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Federated States of Micronesia

Resources

Geography

Geographic description

The Federated States of Micronesia is located in the western Pacific Ocean, encompassing most of the Caroline Islands with the exception of those included in the Republic of Palau. The country includes four states; Kosrae, Pohnpei (formerly Ponape), Chuuk (formerly Truk), and Yap. There are more than 600 islands, but only about 60 are inhabited. The total land area is only 702 km2, but the islands are scattered across about 2.5 million km2 of ocean.

The FSM has "high" hilly to mountainous islands of continental or volcanic origin and "low" ring-shaped coral atolls. Coral reefs and mangrove swamps surround most of the high islands. The soil on these islands is fertile. In contrast, the atolls generally have poor coralline soil and limited vegetation.

The FSM has an oceanic tropical climate that is uniformly hot and humid. The average daily temperature range is 22 to 32 C with little variation due to season. Rainfall ranges from about 4 500 mm on Yap to almost 8 000 mm in the mountains of Pohnpei. Periodic droughts can occur, which are particularly severe on the atolls. Periodic typhoons also occur, particularly in the western islands.

Forest cover

Description of the natural woody vegetation

The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is a political unit of four states with 607 small islands in the Caroline Islands group, lying just above the equator, north of New Guinea and east of the Philippines. Each of the four States (Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae) centers around one or more high islands, and all but Kosrae (109 km2) include numerous atolls. Yap (100 km2) and Chuuk (72 km2) are dominated by plantations of coconut and breadfruit trees, and have little or no intact natural forest other than mangroves. Pohnpei (335 km2), the highest island of the Carolines (734 m), is the most forested in FSM. The following description of the vegetation types is derived from MacLean et al. (1988) and Mueller-Dombois and Fosberg (1998).

Natural Forests

Closed Broadleaved Forest
Littoral Forest

This strand forest is present along rocky shorelines, with such ubiquitous coastal taxa as Cordia subcordata, Guettarda speciosa, Hernandia nymphaeifolia, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Pandanus tectorius, Pisonia grandis, Thespesia populnea, Tournefortia argentea and Scaevola taccada.

Mangrove Forest

Mangroves are extensive in tidally inundated areas and are composed of Rhizophora spp., Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Sonneratia alba, Lumnitzera littorea, Xylocarpus granatum, Nypa fruticans and Acrostichum spp., increasing in stature and declining in species richness eastwards.

Freshwater Swamp

Behind mangrove areas, freshwater swamps extend into the lowlands and form a canopy with Metroxylon amicarum, Terminalia carolinensis, Campnosperma brevipetiolata, Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus tiliaceus.

Montane Rain Forest

The higher moist forests are a diverse assemblage of the genera Glochidion, Myrsine, Elaeocarpus, Syzygium, Psychotria, Timonius, Gynotroches and Astronidium and tree ferns (Cyathea spp.) occupying upper slopes on the high islands. The palm genera Clinostigma and Ptychosperma, and occasionally Metroxylon, are common on the slopes.

Open Broadleaved Forest
Lowland Forest

Lower slopes not overtaken by secondary forest have remnant groves of Campnosperma brevipetiolata and Elaeocarpus spp., with Clinostigma ponapensis abundant on Pohnpei.

Other wooded land

Forest Fallow
Tree Gardens

Predominantly occupying the lowlands and supplanting the naturally occurring vegetation types mentioned above are gardens of useful trees such as breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), coconut palms (Cocos nucifera), mango (Mangifera indica) and Pandanus tectorius cultivars.

Shrubs
Lowland scrub

Primary forest on lower slopes and lowlands of the high islands has been replaced by open savannah with scattered shrubs such as Myrtella bennigseniana (Yap) and the genera Melastoma, Timonius, Alphitonia, Hedyotis, Ambroma, and Commersonia.

Secondary forest

On Chuuk, which was devastated by Second World War activities, large areas of upland forest are covered by the genera Macaranga, Commersonia, Acalypha and Hibiscus. Two mountaintops have small areas of diverse forest with the endemic Schefflera kraemeri, Semecarpus kraemeri and Atractocarpus carolinensis.

