In this study the agro-ecological structure and the areas, yields and fertilization of the individual crops in Cuba are examined. All Cuba s fertilizer requirements are imported and the quantities available are limited. The use of fertilizers fell by 80 percent during the 1990s and the present level is insufficient to maintain yields and soil fertility. In order to alleviate the situation the Government gives priority to certain key crops such as sugar cane because of its economic importance and potatoes as a key food crop. The use of plant nutrients from organic sources is encouraged. The use of biofertilizers has been tried but only nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium has maintained its position.