The ecosystem approach to fisheries

by
S.M Garcia
Fishery Resources Division
FAO Fisheries Department
A. Zerbi, C. Aliaume, T. Do Chi, G. Lasserre
Research Unit on Lagoon Ecosystems
University of Montpellier 2
France

ISSN 0429-9345

FAO
FISHERIES
TECHNICAL
PAPER

443

 

 


 

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Rome, 2003

 
    Table of Contents

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ISBN 92-5-104960-2

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© FAO 2003


Table of Contents

PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

INTRODUCTION

1. TERMINOLOGY AND PARADIGMS

1.1 Fisheries Management
1.2 Ecosystem Management
1.3 Ecosystem Approach
1.4 Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management (EBFM)
1.5 Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF)
1.6 Integrated Management (IM)

2. ECOSYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS

2.1 Definition
2.2 Scale and Boundaries
2.3 Dynamics and Natural Variability
2.4 Biological Organization
2.5 Structure

3. FISHERIES IMPACT ON THE ECOSYSTEM

3.1 Overall Impacts
3.2 Impact on Associated and Dependent Species
3.3 Impact on the Environment
3.4 Poor Selectivity, Bycatch and Discards
3.5 Gear Loss and Ghost Fishing

4. FISHERIES VERSUS OTHER IMPACTS

4.1 Overall Impacts
4.2 Relative Importance of Fisheries and Other Impacts
4.3 The Black Sea Example
4.4 Impact on Diadromous Fish
4.5 Competition Between Humans and Marine Mammals
4.6 Allocation Implications

5. INSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS

6. RELEVANCE OF THE CODE OF CONDUCT

6.1 Respect for the Ecosystem
6.2 Account of the Environment
6.3 Biodiversity and Endangered Species
6.4 Species Interdependence
6.5 General Impact from Fisheries
6.6 Selectivity, Ghost Fishing, Bycatch, Discards and Waste
6.7 Impact from Other Activities
6.8 Improved Governance
6.9 Uncertainty, Risk and Precaution
6.10 Integrated Management

7. EAF PRINCIPLES

7.1 Human and Ecosystem Well-being
7.2 Resource Scarcity
7.3 Maximum Acceptable Fishing Level
7.4 Maximum Biological Productivity
7.5 Impact Reversibility
7.6 Impact Minimization
7.7 Rebuilding of Resources
7.8 Ecosystem Integrity
7.9 Species Interdependence
7.10 Institutional Integration
7.11 Uncertainty, Risk and Precaution
7.12 Compatibility of Management Measures
7.13 The Polluter Pays Principle (PPP)
7.14 The User Pays Principle (UPP)
7.15 The Precautionary Principle and Precautionary Approach
7.16 Subsidiarity, Decentralization and Participation
7.17 Equity

8. OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND MEASURES

8.1 Targets, Constraints, Indicators and Reference Points
8.2 Priority Setting
8.3 Improving Conventional Management
8.4 Improving Ecosystem Well-being
8.5 Rebuilding Ecosystems
8.6 Maintaining Reproductive Capacity of Target Resources
8.7 Maintaining Biological Diversity
8.8 Protecting and Enhancing Habitats
8.9 Protecting Selected Marine Areas
8.10 Reducing Bycatch and Discards
8.11 Reducing Ghost Fishing
8.12 Reducing Uncertainty and Risk
8.13 Improving the Institutional Set-up
8.14 Matching Jurisdictional and EAF Boundaries
8.15 Improving the Decision-making Framework
8.16 Improving Statistics and Inventories
8.17 Monitoring and Indicators
8.18 Improving Research Capacity
8.19 Management Planning
8.20 Certification

9. IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES

9.1 EAF: Hurdle or Opportunity?
9.2 Rhetoric Versus Commitment
9.3 Capacity, Pragmatism and Stepwise Implementation
9.4 The Need for Subsectoral Approaches
9.5 Role of NGOs

DISCUSSION: FUSION OR COLLISION?

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annex 1: Malawi Principles for the Ecosystem Approach

Annex 2: Key Events in the Evolution of Fisheries and Ecosystem Management

Annex 3: Glossary

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