General textbooks on fish genetics
Kirpichnikov, V.S. 1981. Genetic Bases of Fish Selection.Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA.
This textbook, written in a highly technical manner, contains valuable information about most aspects of fish genetics. The bibliography contains over 2,000 references, and includes references for a umber of hard-to-obtain papers about inbreeding studies from Russia and Eastern Europe.
Tave, D. 1993. Genetics for Fish Hatchery Managers, 2nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York, USA.
This textbook is written for extension specialists, government hatchery personnel, and fish farmers. It contains sections on all aspects of fish breeding, including one about inbreeding, genetic drift, and management of effective breeding number. There is a bibliography of over 800 references.
Highly technical articles that describe experiments or studies about: inbreeding; genetic drift; the effect of inbreeding and genetic drift on selection; effects of genetic drift on various phenotypes; recommended effective breeding numbers; and ways to manage hatchery populations to prevent inbreeding - and genetic drift-related problems.
Abella, T., and G. Newkirk. 1989. Within family selection for growth rate with rotational mating in tilapia. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 20:11A.
Allendorf, F.W., and R.F. Leary. 1984. Heterozygosity in gynogenetic diploids and triploids estimated by gene-centromere recombination rates. Aquaculture 43:413–420.
Allendorf, F.W., and S.R. Phelps. 1980. Loss of genetic variation in a hatchery stock of cutthroat trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 109:537–543.
Allendorf, F.W., and N. Ryman. 1988. Genetic management of hatchery stocks. Pages 141–159 in N. Ryman and F. Utter, eds. Population Genetics & Fishery Management. Washington Sea Grant Program, University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Allendorf, F.W., and F.M. Utter. 1979. Population genetics. Pages 407–454 in Fish Physiology, Vol. VIII. Bioenergetics and Growth. W.S. Hoar, D.J. Randall, and J.R. Brett, eds. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.
Anderson, D., and D.E. Woods. 1979. Evaluation of Intensive Inbreeding for Selection of Trout Brood Stock. Investigational Report No. 364, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.
Anon. 1984. Minimum number of parents needed to protect genetic stability in fish brood stocks. Page 79 in P.H. Eschmeyer and D.K. Harris, eds. Fisheries and Wildlife Research and Development 1983. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Denver, Colorado, USA.
Aulstad, D., and A. Kittlesen. 1971. Abnormal body curvatures of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) inbred fry. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 28:1918–1920.
Aulstad, D., T. Gjedrem, and H. Skjervold. 1972. Genetic and environmental sources of variation in length and weight of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29:237–241.
Bartley, D., M. Bagley, G. Gall, and B. Bentley. 1992. Use of linkage disequilibrium data to estimate effective size of hatchery and natural fish populations. Conservation Biology 6:365–375.
Blanco, G., J.A. Sanchez, E. Vazquez, E. Garcia, and J. Rubio. 1990. Superior developmental stability of heterozygotes at enzyme loci in Salmo salar L. Aquaculture 84:199–209.
Bondari, K. 1984. Growth comparison of inbred and randombred catfish at different temperatures. Proceedings Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 35(1981):547–553.
Bondari, K., and R.A. Dunham. 1986. The effect of inbreeding on reproduction, growth and survival of channel catfish. Aquaculture 57:363–364.
Bondari, K., and R.A. Dunham. 1987. Effects of inbreeding on economic traits of channel catfish. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 74:1–9.
Brummett, R.E., 1982. Isozymic Variability Within and Among Populations of Tilapia aurea, T. hornorum, T. mossambica, and T. nilotica. Master's thesis, Auburn University, Alabama, USA.
Calaprice, J.R. 1969. Production and genetic factors in managed salmonid populations. Pages 377–388 in T.G. Northcote, ed. Symposium on Salmon and Trout in Streams. Institute of Fisheries, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Ch'ang, M.T. 1971. Influence of inbreeding on tilapia (Tilapia mossambica Peters). Soviet Genetics 7:1277–1282.
Ch'ang, M.T. 1971. Determination of realized weight heritability in tilapia (Tilapia mossambica Peters.). Soviet Genetics 7:1550–1554.
