 3*TN1)/Remadja

Sri Lanka

Grain quality, high input, lodging

Irrigated

1982

IR 1529

IR 305-3-17-1-3/IR 661-1-140-3

IRRI

High yield

Irrigated

1970

IR 54

Nam Sagui 19/IR 2071-88//IR 2061-214-3-6-20

IRRI

High yield

Irrigated

1982

WITA 8

TOX891-212-1-201-1-105/TOX3056-5-1

WARDA

RYMV

Irrigated

1997

WITA 9

IR 2042-178-1/CT 19

WARDA

RYMV

Irrigated

1997

BG 90-2

(Peta 3*TN1)/Remadja

Sri Lanka

High yield

Rainfed

n.a

Nigeria

BG 380-2

BG 90-2*4/OB 677

Sri Lanka

High yield

Mangrove

n.a

Rohyb 4

RH 2/T 52-10-1

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

n.a

Rohyb 6

CCA/RH 22

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

1992

WAR 77-3-2-2

IR 4595-4-1-5/Pafant 213

WARDA

Salinity, Lodging, acidity, high input

Mangrove

n.a

WAR 81-2-3-3-3-1

Miniku 33A/Bayerputih 462-10

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

1993

CISADANE (FARO 51)

Pelitai 1//IR 789-98-2-3/IR 2157-3

Indonesia

ARGM, blast

Rainfed

1997

WAB 36-2L-FX

IRAT 144/OS 6

WARDA

High yield

Upland

n.a

WAB 36-34-FX

IRAT 144/OS 6

WARDA

High yield

Upland

n.a

WAB 56-125

IDSA 6/IAC 164

WARDA

Blast, drought

Upland

n.a

Senegal

BG 90-2

(Peta 3*TN1)/Remadja

Sri Lanka

Grain quality, high input, lodging

Irrigated

1997

BR 51-46-5

IR 20/IR 5-114-3-1

Bangladesh

Grain quality, high input, lodging

Irrigated

1997

BW 248-1


Sri Lanka

High yield, blast

Irrigated

1997

ITA 123(FKR 28)

Mutant of OS 6

IITA

Grain quality

Irrigated

1997

SAHEL 108 (IR 13240-108-2-2-3)

IR 305/Babawee//IR 36

IRRI

High yield, blast, high input

Irrigated

1994

SAHEL 201 (BW 292-3)

IR 2071-586/BG 400-1

Sri Lanka

High yield, blast, high input

Irrigated

1994

SAHEL 202 (ITA 306) (FARO 37)

TOX 494-3696/TOX 711/BG 6812

IITA

High yield, blast, high input

Irrigated

1994

ROK 5

SR 26/Wellington

Sierra Leone

Salinity

Mangrove

n.a

WAR 1

IR 4595-4-1-5/Pafant 213

WARDA

Salinity, acidity, high input

Mangrove

1997

WAR 77-3-2-2

IR 4595-4-1-5/Pafant 213

WARDA

Salinity, Lodging, acidity, high input

Mangrove

1997

WAR 81-2-1-3-2

Miniku 33A/Bayerputih 462-10

WARDA

Quality, salinity

Mangrove

1997

BG 90-2

(Peta 3*TN1)/Remadja

Sri Lanka

High yield

Rainfed

1997

BW 248-1


Sri Lanka

Blast

Rainfed

1997

Sierra Leone

Mashuri (ROK 25)

Taichung 65/2*Mayang EBOS 80

Malaysia

High yield

Irrigated

1998

Rohyb 4

RH 2/T 52-10-1

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

1992

WAR 1

IR 4595-4-1-5/Pafant 213

WARDA

Salinity, acidity, high input

Mangrove

1991

WAR 81-2-1-2

Miniku 33A/Bayerputih 462-10

WARDA

High yield

Mangrove

1993

Suakoko 8 (ROK 24)

Siam 25/3*Malunja

Liberia

Iron toxicity

Rainfed

n.a

LAC 23

Local selection

Liberia

Drought

Upland

n.a

WAB 96-1-1

ITA 257/YS 121

WARDA

Low input, weed

Upland

1998

Togo

IR 46

IR 1814//IR 1366-120-3-1/IR 1539-37-3-1

IRRI

High yield

Irrigated

n.a

IR 841

IR 262-43-8-11/KDM 105

IRRI

High yield

Irrigated

1990

WITA 4

11975/IR 13146-45-2-3

WARDA

Drought, Iron Toxicity

Rainfed

1999

IDSA 6

Colombia/M 312A

Côte d’Ivoire

Blast, high yield, drought

Upland

1997

IRAT 112

IRAT 13/Dourado Precoce

Côte d’Ivoire

Blast

Upland

n.a

IRAT 13

Mutant of 63-83

Côte d’Ivoire

Blast

Upland

n.a

TABLE 9a
Characteristics of recommended rice varieties in Nigeria, 1955-1970

Cultivar
(old name)