References

MacLean, C.D., C.D. Whitesell, T. G. Cole, and K. E. McDuffie 1988. Timber Resources of Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, and Yap, Federated States of Micronesia. USDA Forest Resource Bulletin PSW-24. 8pp.

Mueller-Dombois, D. and F. R. Fosberg 1998. Vegetation of the tropical Pacific islands. Springer-Verlag, New York. 733 pp.

Information on forest assessments

Area of forest cover

Table 1 - Bibliographic references

Country

Federated States of Micronesia

Title

Federated States of Micronesia Forest Resource Fact Sheet 1999

Author

Dept. of Resources and Development

Year

1999

Source

http://mail.admin.gov.gu/agri/PIC/micrones_rfs.html

Date of consult.

06/23/00

Location

(of publication)

Printout in FRA 2000 Pacific Islands box

Description of source

(including type of source, overall quality assessment and utility for FRA 2000)

Only gross forest area statistics available.

Information content (check one or more topics as appropriate)

Natural Forest

X

 

Protected areas

 

Plantations

   

Biodiversity

 

Other wooded land

   

Forest ownership

 

Forest area change

   

Wood supply potential

 

Total volume

   

Non-wood forest products

 

Total biomass

   

Trees outside forest

 

Commercial volume

   

Forest fires

 

Name of reviewer: Jim Space

Country

Federated States of Micronesia

Title

Report – 1988 Heads of Forestry Meeting

Author

Unknown

Year

1988

Source

Heads of forestry meeting

Date of consult.

24/6/00

Location

(of publication)

In FRA Pacific Islands box

Description of source

(including type of source, overall quality assessment and utility for FRA 2000)

Has a summary table of area of forest and agroforest by each of the four FSM states. Reliability unknown.

Information content (check one or more topics as appropriate)

Natural Forest

X

 

Protected areas

 

Plantations

   

Biodiversity

 

Other wooded land

X

 

Forest ownership

 

Forest area change

   

Wood supply potential

 

Total volume

   

Non-wood forest products

 

Total biomass

   

Trees outside forest

 

Commercial volume

   

Forest fires

 

Name of reviewer: Jim Space

Country

Federated States of Micronesia

Title

Vegetation Survey of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

Author

Falanruw et al

Year

1987

Source

USDA Forest Service Resource Bulletin PSW-18

Date of consult.

24/6/00

Location

(of publication)

In FRA Pacific Islands box

Description of source

(including type of source, overall quality assessment and utility for FRA 2000)

Good quality although the figures are no doubt now out of date.

Information content (check one or more topics as appropriate)

Natural Forest

X

 

Protected areas

 

Plantations

   

Biodiversity

 

Other wooded land

X

 

Forest ownership

 

Forest area change

   

Wood supply potential

 

Total volume

   

Non-wood forest products

 

Total biomass

   

Trees outside forest

 

Commercial volume

   

Forest fires

 

Name of reviewer: Jim Space

Country

Federated States of Micronesia

Title

Vegetation Survey of Yap, Federated States of Micronesia

Author

Falanruw et al

Year

1987

Source

USDA Forest Service Resource Bulletin PSW-21

Date of consult.

24/6/00

Location

(of publication)

In FRA Pacific Islands box

Description of source

(including type of source, overall quality assessment and utility for FRA 2000)

Good quality although the figures are no doubt now out of date.

Information content (check one or more topics as appropriate)

Natural Forest

X

 

Protected areas

 

Plantations

   

Biodiversity

 

Other wooded land

X

 

Forest ownership

 

Forest area change

   

Wood supply potential

 

Total volume

   

Non-wood forest products

 

Total biomass

   

Trees outside forest

 

Commercial volume

   

Forest fires

 

Name of reviewer: Jim Space

Country

Federated States of Micronesia

Title

Vegetation Survey of Moen, Dublon, Fefan, and Eten, State of Truk, Federated States of Micronesia

Author

Falanruw et al

Year

1987

Source

USDA Forest Service Resource Bulletin PSW-20

Date of consult.

24/6/00

Location

(of publication)

In FRA Pacific Islands box

Description of source

(including type of source, overall quality assessment and utility for FRA 2000)

Good quality although the figures are no doubt now out of date.