Cooper, E.L. 1961. Growth of wild and hatchery strains of brook trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 90:424–438.
Cross, T.F., and D.N. Challanain. 1991. Genetic characterisation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) lines farmed in Ireland. Aquaculture 98:209–216.
Cross, T.F., and J. King. 1983. Genetic effects of hatchery rearing in Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 33:33–40. Danzmann, R.G., M.M. Ferguson, and F.W. Allendorf. 1988. Heterozygosity and components of fitness in a strain of rainbow trout. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 33:285–304. Danzmann, R.G., M.M. Ferguson, and F.W. Allendorf. 1989. Genetic variability and components of fitness in hatchery strains of rainbow trout. Journal of Fish Biology 35 (Supplement A): 313–319.
Davis, R.H., Jr. 1976. Evaluation of Growth in Inbred Lines and their F1 Hybrids in Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, Brown Trout, Salmo trutta, and Rainbow Trout, Salmo gairdneri. Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.
Doyle, R.W., and A. Talbot. 1986. Effective population size and selection in variable aquaculture stocks. Aquaculture 57:27–35.
Edds, D.R., and A.A. Echelle. 1989. Genetic comparisons of hatchery and natural stocks of small endangered fishes: Leon Springs pupfish, Comanche Springs pupfish, and Pecos gambusia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 118:441–446.
FAO/UNEP. 1981. Conservation of the Genetic Resources of Fish: Problems and Recommendations. Report of the Expert Consultation on the Genetic Resources of Fish. Rome, 9–13 June 1980. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 217, Rome, Italy.
Ferguson, M.M., R.G. Danzmann, and F.W. Allendorf. 1985. Developmental divergence among hatchery strains of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). I. Pure strains. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 27:289-297.
Gall, G.A.E. 1988. Inbreeding. Pages 47–87 in N. Ryman and F. Utter, eds. Population Genetics & Fishery Management. Washington Sea Grant Program, University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Gharrett, A.J., and S.M. Shirley. 1985. A genetic examination of spawning methodology in a salmon hatchery. Aquaculture 47:245–256.
Gibson, M.B. 1954. Upper lethal temperature relations of the guppy, Lebistes reticulatus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 32:393–407.
Gile, S.R., and M.M. Ferguson. 1990. Crossing methodology and genotypic diversity in a hatchery strain of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47:719–724.
Gjedrem, T. 1981. Conservation of fish populations in Norway. Pages 33–36 in N. Ryman, ed. Fish Gene Pools: Preservation of Genetic Resources in Relation to Wild Fish Stocks. Ecological Bulletins No. 34, Forskningsrådsnämnden, Stockholm, Sweden.
Gjerde, B. 1988. Complete diallele cross between six inbred groups of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Aquaculture 75:71–87.
Gjerde, B., K. Gunnes, and T. Gjedrem. 1983. Effect of inbreeding on survival and growth in rainbow trout. Aquaculture 34:327–332.
Guyomard, R. 1984. High level of residual heterozygosity in gynogenetic rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, Richardson. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 67:307–316.
Hallerman, E.M., R.A. Dunham, and R.O. Smitherman. 1986. Selection or drift-isozyme allele frequency changes among channel catfish selected for rapid growth. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115:60–68.
Hedrick, P.W., and D. Hedgecock. 1994. Effective population size in winter-run chinook salmon. Conservation Biology 8:890–892.
Hershberger, W.K. 1992. Genetic variability in rainbow trout populations. Aquaculture 100:51–71.
Hershberger, W.K., J.M. Myers, R.N. Iwamoto, and W.C. McAuley. 1990. Assessment of inbreeding and its implications for salmon broodstock development. Pages 1–7 in R.S. Svrjcek, ed. Genetics in Aquaculture. Proceedings of the Sixteenth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Charleston, South Carolina, October 20 and 21, 1987. NOAA Technical Report NMFS92, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia, USA.
Hörstgen-Schwark, G. 1990. Prospect of producing inbred lines for consolidation of growth performance. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production XVI:163–166.
Hynes, J.D., E.H. Brown, Jr., J.H. Helle, N.Ryman, and D.A. Webster. 1981. Guidelines for the culture of fish stocks for resource management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38:1867–1876.
