11.1 State of NWFP statistics
Paraguay did not participate in the FAO Workshop on NWFP in Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago, Chile 1994. Sources of data on NWFP are quite limited and for more than a dozen product categories there are no data at all. This report is therefore incomplete. The accompanying table contains data only on 8 product categories.
11.2 Non-wood goods and services
Paraguay is fairly homogenous in terms of its physical geography, but has extensive forest areas and hence potentially a number of NWFP. On the basis of available data, the most important NWFP are as follows:
Paraguay has an area of 1,24 million ha under protection, consisting of seven national parks, two national reserves and two protected forests (IUCN 1982)
11.3 Non-wood goods
No estimates, however preliminary, were encountered as to the total value of NWFP in Paraguay. But it can be assumed that subsistence use of NWFP within the country must be substantial. Included among these uses for which no data are available are the product categories of ornamental plants, fodder, bamboo, resins, other medicinal plants, wild fruits, dyestuffs, gums, mushrooms and bushmeat. The surveys of wild fruits and useful plants carried out Cerro Cora – Amambay National Park are an indication of the range of NWFP (Basualdo 1997a,b). To give a specific example of the lack of data. Paraguay has extensive almost pure stands of the multipurpose caranday palm (Copernicia alba) which provides thatch, leaf fiber, palm hearts, fruits suitable for livestock feed and stems as a source of construction wood and as utility poles.
An area of 13 000 ha of pine and eucalyptus plantations are recorded for Paraguay, which apparently are 92% non-industrial. Their non-industrial nature could account for the lack of recorded resin production.
The native quebracho trees are the main source of tannin. Value of exports in 1993 amounted to over US$3 million.
11.3.2 Essential oils
The native palo santo trees are the source essential oil. Value of exports in 1993 amounted to US$480 thousand. An undetermined area of land is devoted to tung tree plantations, with production of tung oil amounting to 8 000 t in 1997.
11.3.3 Edible oil
Paraguay recorded production of 11 000 t of palm kernels (probably from the Acrocomia palm) in 1997 which likely was used to express vegetable oil. In 1993, the country produced 3 524 t of oil, identified as coming from Acrocomia totai. Value of exports of this oil amounted to US$2,4 million that year
11.4 Other NWF plant products
The native yerba mate is the source of a popular leaf tea in Paraguay, but the levels of production for tea are unknown. Fresh leaves are also employed in popular medicine.
Honey production in Paraguay in 1997 was estimated to be 1 000 t.
Basualdo, I. Z. de et al. 1997a. Frutos silvestres. Dirección de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre, Asunción.
Basuldo, I.Z. de et. al. 1997b. Plantas utilies. Dirección de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre. Asunción.
Cardozo Román, C. J. 1996. Análisis de un sub-sector de la industria de productos no maderables del bosque (PNMB) del Paraguay: Acrocomia aculeata. Ka’aguy Revista. Forestal del Paraguay 12(10:41-44.
FAO. 1995. Forest resources assessment 1990. Tropical forest plantation resources. Forestry Paper 128. FAO, Rome.
FAO. 1997. Latin American and Caribbean Forestry Commission. State of forestry in the region - 1996. Forestry Series No. 8. FAO, Santiago.
FAO. 1998. FAO production yearbook. Vol. 51 – 1997. FAO, Rome.
IUCN. 1982. IUCN Directory of Neotropical Protected Areas. Tycooly Publishing, Dublin.
Statz, J. 1999, in prep. Nutzung und Vermarktung von Nicht-Holz Walkprodukten als Handlungsfeld forstlicher Entwicklungszusammenarbeit. Doctoral thesis (in process), University of Freiburg, Germany.
11.6 Resource Persons
Jochen Statz, University of Freiburg, Germany. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Isabel Zaldivar de Basualdo, Depto. de Botánica, Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Paraguay.