Information content (check one or more topics as appropriate)

Natural Forest

X

 

Protected areas

 

Plantations

   

Biodiversity

 

Other wooded land

X

 

Forest ownership

 

Forest area change

   

Wood supply potential

 

Total volume

   

Non-wood forest products

 

Total biomass

   

Trees outside forest

 

Commercial volume

   

Forest fires

 

Name of reviewer: Jim Space

Country

Federated States of Micronesia

Title

Timber resources of Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk and Yap, Federated States of Micronesia

Author

Falanruw et al

Year

1988

Source

USDA Forest Service Resource Bulletin PSW-24

Date of consult.

24/6/00

Location

(of publication)

In FRA Pacific Islands box

Description of source

(including type of source, overall quality assessment and utility for FRA 2000)

Good quality although the figures are no doubt now out of date.

Information content (check one or more topics as appropriate)

Natural Forest

X

 

Protected areas

 

Plantations

   

Biodiversity

 

Other wooded land

X

 

Forest ownership

 

Forest area change

   

Wood supply potential

 

Total volume

X

 

Non-wood forest products

 

Total biomass

   

Trees outside forest

 

Commercial volume

   

Forest fires

 

Name of reviewer: Jim Space

Country

Federated States of Micronesia

Title

Vegetation Survey of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia

Author

Whitesell et al

Year

1986

Source

USDA Forest Service Resource Bulletin PSW-17

Date of consult.

28/6/00

Location

(of publication)

In FRA Pacific Islands box

Description of source

(including type of source, overall quality assessment and utility for FRA 2000)

Good quality although the figures are no doubt now out of date.

Information content (check one or more topics as appropriate)

Natural Forest

X

 

Protected areas

 

Plantations

   

Biodiversity

 

Other wooded land

X

 

Forest ownership

 

Forest area change

   

Wood supply potential

 

Total volume

   

Non-wood forest products

 

Total biomass

   

Trees outside forest

 

Commercial volume

   

Forest fires

 

Name of reviewer: Jim Space

Table 2 - Description of forest inventories/surveys

Country

FSM

Reference year

1999

Title of inventory

Gross area figures on PIC web page

Type of inventory

Not known

Brief summary of methodologies used

Not known

Reporting level

National

Country coverage

 
 

National / sub-national

 

Complete / partial

Map output

No

Scale of the map

 
 

yes / no (also indicate format: analogue / digital)

   

Vegetation types included

yes/no

 

Additional information included

yes/no

         

Natural forests

yes

 

Area by forest formation

 

Plantations

   

Volume

 

All forests

   

Biomass

 

Other wooded land

   

Forest naturalness

 
     

Forest biodiversity

 
     

Forest ownership

 
     

Wood supply potential

 

Remarks

Area of Forest Land given as 127,500 acres (converts to 51,596 ha).

Basis for this figure not known.

Also give area of non-industrial private land as 69,500 acres and area under forest management plans as 10,730 acres.

Reliability class

3

 

1=high 2=medium 3=low

Country

FSM

Reference year

1998

Title of inventory

Table in report

Type of inventory

Not known

Brief summary of methodologies used

Not known

Reporting level

National and sub-national

Country coverage

Complete

 

National / sub-national

 

Complete / partial

Map output

No

Scale of the map

 
 

yes / no (also indicate format: analogue / digital)

   

Vegetation types included

yes/no

 

Additional information included

yes/no

         

Natural forests

yes

 

Area by forest formation

 

Plantations

   

Volume

 

All forests

   

Biomass

 

Other wooded land

   

Forest naturalness

 
     

Forest biodiversity

 
     

Forest ownership

 
     

Wood supply potential

 

Remarks

How these figures were derived is not known.

Reliability class

3

 

1=high 2=medium 3=low

Country

FSM

Reference year

1975 updated

Title of inventory

Vegetation Survey of Pohnpei, Resource Bulletin PSW-18

Type of inventory

Aerial photo interpretation supplemented by ground truth sampling

Brief summary of methodologies used

Aerial photo interpretation supplemented by ground truth sampling

Reporting level

Sub-national

Country coverage

Partial

 

National / sub-national

 

Complete / partial

Map output

?