Ihssen, P. 1976. Selective breeding and hybridization in fisheries management. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 33:316–321.
Kartavtsev, Y.F., E.A. Salmenkova, G.A. Rubstova, and K.I. Afanas'ev. 1990. Familial analysis of allozyme variability and its interaction with body size and offspring survival in the salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walb). Soviet Genetics 26:1060–1067.
Kincaid, H.L. 1976. Effects of inbreeding on rainbow trout populations. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 105:273–280.
Kincaid, H.L. 1976. Inbreeding in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 33:2420–2426.
Kincaid, H.L. 1976. Inbreeding in salmonids. Pages 33–37 in T.Y. Nosho and W.K. Hershberger, eds. Salmonid Genetics: Status and Role in Aquaculture. Washington Sea Grant Report WSG WO 76-2, Division of Marine Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Kincaid, H.L. 1977. Rotational line crossing: An approach to the reduction of inbreeding accumulation in trout brood stocks. Progressive Fish-Culturist 39:179–181.
Kincaid, H.L. 1979. Development of standard reference lines of rainbow trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 108:457–461.
Kincaid, H.L. 1983. Inbreeding in fish populations used for aquaculture. Aquaculture 33:215–227.
Komen, J., C.J.J. Richter, W.B. Van Muiswinkel, and E.A. Huisman, 1990. The effects of inbreeding in gynogenetic carp, Cyprinus carpio L., and the production of homozygous and heterozygous clones. Aquaculture 85:332–333.
Komen, J., G.F. Wiegertjes, V.J.T. van Ginneken, E.H. Eding, and C.J.J. Richter. 1992. Gynogenesis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). III. The effects of inbreeding on gonadal development of heterozygous and homozygous gynogenetic offspring. Aquaculture 104:51–66.
Komen, J., E.H. Eding, A.B.J. Bongers, and C.J.J. Richter. 1993. Gynogenesis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). IV. Growth, phenotypic variation and gonad differentiation in normal and methyltestosterone-treated homozygous clones and F1 hybrids. Aquaculture 111:271–280.
Lannan, J.E., and A.R.D. Kapuscinski. 1986. Application of a genetic fitness model to extensive aquaculture. Aquaculture 57:81–87.
Leary, R.F., F.W. Allendorf, and K.L. Knudsen. 1985. Developmental instability as an indicator of reduced genetic variation in hatchery trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114:230–235.
Leary, R.F., F.W. Allendorf, K.L. Knudsen, and G.H. Thorgaard. 1985. Heterozygosity and developmental stability in gynogenetic diploid and triploid rainbow trout. Heredity 54:219–225.
Leberg, P.L. 1990. Influence of genetic variability on population growth: implications for conservation. Journal of Fish Biology 37 (Supplement A): 193–195.
Macaranas, J., and Y. Fujio. 1990. Stain differences in cultured fish-isozymes and performance traits as indicators. Aquaculture 85:69–82.
McKay, L.R., I. McMillian, S.E. Sadler, and R.D. Moccia. 1992. Effects of mating systems on inbreeding levels and selection response in salmonid aquaculture. Aquaculture 100:100–101.
Meffe, G.K. 1986. Conservation genetics and the management of endangered fishes. Fisheries 11(1):14–23.
Meffe, G.K. 1987. Conserving fish genomes: philosophies and practices. Environmental Biology of Fishes 18:3–9.
Meffe, G.K. 1990. Genetic approaches to conservation of rare fishes: examples from North American desert species. Journal of Fish Biology 37 (Supplement A):105–112.
Moav, R., and G.W. Wohlfarth. 1968. Genetic improvement of yield in carp. Proceedings of the World Symposium on Warm-water Pond Fish Culture. FAO Fisheries Report No. 44,4:12–29.
Moav, R., G. Hulata, and G. Wohlfarth. 1974. The breeding potential of growth curve dfferences between the European and the Chinese races of the common carp. Ist World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production 3:573–578.
Mrakovčić, M., and L.E. Haley. 1979. Inbreeding depression in the zebra fish Brachydanio rerio (Hamilton Buchanan). Journal of Fish Biology 15:323–327.
