Information used in preparing this compendium has been compiled from many sources in a number of countries in Asia namely, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, and Nepal. The compilation of this document would not have been possible without the wholehearted dedication and willingness of many of ARECOP and RWEDP network members. We therefore would like to thank all of you who have provided information and contributed to this compendium either in the form of collecting information or facilitating the compilation by preparing and organizing visits to various areas in their respective countries. We would like to acknowledge those who have made various contribution as without their assistance the compendium could not have been prepared.
|Ms. Lulu Bilquis Banu|
Dr. Qudrat-E-Khuda Road
Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205
|Mr. Nazmul Haque and staff|
Institute of Development Affairs (IDEA)
House No. 5 Golapag R/A
Shibgonj, Sylhet 3100
Mr. Syahri Ramadhan
Wood Energy Network of Cambodia (WENetCam)
Office No. 1, Street 223/162
Depo I, Khan Toul Kork - PO. Box 1118
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Mr. Sanjay Mande
Tata Energy Research Institute
Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place
Lodi road, New Delhi - 110 003
Yayasan Dian Desa
JI. Kaliurang Km. 7, Jurugsari IV/19
|Laos|| Dr. Khamphone Nanthavong|
Faculty of Engineering and Architecture
PO. Box 3166 Vientiane
|Mr. Sombath Somphone and staff|
Participatory Development Training Center (PADETC)
PO. Box 2147 Vientiane
Dr Hoi Why Kong and Mr Puad Elham
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
|Mr. Ganesh Ram Shresta and staff|
Centre for Rural Technology, Nepal
Tripureswore - P.O. Box 3628
Kathmandu - Nepal
|Mr. Kayeswar Man Sulpya|
Research Centre for Applied Science
and Technology, Tribuvan University
Kirtipur, Kathmandu - Nepal
|Ms. Feri Lumampao|
Philippine Social Development Center
Magallanes corner Real Streets
Intramuros, Manila 1002
|Ms. Imelda D. Soriano, MO, McH|
IDS (Integral Development Services)
POB. 8 Midsayap, Cotabatu
|Hil J. Padilla|
|Mr. Tissa Athukorala|
c/o IDEA (Integrated Development Association)
20 Hantana Place, Kandy
|Mr. Jayantha Galagamage|
No. 17 Panwila Road
Mr. Wilas Techo and Alberto C. Dela Paz,
Population & Community Development Association (PDA)
6, Sukhumvit 12,
Mr. Le Van Thong and staff of RCAICE
Research Centre for Architectural Indoor Climatology
And Environment-Hanoi Architectural University
Km.9 Nguyen Trai Street
In addition, we would also like to thank others who have helped edit, provided the illustrations and layouting for this publication.
Under a broad rural development policy, the increase in agricultural productivity, crop diversity and the generation of rural income and employment have been given high priority in many developing countries. Promoting and improving rural industries, naturally, is an important strategy for attaining such policy objectives.
The majority of small industries are in peri-urban and rural areas. For fuel, majority still uses wood and agricultural residues. The traditional processes in small-scale industries are often traditional and operate under highly competitive conditions. They must compete with both similar scale producers as well as larger scale producers using more modern and technically advanced production facilities. They are relatively isolated from the source of skills, know-how, and technology that would allow improvements in their operations, energy, etc. In addition, the very nature and location of the small industries often reinforce their isolation from formal sources of financial, technical, and other assistance.
Yet, small industries have been recognized to have important role in the growth and stability of national, rural economies and the survival of subsistent economies. The sector provides income and/or local employment to many people. It has also been found that biomass energy typically generates 10 times more employment than oil and coal (de Castro et. Al., 1999). For developing countries, the use of biomass energy sources could also reduce dependency on imported energy sources (de Castro et al., 1999)
On the other hand, it is also true that shortage of fuels, in the forms of fuelwood and other biomass are threatening the sustainability of small industries. For example, there have been cases in Cambodia of small enterprises closing down due to fuel shortage (WeNetCam, 2000). It was also reported that some areas in Nepal where small industries were concentrated, suffered from environmental degradation due to fuelwood extraction for industrial operations (Donovan in BEST, 1989).
Thus, technology that could assist them in heightening their efficiency and output, accurate study and documentation of industrial stoves is a necessary step at this time.
Various types of products produced by small-scale enterprise are considered familiar and popular products in many countries in Asia. For example, noodles, soybean sauce, and tofu in Indo-China and Southeast Asian Countries, palm sugar in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand, Myanmar; Cotton/Fabrics or silk dying in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, and Indonesia. In many Asian countries a large proportion of food preparation in institutional kitchens such as in schools, barracks, canteens, hostels, prisons and community kitchens also use biomass fuel.
Stoves are one component in the production process that may affect the level of economic benefit of rural producers and entrepreneurs. With the use of better stoves for industrial or institutional production technique can be improved. Their use can save time and fuel, improve quality of their products and also improve the working conditions which influences the health of workers who spend most of their time in the kitchen with smoky stoves. The largest resulting benefit especially for small producers will be an increase in their income, the greatest concern of entrepreneurial producers.
At a closer look, it is increasingly obvious that biomass stove issue is not solely the concern at the household level and that industry and institutions are also important stakeholders in the biomass issue. Fuelwood and other biomass fuels are also extensively utilized for institutional and small industrial activities in most countries in Asia as indicated in table 1
Table 1. Wood and Biomass Energy Consumption by Industries in several Asian Countries
|YEAR||WOOD ENERGY||BIOMASS ENERGY||TOTAL ENERGY|
Data are compiled by RWEDP from various sources. (RWEDP on the internet, November 2000, CR-ROM publication)
Various types of publications and information on domestic cookstoves are available, but unfortunately very few on stoves for industrial and institutional use. A relatively simple technical information consisting of pictures and drawings will be appropriately useful as information source for field workers and practitioners as a base from which to start to advance the development of small-scale industries and institutions in their respective areas. It is in this regard that RWEDP and ARECOP jointly embarked to compile necessary information and compiled as compendium.
This compendium is a compilation of basic information, designs of improved and traditional stoves for small industries and institutions. This compendium is to give ideas or inspiration to field workers or stove practitioners about various stove designs and technologies used in institutions and small industries in the Asian countries.
For policy makers, it will provide clear picture of the development of energy policy and intervention for rural industries in terms of providing an alternative approach to income generation and distribution, employment, resource allocation and environmental conservation within rural economies.