Scale of the map

 
 

yes / no (also indicate format: analogue / digital)

   

Vegetation types included

yes/no

 

Additional information included

yes/no

         

Natural forests

yes

 

Area by forest formation

yes

Plantations

yes

 

Volume

 

All forests

yes

 

Biomass

 

Other wooded land

yes

 

Forest naturalness

 
     

Forest biodiversity

 
     

Forest ownership

 
     

Wood supply potential

 

Remarks

Good quality but probably quite out of date by now.

Reliability class

2

 

1=high 2=medium 3=low

Country

FSM

Reference year

1976

Title of inventory

Vegetation Survey of Yap, Resource Bulletin PSW-21

Type of inventory

Aerial photo interpretation

Brief summary of methodologies used

Aerial photo interpretation

Reporting level

Sub-national

Country coverage

Partial

 

National / sub-national

 

Complete / partial

Map output

Yes (4)

Scale of the map

1:20,000

 

yes / no (also indicate format: analogue / digital)

   

Vegetation types included

yes/no

 

Additional information included

yes/no

         

Natural forests

yes

 

Area by forest formation

yes

Plantations

   

Volume

 

All forests

yes

 

Biomass

 

Other wooded land

yes

 

Forest naturalness

 
     

Forest biodiversity

 
     

Forest ownership

 
     

Wood supply potential

 

Remarks

Good quality but probably quite out of date by now.

Reliability class

2

 

1=high 2=medium 3=low

Country

FSM

Reference year

1976

Title of inventory

Vegetation Survey of Moen, Dublon, Fefan, and Eten; State of Truk [Chuuk]; Resource Bulletin PSW-20

Type of inventory

Aerial photo interpretation

Brief summary of methodologies used

Aerial photo interpretation

Reporting level

Sub-national

Country coverage

Partial

 

National / sub-national

 

Complete / partial

Map output

?

Scale of the map

 

yes / no (also indicate format: analogue / digital)

   

Vegetation types included

yes/no

 

Additional information included

yes/no

         

Natural forests

yes

 

Area by forest formation

yes

Plantations

   

Volume

 

All forests

yes

 

Biomass

 

Other wooded land

yes

 

Forest naturalness

 
     

Forest biodiversity

 
     

Forest ownership

 
     

Wood supply potential

 

Remarks

Good quality but probably quite out of date by now.

Reliability class

2

 

1=high 2=medium 3=low

Country

FSM

Reference year

1983

Title of inventory

Timber Resources of Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, and Yap; Resource Bulletin PSW-24

Type of inventory

Aerial photo interpretation with ground plots

Brief summary of methodologies used

Aerial photo interpretation of previous surveys was updated. 90 ground plots.

Reporting level

National

Country coverage

Complete*

 

National / sub-national

 

Complete / partial

Map output

No

Scale of the map

 

yes / no (also indicate format: analogue / digital)

   

Vegetation types included

yes/no

 

Additional information included

yes/no

         

Natural forests

yes

 

Area by forest formation

yes

Plantations

   

Volume

yes

All forests

yes

 

Biomass

 

Other wooded land

yes

 

Forest naturalness

 
     

Forest biodiversity

 
     

Forest ownership

 
     

Wood supply potential

 

Remarks

Good quality but probably quite out of date by now.

Reliability class

2

 

1=high 2=medium 3=low

Country

FSM

Reference year

1976 updated

Title of inventory

Vegetation Survey of Kosrae, Resource Bulletin PSW-17

Type of inventory

Aerial photo interpretation supplemented by ground truth sampling

Brief summary of methodologies used

Aerial photo interpretation supplemented by ground truth sampling

Reporting level

Sub-national

Country coverage

Partial

 

National / sub-national

 

Complete / partial

Map output

Yes

Scale of the map

 
 

yes / no (also indicate format: analogue / digital)

   

Vegetation types included

yes/no

 

Additional information included

yes/no

         

Natural forests

yes

 

Area by forest formation

yes

Plantations

yes

 

Volume

 

All forests

yes

 

Biomass

 

Other wooded land

yes

 

Forest naturalness

 
     

Forest biodiversity

 
     

Forest ownership

 
     

Wood supply potential

 

Remarks

Good quality but probably quite out of date by now.

