The NPPO is responsible for the phytosanitary aspects of evaluation, adoption and use of irradiation as a phytosanitary measure. To the extent necessary, it is the NPPOs responsibility to cooperate with other national and international regulatory agencies concerned with the development, approval, safety and application of irradiation, or the distribution, use or consumption of irradiated products. Their respective responsibilities should be identified to avoid overlapping, conflicting, inconsistent or unjustified requirements.
The objective of using irradiation as a phytosanitary measure is to prevent the introduction or spread of regulated pests. This may be realized by achieving certain responses in the targeted pest(s) such as:
- preventing successful development (e.g. non-emergence of adults);
- inability to reproduce (e.g. sterility);
- or inactivation.
Phytosanitary uses of irradiation also include the devitalization of plants (e.g. seeds may germinate but seedlings do not grow; or tubers, bulbs or cuttings do not sprout).
The required treatment efficacy should be specifically defined by the NPPO of the importing country. It consists of two distinct components:
- a precise description of required response;
- the statistical level of response required.
It is not sufficient to only specify a response without also describing how this is to be measured.
The choice of a required response is based on the risk as assessed through PRA, considering in particular the biological factors leading to establishment and taking into account the principle of minimal impact. A response such as mortality may be appropriate where the treatment is for the vector of a pathogen, whereas sterility may be an appropriate response for pest(s) that are not vectors and remain on or in the commodity.
If the required response is mortality, time limits for the effect of the treatment should be established.
A range of specific options may be specified where the required response is the inability of the pest to reproduce. These may include:
- complete sterility;
- limited fertility of only one sex;
- egg laying and/or hatching without further development;
- altered behaviour; and
- sterility of F1 generation.
Ionizing radiation may be provided by radioactive isotopes (gamma rays from cobalt-60 or cesium-137), electrons generated from machine sources (up to 10 MeV), or by x-rays (up to 5 MeV) (limits set by Codex Alimentarius). The unit of measurement for absorbed dose should be gray (Gy).
Variables to consider when implementing treatments include the dose rate, treatment time, temperature, humidity, ventilation, and modified atmospheres; these should be compatible with treatment effectiveness. Modified atmospheres may reduce treatment efficacy at a prescribed dose.
Treatment procedures should also ensure that the minimum absorbed dose (Dmin) is fully attained throughout the commodity to provide the prescribed level of efficacy. Owing to the differences in the configuration of treatment lots, higher doses than the Dmin may be required to ensure that the Dmin is achieved throughout the configured consignment or lot. The intended end use of the product should be considered when conducting irradiation treatments.
Because mortality will rarely be technically justified as the required response, live target pests may be found. Therefore it is essential that the irradiation treatment ensures they are unable to reproduce. In addition, it is preferable that such pest(s) are unable to emerge or escape from the commodity unless they can be practically distinguished from non-irradiated pest(s).
Irradiation can be applied:
- as an integral part of packing operations;
- to bulk unpackaged commodities (such as grain moving over a belt);
- at centralized locations such as the port of embarkation.
When safeguards are adequate and transit movement of the untreated commodity is operationally feasible, treatment may also be performed at:
- the point of entry;
- a designated location in a third country;
- a designated location within the country of final destination.
Treated commodities should be certified and released only after dosimetry measurements confirm that the Dmin was met. Where appropriate, re-treatment of consignments may be allowed, provided that the maximum absorbed dose is within the limits allowed by the importing country.
The purpose of Annex 1 [to be completed] is to list the doses for specific approved treatments as part of this ISPM. Appendix 1, which is attached for information only, provides some published information on absorbed dose ranges for certain pest groups.
According to the pest risks to be addressed and the available options for pest risk management, irradiation can be used as a single treatment or combined with other treatments as part of a systems approach to meet the level of efficacy required (see ISPM No. 14: The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management).
Dosimetry ensures that the required Dmin for a particular commodity was delivered to all parts of the consignment. The selection of the dosimetry system should be such that the dosimeter response covers the entire range of doses likely to be received by the product. In addition, the dosimetry system should be calibrated in accordance with international standards or appropriate national standards (e.g. Standard ISO/ASTM 51261 Guide for Selection and Calibration of Dosimetry Systems for Radiation Processing).
Dosimeters should be appropriate for the treatment conditions. Dosimeters should be evaluated for stability against the effects of variables such as light, temperature, humidity, storage time, and the type and timing of analyses required.
Dosimetry should consider variations due to density and composition of the material treated, variations in shape and size, variations in orientation of the product, stacking, volume and packaging. Dose mapping of the product in each geometric packing configuration, arrangement and product density that will be used during routine treatments should be required by the NPPO prior to the approval of a facility for the treatment application. Only the configurations approved by the NPPO should be used for actual treatments.
