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Abrew, S. de. 2003. Uganda: Promotion and Strengthening of Sustainable Farmer Groups and Associations. FAO/TCP/UGA/2904(T). FAO/TCP. Rome.

Alex, G., W. Zijp & D. Byerlee. 2001. Rural Extension and Advisery Services: New Directions. The World Bank, AKIS (draft doc. ). Washington, DC.

Alex, G. et al. 2002. Agricultural Extension Investments: Future Options for Rural Development. The World Bank. Washington, DC.

Anderson, J. R. & G. Feder. 2003. Rural Extension Services. The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper 2976. Washington, DC.

Anyonge, T. M., C. Holding, K. K., Kareko & J. W. Kimani. Scaling up participatory agroforestry extension in Kenya: from pilot projects to extension policy; Development in Practice, 11:4, 449-459.

Beets, W. C., W. M. Rivera, R. C. Moore, Q. L. Yang, & Y. Hu. 1996. Final Report. Mid-term Evaluation of Arid and Semi-Arid Agricultural Development in Northwest China (CPR/91/110). UNDP/Beijing, and UNDP/NY: Bureau for Asia and the Pacific.

Berdegu, J. A. 2002. Las reformas de los sistemas de extensión en América Latina a partir de la década de los 80. RIMISP. Santiago, Chile.

Berdegu, J. A. & G. Escobar. 2001. Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems and Poverty Reduction. World Bank, AKIS Discussion Paper. Washington, DC.

Bingen, R. J. 1998. Cotton, democracy and development in Mali; Journal of Modern African Studies, 36:2, 265-285.

Birkhaeuser, D., Evenson, R. E., & Feder, G. 1988. The Economic Impact of Agricultural Extension: A Review. The World Bank, and New Haven, CT: Yale University, Economic Growth Center. Washington, DC.

February 2003. Brazil. Extraordinary Ministry for Food Security and the Fight Against Hunger. Capacity Building Approaches to Improving the Food Security of Poor People in the North East. TCP/BRA/2904.

Bryceson, D. 2000. Rural Africa at the crossroads: Livelihood practices and policies; Natural Resources Perspectives, no. 52; London: ODI.

Buttel, F. 1991. The Restructuring of the American Public Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer System: Implications for Agricultural Extension; in: Rivera, W. M. and Gustafson, D. J. (Eds. ); Agricultural Extension: Worldwide Institutional Evolution and Forces for Change. Elsevier Science Publishers. Amsterdam.

Christoplos, I.; J. Farrington; & A. Kidd. 2000. Extension, Poverty and Vulnerability: An Inception Report. The Neuchatel Initiative 2000. Uppsala, Sweden.

Christoplos, I. 2003. Extension, Poverty and Vulnerability in Nicaragua; in W. M. Rivera and G. Alex (Eds. ), Extension and Rural Development.

Collion, M. and P. Rondot. 2001. Investing in Rural Producer Organizations for Sustainable Agriculture: Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Knowledge and Information (SASKI). Good Practice Note. The World Bank. Washington, DC.

De Janvry, A. & E. Sadoulet. 2001. Investing in Rural Development is Good Business; In R. Echeverr a (Ed. ), Development of Rural Economies; Inter-American Development Bank. Washington, DC.

Diouf, J. 2002. The Private Sector and the Fight against Hunger.

Dixon, J.; A. Gulliver; & D. Gibbon. (2001). Farming Systems and Poverty: Improving Farmers' Livelihoods in a Changing World. FAO and World Bank. Rome and Washington, DC.

Douthwaite, B. 2002. Enabling Innovation: A Practical Guide to Understanding and Fostering Technological Change. Zed Books. London

Earl, J. A. et al. (Eds. ). 2001. Integrating food security issues into agricultural research.: FAO. Rome.

Eaton, C. & A. W. Shepherd. 2001. Contract farming: Partnerships for growth. FAO, Agricultural Services Bulletin 145. Rome.