Reliability class

2

 

1=high 2=medium 3=low

Table 3 - Area of woody vegetation according to national classification

Reference year: probably 1983 (report is 1998) Geographic Unit: FSM

Forest and other woody vegetation types

(country classification)

Area

(000 ha)

1.Closed forest – Timber (Chuuk 0.265, Kosrae 3.697, Pohnpei 16.717, Yap 3.647)

24.326

2. Shrub – Secondary* (Chuuk 0.252, Kosrae 1.213, Pohnpei 1.843, Yap 0.553)

3.861

3. Forest fallow – agroforestry* (Chuuk 3.055, Kosrae 2.614, Pohnpei 11.865, Yap 2.538)

20.072

Subtotal of country classes corresponding with FRA 2000 forest and other wooded land

48.259

Subtotal other land

21.941

Total land area

70.200**

Definitions: *Definition assumed to be the same as in the Forest Service Resource Bulletins, “...vines, shrubs and small trees”.

**From geographic description, above

Comments: These figurers match those in PSW-24.

Reference year: 1975 updated to 1983 Geographic Unit: Pohnpei

Forest and other woody vegetation types

(country classification)

Area

(000 ha)

1.Closed forest – Upland forest

12.548

2.Closed forest – Palm forest

1.383

3.Closed forest – Swamp forest

.214

4.Closed forest – Mangrove forest

5.525

5.Closed forest – Atoll forest

0.006

6. Shrub – Dwarf forest

0.001

7. Shrub – Secondary vegetation

1.843

8. Forest fallow – agroforest

1.945

9. Forest fallow – agroforest with coconuts

9.796

Subtotal of country classes corresponding with FRA 2000 forest and other wooded land

33.267

Subtotal other land

2.226

Total land area

35.493**

Definitions: See Resource Bulletin PSW-18

**From PSW-18. Includes 124 ha of coconut plantations and 125 ha of inland water.

Comments:

Reference year: 1976 Geographic Unit: Yap

Forest and other woody vegetation types
(country classification)

Area
(000 ha)

1.Closed forest – Upland forest

2.556

3.Closed forest – Swamp forest

0.155

4.Closed forest – Mangrove forest

1.171

5. Shrub – Secondary vegetation

0.553

6. Forest fallow – agroforest

1.515

7. Forest fallow – agroforest with coconuts

0.864

Subtotal of country classes corresponding with FRA 2000 forest and other wooded land

6.814

Subtotal other land

2.902

Total land area

9.716**

Definitions: See Resource Bulletin PSW-21

**From PSW-21. Includes 159 ha of coconut plantations and 38 ha of inland water.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Reference year: 1976 Geographic Unit: Moen, Dublon, Fefan and Eten; Chuuk

Forest and other woody vegetation types
(country classification)

Area
(000 ha)

1.Closed forest – Upland forest

0.677

3.Closed forest – Mangrove forest

0.306

4.Closed forest – Palm forest

0.002

7. Shrub – Secondary vegetation

0.252

8. Forest fallow – agroforest

0.066

9. Forest fallow – agroforest with coconuts

2.312

Subtotal of country classes corresponding with FRA 2000 forest and other wooded land

3.615

Subtotal other land

0.555

Total land area

4.170**

Definitions: See Resource Bulletin PSW-20

**From PSW-20. Includes 1 ha of mahogany plantations and 4 ha of inland water.

Reference year: 1983 Geographic Unit: FSM

Forest and other woody vegetation types
(country classification)

Area
(000 ha)

1. Closed forest – Timberland (Chuuk 0.265, Kosrae 3.697, Pohnpei 16.717, Yap 3.647)

24.326

2. Closed forest – Timberland (steep) (Kosrae 3.330, Pohnpei 2.713)

6.043

3. Scrub – Scrub (Chuuk 0.044, Kosrae 0.069, Pohnpei 0.253, Yap 0.235)

1.485

4. Shrub – Secondary vegetation* (Chuuk 0.252, Kosrae 1.213, Pohnpei 1.843, Yap 0.553)

3.861

5. Forest fallow – agroforestry* (Chuuk 3.055, Kosrae 2.614, Pohnpei 11.865, Yap 2.538)

20.072

Subtotal of country classes corresponding with FRA 2000 forest and other wooded land