Cultivar
(new name)

Year of release

Duration
(days)

Plant height
(cm)

Grain type

Yield potential
(t/ha)

Reaction to blasta

Upland rice ecosystem

FARO 3

Agbede

1958

95-120

99-100

B

1.5-2.5

S

FARO 11

OS 6

1966

115-120

103-110

B

1.5-3.5

S

Rainfed lowland rice ecosystem

FARO 1

BG 79

1955

135-174

100-120

B

2.0-4.0

S

FARO 2

D 114

1958

135-176

110-115

B

2.0-4.0

S

FARO 5 Makalioka

823

1960

135-154

111-115

B

2.0-4.0

S

FARO 6

ICB

1961

176-198

150-160

B

2.0-3.0

MR

FARO 7

Maliong

1962

160-217

150-160

B

2.0-3.5

MR

FARO 8

MAS 2401

1963

155-160

110-115

A

2.5-4.5

S

FARO 13

Sindano

1963

115-162

125-130

A

2.5-4.0

S

FARO 12

SML 140-10

1969

145-160

135-140

A

2.5-4.5

MR

FARO 13

IR 8

1970

35-140

90-100

B

2.5-3.5

S

Deep-water rice ecosystem

FARO 4

KAV 12

1959

189-220

145-150

B

2.0-3.5

R

FARO 9

SIAM 29

1963

189-220

126-130

A

2.5-3.5

MR

a S = susceptible; MR = moderately resistant; R = resistant.

TABLE 9b
Characteristics of recommended rice varieties in Nigeria, 1971-1984

Cultivar
(old name)

Cultivar
(new name)

Year of release

Duration
(days)

Plant height
(cm)

Grain type

Yield potential (t/ha)

Reaction to blasta

Upland rice ecosystem 

FARO 25

FAROX 56/230

1976

115-120

105-110

B

1.5-3.0

MR

Rainfed lowland and irrigated rice ecosystem 

FARO 15

FRRS - 162-B

1974

145-160

120-130

B

3.0-5.5

MR

FARO 16

FRRS-168-B-111-2

1974

140-160

90-100

B

2.5-5.0

MR

FARO 17

FRRS-148-B-11-3

1974

145-160

100-110

B

2.5-5.0

MR

FARO 19

IR 20

1974

135-140

90-100

B

2.5-5.0

R

FARO 20

BPA 76 (BICOL)

1974

125-130

90-100

B

2.5-5.0

MR

FARO 21

Taichung Native-1

1974

90-110

80-90

C

2.5-4.5

S

FARO 22

IR 627-1-31-3-37

1974

145-150

90-110

B

2.5-5.0

MR

FARO 23

IR 5-47-2

1974

145-150

90-100

B

2.5-5.0

MR

FARO 26

TOS 78

1992

130-135

105-110

B

2.5-5.0

MR

FARO 27

TOS 103

1982

110-115

90-100

B

2.5-3.5

MR

FARO 28

FAROX 188A

1982

135-140

125-130

B

2.5-5.5

MR

FARO 29

BG 90-2

1984

125-135

115-125

B

3.0-5.5

S

Deep-water rice ecosystem 

FARO 14

FRRS-43-111-1

1971

170-198

150-160

B

2.0-3.5

MR

FARO 18

Tjina

1974

165-175

125-135

B

2.5-4.0

R

FARO 24

DeGaulle

1974

135-115

135-145

A

2.5-4.0

S

a S = susceptible; MR = moderately resistant; R = resistant.

TABLE 9c
Characteristics of recommended rice varieties in Nigeria, 1985-89

Cultivar
(local name

Cultivar
(original name)

Year of release

Duration
(days)

Plant height
(cm)

Grain
type

Yield potential
(t/ha)