Echeverria, R. 1998. Elementos estratégicos para la reducción de la pobreza rural en América Latina y el Caribe. Inter-American Development Bank. Washington, DC.

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Ellis, F. 1998. Household strategies and rural livelihoods diversification; Journal of Development Studies, 35:1, Oct.; p. 1-38.

Ellis, F. 1999a. Livelihood diversification and sustainable rural livelihoods; IN: D. Carney (Ed. ), Sustainable Rural Livelihoods, What Contribution can We Make? DFID. London.

Ellis, F. 1999b. Rural livelihood diversity in developing countries: evidence and policy implications. ODI, Natural Resource Perspectives, 40, April. London.

Farrington, J.; I. Christoplos; A. D. Kidd; & M. Beckman. 2002. Can Extension Contribute to Rural Poverty Reduction? Synthesis of a Six-country Study. ODI, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, paper no. 123. London.

FAO. 1989. Report of the Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension. Rome.

FAO. 199). Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS): Rationale, objectives and approach. SPFS/Doc/4-Rev. 1. Rome.

FAO. 1997. Guide for the Conduct of the Constraints Analysis Component. SPFS/DOC/18, Handbook Series, vols. I and II. Rome.

FAO. 1999. Technical Consultation on Decentralization for Rural Development: Proceedings. 16-18 December 1997. Rome.

FAO. 2001. World markets for organic fruit and vegetables. FAO/ITC/CTA. Rome.

FAO. 2000, 2001. The State of Food and Agriculture 2000...2001... FAO. Rome.

FAO. 2002a. Independent External Evaluation of the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS). Eighty-seventh Session, 6-10 May 2002. Rome.

FAO. 2002b. Actions Taken on the Recommendations of the Independent External Evaluation of the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS). Hundred and Twenty-third Session, 28 Oct. -2 Nov. 2002; CL/123/INF/21. Rome.

FAO. 2002c. The Design and Implementation of National Information and Communication Policies for Sustainable Development in Africa: Issues and Approaches. Communication for Development Group. Rome.

FAO. 2002d. Methodological Guide for Designing and Implementing a Multimedia Communication Strategy. Communication for Development manual 2. Rome.

FAO. 2002f. Livelihood Support Programme: Improving support for enhancing livelihoods of the rural poor (GCP/INT/UK/803). Rome.

FAO. 2002f. The role of agriculture in the development of LDCs and their integration into the world economy. FAO Commodities and Trade Division. Rome.

FAO. 2002g. FAO papers on selected issues relating to the WTO negotiation on agriculture. Commodities and Trade Division. Rome.

FAO. 2003. The Special Programme for Food Security: Responding to New Challenges. Rome.

FAO. 2003b. Equitable partnerships between corporate and smallholder partners: Developing guidelines for mutually beneficial partnerships. FAO and Bogor Barat, Indonesia: CIFOR. Rome. Internet:

FAO. 2003c. The One to Watch: Radio, New ICTs and Interactivity. (Edited by B. Girard in collaboration with the Friedrich Ebert Foundation and the Communication for Development Groups of the Sustainable Agriculture Department. (On CD Rom). Rome.

FAO and The World Bank. 2000. Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems for Rural Development (AKIS/RD): Strategic Vision and Guiding Principles. Rome and Washington, DC.

FAO. International Trade Centre and the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation. 2001. World food markets for organic fruit and vegetables: opportunities for developing countries in the production and export of organic horticultural products. Rome.

Fundación para el Desarrollo Tecnológico Agropecuario de los Valles (FDTA). Promoviendo el Desarrollo Technológico para Mejorar la Competividad, Aumentar los Ingresos y Aliviar la Probreza en el Areas Rural. Cochabamba, Bolivia: FDTA-Valles.

Gallagher, K. D. 2002. Self-Financed Field Schools: Helping Farmers Go Back to School in IPM/IPPM. FAO/UN. Rome.