54.903

Subtotal other land

5.722

Total land area

60.625**

Definitions: **Includes plantations and inland water, but these figures not broken out separately in this report.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Reference year: 1976 updated to 1983 Geographic Unit: Kosrae

Forest and other woody vegetation types
(country classification)

Area
(000 ha)

1.Closed forest – Upland forest

5.090

2.Closed forest – Swamp forest

0.345

3.Closed forest – Mangrove forest

1.562

4.Shrub – Dwarf forest

0.069

5. Shrub – Secondary vegetation

1.272

6. Forest fallow – agroforest

1.659

7. Forest fallow – agroforest with coconuts

0.926

Subtotal of country classes corresponding with FRA 2000 forest and other wooded land

10.923

Subtotal other land

0.263

Total land area

11.186**

Definitions: See Resource Bulletin PSW-17

**From PSW-17. Includes 99 ha of inland water.

Table 4 - Comparability between country classification and FRA 2000 classification

Reference year: Unknown

Geographic Unit: FSM

Title of the inventory/survey: Heads of Forestry Meeting Report

Forest and other woody vegetation types

(country classification)

Corresponding FRA 2000 classes

Closed forest – Timber

Closed Forest

 

Open Forest

Shrub – Secondary

Shrub

Forest fallow – agroforestry

Forest fallow system

Note: Open and closed forest make up “natural forest”; shrub and forest fallow make up “other wooded land”

Comments:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Reference year: 1975 update to 1983

Geographic Unit: Pohnpei

Title of the inventory/survey: Vegetation Survey of Pohnpei, PSW-18

Forest and other woody vegetation types

(country classification)

Corresponding FRA 2000 classes

Upland forest

Palm forest

Swamp forest

Mangrove forest

Atoll forest

Closed Forest

 

Open Forest

Dwarf forest

Secondary

Shrub

Agroforestry

Agroforest with coconuts

Forest fallow system

Note: Open and closed forest make up “natural forest”; shrub and forest fallow make up “other wooded land”

Comments: From PSW-18

Reference year: 1976

Geographic Unit: Yap

Title of the inventory/survey: Vegetation Survey of Yap, PSW-21

Forest and other woody vegetation types

(country classification)

Corresponding FRA 2000 classes

Upland forest

Swamp forest

Mangrove forest

Closed Forest

 

Open Forest

Secondary vegetation

Shrub

Agroforestry

Agroforest with coconuts

Forest fallow system

Note: Open and closed forest make up “natural forest”; shrub and forest fallow make up “other wooded land”

Comments: From PSW-21

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Reference year: 1983

Geographic Unit: FSM

Title of the inventory/survey: Timber Resources of Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, and Yap; PSW-24

Forest and other woody vegetation types

(country classification)

Corresponding FRA 2000 classes

Timberland

Timberland (steep)

Closed Forest

 

Open Forest

Scrub

Secondary vegetation

Shrub

Agroforestry

Forest fallow system

Note: Open and closed forest make up “natural forest”; shrub and forest fallow make up “other wooded land”

Comments: From PSW-21

Reference year: 1975 update to 1983

Geographic Unit: Kosrae

Title of the inventory/survey: Vegetation Survey of Kosrae, PSW-17

Forest and other woody vegetation types

(country classification)

Corresponding FRA 2000 classes

Upland forest

Swamp forest

Mangrove forest

Closed Forest

 

Open Forest

Dwarf forest

Secondary

Shrub

Agroforestry

Agroforest with coconuts

Forest fallow system

Note: Open and closed forest make up “natural forest”; shrub and forest fallow make up “other wooded land”

Comments: From PSW-17

Plantations

Gross estimated area 119 ha Annual planting 5 ha

Species group

Gross estimated area

Purpose (%)

 

Ownership (%)

 
 

ha

%

   

Public

Private

Others

Acacia spp.

   

Industrial

100

100

   
 

12

10.0

Non-Industrial

 

 

Eucalyptus spp.

   

Industrial

100

100

   
 

30

25.0

Non-Industrial

 

 

Mahoganies

   

Industrial

100

100

   
 

47

40.0

Non-Industrial

 

 

Tectona grandis

   

Industrial

100

100

   
 

12

10.0

Non-Industrial

 

 

Terminalia spp.