All components of the dosimetry system should be calibrated according to documented standard operating procedures. An independent organization recognized by the NPPO should assess performance of the dosimetry system.
Dose mapping studies should be conducted to fully characterize the dose distribution within the irradiation chambers and commodity, and demonstrate that the treatment consistently meets the prescribed requirements under defined and controlled conditions. Dose mapping should be done in accordance with documented standard operating procedures. The information from the dose mapping studies is used in the selection of locations for dosimeters during routine processing.
Independent dose mapping for incomplete (partially-filled) as well as first and last process loads is required to determine if the absorbed-dose distribution is significantly different from a routine load and to adjust the treatment accordingly.
An accurate measurement of absorbed dose in a consignment is critical for determining and monitoring efficacy and is part of the verification process. The required number, location and frequency of these measurements should be prescribed based on the specific equipment, processes, commodities, relevant standards and phytosanitary requirements.
Treatment facilities should be approved by relevant nuclear regulatory authorities where appropriate. Treatment facilities should also be subject to approval (qualification, certification or accreditation) by the NPPO in the country where the facility is located prior to applying phytosanitary treatments. Phytosanitary approval should be based on a common set of criteria plus those specific to the site and commodity programmes (see Annex 2).
Phytosanitary re-approval should be done on an appropriate regular basis. Documented dose mapping should be done following repairs, modifications or adjustments in equipment or processes that affect the absorbed dose.
Confidence in the adequacy of an irradiation treatment is primarily based on assurance that the treatment is effective against the pest(s) of concern under specific conditions and the treatment has been properly applied and the commodity adequately safeguarded. The NPPO of the country where the facility is located is responsible for ensuring system integrity, so that treatments meet the phytosanitary requirements of the importing country.
Efficacy research and dosimetry provide assurance that only effective treatments are used. Well-designed and closely monitored systems for treatment delivery and safeguarding assure that treatments are properly conducted and consignments protected from infestation, reinfestation or loss of integrity.
Because it is not usually possible to visually distinguish irradiated from non-irradiated products, treated commodities should be adequately segregated, clearly identified, and handled under conditions that will safeguard against contamination and/or infestation, or misidentification.
A secure means of moving the commodity from receiving areas to treatment areas without misidentification or risk of cross-contamination and/or infestation is essential. Appropriate procedures specific to each facility and commodity treatment programme should be agreed upon in advance. Commodities that are unpackaged or exposed in packaging require safeguarding immediately following treatment to ensure that they are not subject to infestation, reinfestation or contamination afterwards.
Packaging prior to irradiation may be useful to prevent reinfestation if irradiation is done prior to export, or to prevent the accidental escape of target pest(s) if treatment is done at the destination.
Packages should be labelled with treatment lot numbers and other identifying features allowing the identification of treatment lots and trace-back (i.e. packing and treatment facility identification and location, dates of packing and treatment).
The adequacy of treatment facilities and processes should be verified through monitoring and audit of facility treatment records that include, as necessary, direct treatment oversight. Direct, continuous supervision of treatments should not be necessary provided treatment programmes are properly designed to ensure a high degree of system integrity for the facility, process and commodity in question. The level of oversight should be sufficient to detect and correct deficiencies promptly.
A compliance agreement should be concluded between the facility and the NPPO of the country where the facility is located. Such an agreement may include the following elements:
- approval of the facility by the NPPO of the country where the facility is located;
- the monitoring programme as administered by the NPPO of the country where treatments are conducted;
- audit provisions including unannounced visits;
- free access to documentation and records of the treatment facility; and
- corrective action to be taken in cases of non-compliance.
The NPPO of the country where the facility is located is responsible for monitoring recordkeeping and documentation by the treatment facility and ensuring that records are available to concerned parties. As in the case of any phytosanitary treatment, trace-back capability is essential.
Documented procedures help to ensure that commodities are consistently treated as required. Process controls and operational parameters are usually established to provide the operational details necessary for a specific authorization and/or facility. Calibration and quality control programmes should be documented by the facility operator. At a minimum, an agreed written procedure should address the following:
- consignment handling procedures before, during and after
- orientation and configuration of the commodity during treatment;
- critical process parameters and the means for their monitoring; dosimetry; contingency plans and corrective actions to be taken in the event of treatment failure or problems with critical treatment processes; procedures for handling rejected lots; labelling, recordkeeping, and documentation requirements.
Packers and treatment facility operators should be required to keep records. These records should be available to the NPPO for review, e.g. when a trace-back is necessary.