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Holding Anyonge, C. 2002. Forest Extension: Equitable partnership for sustainable multi-functional forestry. International Union of Forest Research Organizations, Division 6 meeting, Valdivia, Chile. FAO, Forestry Extension. Rome.

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Jones, G. & C. Garforth. 1997. The History, Development, and Future of gricultural Extension; In: B. Swanson, R. Bentz and A. Sofranko (eds. ), Improving Agricultural Extension: A Reference Manual. FAO. Rome.

Kenya. Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development. Department of Agricultural Extension. 2003. Kenya's Special Programme for Food Security: Concept Note. Nairobi, Kenya.

Kydd, J. 2002. Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods: Is Globalisation Opening or Blocking Paths Out of Rural Poverty? ODI, AgREN Network Paper No. 121, January. London.

López, R. & A. Vald s. 1997. Rural Poverty in Latin America: Analytics, New Empirical Evidence and Policy. World Bank Technical Department, Latin America and the Caribbean Region. Washington, DC.

McKone, C. E. 1990. FAO's People's Participation Programme-the first 10 years: Lessons learnt and future directions. FAO, Human Resource Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division. Rome.

Neuchatel Initiative Group. 2002. A Common Framework for Financing Agricultural and Rural Extension. Neuchatel Initiative. Uppsala, Sweden.

Ojha, G. P. & S. R. Morin. 2001. Partnership in agricultural extension: Lessons from Chitwan (Nepal). Agricultural Research and Extension Network. Network Paper No. 114, July 2001. Overseas Development Institute. London.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 1998. West Africa Long Term Perspective Study. Paris.

Orr, A. and S. Orr. 2002. Agriculture and Micro Enterprise in Malawi's Rural South. ODI, AgREN Network Paper No. 119. London.

Paarlberg, R. L. 2002. Governance and Food Security in an Age of Globalization. IFPRI, Discussion Paper 36. Washington, D. C.

Qamar, M. K. 2001. The HIV/AIDS epidemic: An unusual challenge to agricultural extension services in sub-Saharan Africa; The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 8, 1, pp. 1-11.

Qamar, M. K. 2002. Global trends in agricultural extension: Challenges facing Asia and the Pacific region; FAO Regional Expert Consultation on Agricultural Extension (Bangkok, July 2002). FAO. Rome.

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Rivera, W. M. 2000. Manual for Outsourcing Extension. Draft. The World Bank. Maputo: Direcção Nacional de Extensão Rural, and Washington, DC.

Rivera, W. M. 2001. The Invisible Frontier: the Current Limits of Decentralization and Privatization in the Developing Countries. In F. Brewer (Ed. ), Agricultural Extension: An International Perspective (2001); Erudition Press.

Rivera, W. M. in collaboration with Kalim Qamar and L. Van Crowder. 2002. Agricultural and Rural Extension: Options for Institutional Reform in the Developing Countries. FAO/SDRE. Rome.

Rivera, W. M. & G. Alex. 2003. Pluralism, Emergent Priorities and the Central Role of Government in Extension Reform; IN: Extension and Rural Development: International Case Studies and Emerging Trends. World Bank. Washington, DC.

Rivera, W. M. & W. Zijp. 2002. Contracting for Agricultural Extension: International Case Studies and Emerging Practices. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Rondot, P. & M. Collion. 2001. Agricultural Producer Organizations: Their Contribution to Rural Capacity Building and Poverty Reduction. Washington, DC: World Bank.

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World Bank/USAID. 2002. Extension and Rural Development: a Convergence of Views on Institutional Approaches? International Workshop, Nov. 12-14. The World Bank. Washington, DC.

World Bank. 2003a. A Multi-Country Agricultural Productivity Programme (MAPP) for Africa. (Draft). Washington, DC.

World Bank. 2003b. The Gap between Rich and Poor in Latin America. Report by Francisco Ferreira & Michael Walton. O Globo Washington, DC.

World Bank. 2003c. Reaching the Rural Poor. Two vols: (I) Strategy and Business Plan; (II) Annexes. Agriculture and Rural Development. Washington, DC.

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