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GMOs in aquaculture have much to offer in terms of improvements in aquacultural production, food security and generating economic benefits.

GMOs will undoubtedly be used in aquaculture but use should be in conformity with principles of the Cartagena Protocol.

Greater precision and efficiency in the techniques of induction of transgenics will need to be developed, particularly with respect to sites of integration.

Integrated sequences should not contain DNA of viral origin, reporter genes or other genes not required for the target phenotype.

The risks attached to the use of GMOs need to be analysed and quantified in more realistic and reliable ways than so far is the case.

The use of (reversibly) sterile fish for production offers a route for reducing, very considerably, risks to biodiversity from the use of GMOs.

There is an urgent need for balanced and accurate information on GMOs to be disseminated among policymakers, aquaculturists and the general public.

Regulatory frameworks for the exploitation of GMOs are necessary but should be based upon reliable, objective criteria.

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