Appropriate treatment records for phytosanitary purposes should be kept by the irradiation facility for at least one year to ensure traceability of treated lots. The facility operator should keep all records for every treatment. Dosimetry records should be kept by the treatment facility for at least one full year after treatment. In most cases, these records are required under other authorities, but these records should also be available to the NPPO for review. Other information that may be required to be recorded includes:
- identification of facility and responsible parties;
- identity of commodities treated;
- purpose of treatment;
- target regulated pest(s);
- packer, grower and identification of the place of production of the commodity;
- lot size, volume and identification, including number of articles or packages;
- identifying markings or characteristics;
- quantity in lot;
- absorbed doses (target and measured);
- date of treatment;
- any observed deviation from treatment specification.
Inspection to ensure the consignment meets the phytosanitary requirements of the importing country should include:
- documentation verification; and
- examination for non-target pests.
Documentation is checked for completeness and accuracy as the basis for certifying the treatment. Inspection is done to detect any non-target pests. This inspection may be done before or after the treatment. Where non-target pests are found, the NPPO should verify whether these are regulated by the importing country.
Live target pests may be found after treatment but should not result in the certification being refused except when mortality is the required response. Where mortality is required, live target pests may be found during the period immediately following the treatment application depending on the specification for efficacy (see section 2.1). If live pests are found, certification could be based on audit checks which confirm that mortality will be attained. When mortality is not the required response, it is more likely that live target pests may persist in the treated consignment. This should also not result in the certification being refused. Audit checks, including laboratory analyses, may be undertaken to ensure that the required response is achieved. Such checks may be part of the normal verification programme.
Certification in accordance with the IPPC validates the successful completion of a treatment when required by the importing country. The Phytosanitary Certificate or its associated documentation should at least specifically identify the treated lot(s), date of treatment, the target minimum dose and the verified Dmin.
The NPPO may issue Phytosanitary Certificates based on treatment information provided to it by an entity approved by the NPPO. It should be recognized that the Phytosanitary Certificate may require other information supplied to verify that additional phytosanitary requirements have also been met (see ISPM No. 7: Export certification system and ISPM No.12: Guidelines for Phytosanitary Certificates).
When mortality is not the required response, the detection of live stages of target pests in import inspection should not be considered to represent treatment failure resulting in non-compliance unless evidence exists to indicate that the integrity of the treatment system was inadequate. Laboratory or other analyses may be performed on surviving target pest(s) to verify treatment efficacy. Such analyses should only be required infrequently as part of monitoring unless there is evidence to indicate problems in the treatment process. Where mortality is the required response, this may be confirmed. Where mortality is required, live target pests may be found when transport times are short, but should not normally result in the consignment being refused, unless the established mortality time has been exceeded.
The detection of pests other than target pest(s) on import should be assessed for the risk posed and appropriate measures taken, considering in particular the effect the treatment may have had on the non-target pest(s). The consignment may be detained and any other appropriate action may be taken by the NPPO of the importing country. NPPOs should clearly identify the contingency actions to be taken if live pests are found:
- target pests-no action to be taken unless the required response was not achieved;
- non-target regulated pests:
- no action if the treatment is believed to have been effective;
- action if there is insufficient data on efficacy or the treatment is not known to be effective;
- non-target non-regulated pests-no action, or emergency action for new pests.
In case of non-compliance or emergency action, the NPPO of the importing country should notify the NPPO of the exporting country as soon as possible (see ISPM No. 13: Guidelines for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action).
Verification methods, including laboratory tests or analysis to determine if the required response has been achieved should be described by the exporting country at the request of the importing country.
The NPPO should have the ability and resources to evaluate, monitor, and authorize irradiation undertaken for phytosanitary purposes. Policies, procedures and requirements developed for irradiation should be consistent with those associated with other phytosanitary measures, except where the use of irradiation requires a different approach because of unique circumstances.
The monitoring, certification, accreditation and approval of facilities for phytosanitary treatments is normally undertaken by the NPPO where the facility is located, but by cooperative agreement may be undertaken by:
- the NPPO of the importing country;
- the NPPO of the exporting country; or
- other national authorities.
Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs), compliance agreements, or similar documented agreements between the NPPO and the treatment applicator/facility should be used to specify process requirements and to assure that responsibilities, liabilities and the consequences of non-compliance are clearly understood. Such documents also strengthen the enforcement capability of the NPPO if corrective action may be necessary. The NPPO of the importing country may establish cooperative approval and audit procedures with the NPPO of the exporting country to verify requirements.
All NPPO procedures should be appropriately documented and records, including those of monitoring inspections made and Phytosanitary Certificates issued, should be maintained for at least one year. In cases of non-compliance or new or unexpected phytosanitary situations, documentation should be made available as described in ISPM No. 13: Guidelines for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.
Appendix 2 provides guidance on undertaking research for the irradiation of regulated pests.
 Codex general standard
for irradiated food: Codex Stand. 106-1983. Codex Alimentarius,
Section 7.1, Col. 1A (currently under revision).|