   

Industrial

100

100

   
 

6

5.0

Non-Industrial

 

 

Other Broadleaved spp.

   

Industrial

100

100

   
 

12

10.0

Non-Industrial

 

 

Acacia spp. A. auriculiformis, A. mangium

Eucalyptus spp. E. deglupta, E. saligna

Mahoganies Swietenia macrophylla, S. mahogani

Terminalia spp. T. brassii

Other Broadleaved spp. Cedrela odorata, Pterocarpus indica

Explanatory note on estimates for 2000

Total area of plantations reported in 1998 Micronesian Heads of Forestry Report is 109 ha, plus an additional 48 ha of scattered woodlots. This compares with a 1983 total plantation area of 7 ha (i.e. average annual planting rate = 6.8 ha). Report notes that land availability is a major constraint on plantation establishment thus it is assumed planting rate will slow. There is no formal report on species distribution. The proportions estimated above are approximated from Oliver’s 1992 qualitative assessment of distribution.

References

Anon. 1998. Country Report – Federated States of Micronesia. Heads of Forestry Meeting, Nadi, Fiji; 21-25 September 1998.

Oliver, W. 1992. Plantation forestry in the South Pacific: A compilation and assessment of practices: Project RAS/86/036: UNDP-FAO. 121 pp.

USDA Forest Service. 1983. Timber resources of Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk and Yap, Federated States of Micronesia. Resource Bulletin PSW Forest and Range Experimentation Station.

Volume and biomass

Table 6 - Volume data (of natural forests)

Reference year:

Part 1 : Forest Inventory Description

Name of the Inventory: Timber Resources of Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, and Yap, Federated States of Micronesia (PSW-24)

National Forest Inventory (Yes or No): Yes

Geographic location:

Total inventoried area (000 ha): 60.625

Sketch map attached (Yes or No): No

Part 2: Inventory methodology

Stratification criteria: Stratified by land class and by forest type within land class.

Sampling design: Mapping from aerial photos with ground plot sampling

Sampling intensity (%): 90 plots

Species coverage: All

Minimum diameter: 12.5 cm DBH

Type of volume measured:

(including or excluding branches, underbark or overbark, etc.)

Part 3: Inventory results (by reporting unit)

Reporting Unit name: FSM (main islands)

Area (ha): 24,326

Average volume per hectare (m3/ha): 129

Sampling error for average volume per hectare at 95% probability (%): Confidence intervals by type given in publication; no overall estimate of sampling error.

Stand and stock tables attached (Yes or No): No

Comments:

Table 6A - Volume of woody vegetation according to national classification

Reference year: 1983 Geographic Unit: FSM

Forest and other woody vegetation types

(country classification)

Volume

(1 000 m3)

Biomass

(1 000 m3)

1.Timberland (Pohnpei, 2,688; Kosrae, 338; Chuuk, 5; Yap, 116)

3147

 

Subtotal of country classes corresponding with FRA 2000 forest and other wooded land

3147

 

Definitions: See PSW-24

Forest health and protection

Invasive species

For information on invasive plant species, see http://www.hear.org/pier/mreport.htm,. http://www.hear.org/pier/kreport.htm and http://www.hear.org/pier/creport.htm

Mangroves

Area

Ha

Year

Source

Remarks

 

2000

   

8,600

1995

Ellison, J.C. (1995) Status report on Pacific Island Mangroves. In: Marine and Coastal Biodiversity in the Tropical Island Pacific Region. Volume 1: Population Development and Conservation Priorities. Maragos, J.E.., Peterson, M.N.A., Eldredge, L.G., Bardach, J.E. and Takeuchi, H.F. (Eds.). East-West Center, Honolulu, USA.

 

8,564

1983

MacLean, C.D., Whitesell, C.D., Cole, T.G., and McDuffie, K.E. (1988) Timber Resources of Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, and Yap, Federated States of Micronesia. USDA Forest Service Resource Bulletin PSW-24.

Compilation of previous studies (listed below) based on aerial photos dated 1976 combined with some field sampling 1983. 5,525 ha on Pohnpei; 1,562 ha on Kosrae; 1,171 ha on Yap; 306 ha on Truk. Of the total, 8,259 ha were classified as timberland and 305 ha as scrub.