Reaction to blasta

Upland rice ecosystem 

FARO 38

IRAT 133

1986

100-105

100-110

C

1.5-3.5

R

FARO 39

IRAT 144

1986

100-105

95-105

C

1.5-3.5

R

FARO 40

FAROX 299

1986

115-120

115-120

B

1.5-3.5

R

FARO 41

IRAT 170

1986

115-120

80-90

B

1.5-3.5

MR

FARO 42

ART 12

1986

115-120

110-115

B

1.5-3.5

MR

FARO 43

ITA 128

1986

115-120

110-115

B

1.5-3.5

MR

Irrigated rice ecosystem 

FARO 30

FAROX 228-2-1-1

1986

110-115

120-125

B

3.0-6.5

MR

FARO 31

FAROX 228-3-1-1

1986

110-115

120-125

B

3.0-6.5

MR

FARO 32

FAROX 228-4-1-1

1986

110-115

110-120

B

3.0-6.5

MR

FARO 33

FAROX 233-1-1-1

1986

110-115

120-115

A

3.0-6.5

MR

FARO 34

FAROX 239-2-1-1

1986

105-115

115-120

A

3.0-6.5

MR

FARO 35

ITA 212

1986

120-135

125-135

B

3.0-6.5

MR

FARO 36

ITA 222

1986

120-135

125-130

B

3.0-6.5

 

FARO 37

ITA 306

1986

125-140

127-130

A

3.0-6.0

MR

a R = resistant; M = moderately resistant.

TABLE 9d
Rice varieties released in Nigeria, 1990-2000

Cultivar
(local name)

Cultivar
(original name)

Ecology

Days to maturity

Plant height (cm)

Yield range
(t/ha)

Grain
shape

Amylose content

Reaction
to blasta

Year of release

FARO 44

SIP 1692033

Shallow swamp

15

95

4.0-6.0

Long

26

R

1992

FARO 45

ITA 257

Upland

100

100

2.0-3.0

Medium

17.4

R

1992

FARO 46

ITA 150

Upland

105

110

2.0-3.5

Medium

22.5

R

1992

FARO 47

ITA 117

Upland

115

105

2.0-4.0

Long

10.5

R

1992

FARO 48

ITA 301

Upland

128

100

2.5-4.0

Medium

16.4

R

1992

FARO 49

ITA 315

Upland

120

100

2.0-4.5

Medium

16.2

R

1992

FARO 50

ITA 230

Shallow swamp

125

100

4.0-6.5

Medium

28

R

1992

FARO 51

 

Shallow swamp

130

100

4.0-6.0

Long

-

R

1997

a R = resistant.

Tables 10 and 11 list the rice varieties released for Latin America and the Caribbean between 1970 and 1996. A total of 295 varieties were released during the 26-year period; the greatest number were released in Brazil (107), followed by the Andean countries, Central America and Colombia (29). Very few varieties were released in Chile, Ecuador and Venezuela. In terms of agro-ecologies, the greatest number of varieties were released in tropical areas; only a few varieties were released for the temperate zone.

TABLE 10
Rice varieties released by breeding programmes in different regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, 1971-1990

Period

Environment

Total

Arid zones

Temperate
South America

Tropical America

1971-75

8

3

5

16

1976-80

4

2

7

13

1981-85

4

1

8

13

1986-90

5

4

19

28

Total

21

10

39

70

TABLE 11
Rice varieties released in Latin America and the Caribbean (by origin), 1970-1998

Subregion or country

1970-
1980

1981-
1990

1991-
1996

Total

Caribbean

18

6

3

27

Cuba

3

5

6

14

Mexico

22

11

3

36

Central America

8

20

18

46

Tropical Brazil

4

30

23

57

Temperate Brazil

11

12

14

37

Andean countries

17

23

22

62

Southern Cone

4

9

3

16

Total

87

116

92

295

International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs), in particular the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), have made a great contribution to the development of popular rice varieties over the last 40 years. IRRI has developed and released a number of varieties, from IR 8 to IR 72. The varieties, IR 8, IR 20, IR 36, IR 42, IR 50, IR 64 and IR 72, became popular worldwide and IR 36 and IR 64 in particular became very popular in Asia, covering a very large area. It should be noted that both of these varieties have a very wide genetic base involving several parents.

IRRI’s International Rice Testing Program (IRTP), initiated in 1975, paid rich dividends, as did the International Network on Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER). A number of successful rice varieties were also developed at other international centres, such as WARDA(West Africa Rice Development Association), CIAT (International Centre for Tropical Agriculture) and IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture), and soon gained popularity in West Africa and Latin America.

Taking into account national, regional and international efforts, it is clear that the progress achieved in rice breeding has been remarkable during the last four decades: there have been great advances in production and productivity the world over, particularly in Asia and Latin America. The increase in production in Africa was largely due to increase in area. However, comparing the yield potential of varieties and hybrids with the actual yield in farmers’ fields produces a large gap; this yield gap may be seen as an opportunity to increase rice production per unit area, input and time in different rice-growing regions, situations and systems. With the advent of new tools and techniques, the genetic potential of rice is enormous (Rai and Prasanna, 2000).


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