5,525*

1983

MacLean, C.D., Cole, T.G., Whitesell, C.D., Falanruw, M.V. and Ambacher, A.H. (1987) Vegetation Survey of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. USDA Resource Bulletin PSW-18.

*Pohnpei only. Equivalent to 28% of forest area on Pohnpei. 3,484 ha were classified as size class 1 (trees averaging less than 30cm in dbh but larger than 12.5 cm dbh) and density class High (crown closure > 70%) and 1,806 ha as size class 2 (trees averaging > 30cm dbh) and density class High (crown closure > 70%).

1,562*

1983

Whitesell, C.D., MacLean, C.D.; Falanruw, M.C., Cole, T.G. and Ambacher, A.H. (1986) Vegetation Survey of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. USDA Resource Bulletin PSW-17.

*Kosrae only. Equivalent to 22% of the forest area on Kosrae. Based on 1976 aerial photos at scales of 1: 5,000 to 1:16,000 updated through ground sampling in 1983. About two thirds are classified as size class 2 (trees averaging > 30cm dbh) and one third as size class 1(trees averaging less than 30cm in dbh but larger than 12.5 cm dbh). All stands classified as medium (> 30%) or high . 70%) crown cover.

1,000*

1980

Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (Eds.) (1997) World Mangrove Atlas. The international Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan. 178 pp.

* Yap only. Taken from USDI (1983) Topographic map of the Yap Islands (Waqab), Federated States of Micronesia. 1:25:000. United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. Based on aerial photos of 1969 with field checking in 1980

1,171*

1976

Falanruw, M.C., Whitesell, C.D., Cole, T.G., MacLean, C.D., Ambacher, A.H. (1987) Vegetation Survey of Yap, federated states of Micronesia. USDA Resource Bulletin PSW-21.

*Yap only. Equivalent to 30% of the forest area on Yap. Based on aerial photos at 1:10,000 taken in 1976. The majority (944 ha) were classified as size class 2 (trees averaging less than 30cm in dbh but larger than 12.5 cm dbh) and density class High (crown closure > 70%).

306*

1976

Falanruw, M.C., Cole, T.G., Ambacher, A.H., McDuffie, K.E. and Maka, J.E. (1987) Vegetation Survey of Moen, Dublon, Fefan, and Eten, State of Truk, Federated States of Micronesia. USDA Resource Bulletin PSW-20.

*Truk only. Equivalent to 31% of the forest area on Truk. Based on aerial photos at 1:10,000 taken in 1976. 149 ha on Moen; 69 ha on Dublon and 88 ha on Fefan.

Description

Mangroves are extensive in tidally inundated areas and are composed of Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Sonneratia alba, Lumnitzera littorea, Xylocarpus granatum, Nypa fruticans and Acrostichum spp., increasing in stature and declining in species richness eastwards. The mangroves of Kosrae differ from those of other islands in occurring behind a protective strip of coastal strand vegetation. Mangroves are coastal only on the northwestern coast. The main species found in Kosraen mangroves is Sonneratia alba with some individuals obtaining heights of 25 to 30 m with diameters of 1.5 m. Rhizophora mucronata is usually found at the mouth of rivers and channels, with R. apiculata and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza common, along with Sonneratia, toward the interior of the mangrove. Numerous patches of Nypa fruticans and Xylocarpus granatum occur toward the landward edge of the mangrove in Kosrae.

References

MacLean, C.D., Whitesell, C.D., Cole, T.G., and McDuffie, K.E. 1988 Timber Resources of Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, and Yap, Federated States of Micronesia. USDA Forest Service Resource bulletin PSW-24.

Mueller-Dombois, D. and F. R. Fosberg 1998. Vegetation of the tropical Pacific islands. Springer-Verlag, New York. 733 pp.

Stemmerman, L., Proby, F. 1978. Inventory of wetland vegetation in the Caroline Islands, Volume I. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Ocean Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; 231 p. Cited in Whitesell et al. (1986)

Whitesell, C.D., MacLean, C.D.; Falanruw, M.C., Cole, T.G. and Ambacher, A.H. 1986. Vegetation Survey of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. USDA Resource Bulletin PSW-17.


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