Nagy, A. 1987. Genetic manipulations performed on warm water fish. Pages 163–173 in K. Thiews, ed. Selection, Hybridization, and Genetic Engineering in Aquaculture, Vol. II. Heenemann GmbH and Co., Berlin.
Nagy, A., and V. Csányi. 1982. Changes of genetic parameters in successive gynogenetic generations and some calculations for carp gynogenesis. Theoretical and Apllied Genetics 63:105–110.
Nagy, A., and V. Csányi. 1984. A new breeding system using gynogenesis and sex-reversal for fast inbreeding in carp. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 67:485–490.
Nelson, K., and M. Soulé. 1988. Genetical conservation of exploited fishes. Pages 345–368 in N. Ryman and F. Utter, eds. Population Genetics & Fishery Management. Washington Sea Grant Program, University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Newkirk, G.F. 1979. A discussion of possible sources of inbreeding in hatchery stock and associated problems. Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society 10:93–100.
Piron, R.D. 1978. Spontaneous skeletal deformities in the Zebra Danio (Brachydanio rerio) bred for fish toxicity tests. Journal of Fish Biology 13:79–83.
Piron, R.D. 1978. Breeding the convict cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum) for use in laboratory fish toxicity tests. Journal of Fish Biology 13:119–122.
Ryman, N. 1970. A genetic analysis of recapture frequencies of released young of salmon (Salmo salar L.) Hereditas 65:159–160.
Ryman, N. 1981. Conservation of genetic resources: Experiences from the brown trout (Salmo trutta). Pages 61–74 in N. Ryman, ed. Fish Gene Pools: Preservation of Genetic Resources in Relation to Wild Fish Stocks. Ecological Bulletins No. 34, Forskningsradsnamnden, Stockholm, Sweden.
Ryman, N. 1991. Conservation genetics considerations in fishery management. Journal of Fish Biology 39 (Supplement A): 211–224.
Ryman, N. 1994. Supportive breeding and effective population size: Differences between inbreeding and variance effective breeding numbers. Conservation Biology 8:888–890.
Ryman, N, and L. Laikre. 1991. Effects of supportive breeding on the genetically effective population size. Conservation Biology 5:325–329.
Ryman, N., and G. Ståhl. 1980. Genetic changes in hatchery stocks of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37:82–87.
Ryman, N., P.E. Jorde, and L. Laikre. 1995. Supportive breeding and variance effective population size. Conservation Biology 9:1619–1628.
Scheerer, P.D., G.H. Thorgaard, F.W. Allendorf, and K.L. Knudsen. 1986. Androgenetic rainbow trout produced from inbred and outbred sperm sources show similar survival. Aquaculture 57:289–298.
Schom, C.B., and J.K. Bailey. 1986. Selective breeding and line crossing to reduce inbreeding. Progressive Fish-Culturist 48:57–60.
Sheridan, L., and A. Pomiankowski. 1997. Fluctuating asymmetry, spot asymmetry and inbreeding depression in the sexual coloration of male guppy fish. Heredity 79:515–523.
Simon, R.C., J.D. McIntyre, and A.R. Hemmingsen. 1986. Family size and effective population size in a hatchery stock of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 43:2434–2442.
Smitherman, R.O., and D. Tave. 1987. Maintenance of genetic quality in cultured tilapia. Asian Fisheries Science 1:75–82.
Ståhl, G. 1983. Differences in the amount and distribution of genetic variation between natural populations and hatchery stocks of Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 33:23–32.
Su, G.-S., L.-E. Liljedahl, and G.A.E. Gall. 1996. Effects of inbreeding on growth and reproductive traits in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 142:139–148.
Sugama, K., N. Taniguchi, and S. Umeda. 1988. An experimental study on genetic drift in hatchery population of red sea bream. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 54:739–744.
Taniguchi, N., K. Sumantadinata, and S. Iyama. 1983. Genetic change in the first and second generations of hatchery stock of black seabream. Aquaculture 35:309–320.
Taniguchi, N., H.S. Han, and A. Tsujimura. 1994. Variation in some quantitative traits of clones produced by chromosomal manipulation in ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis. Aquaculture 120:53–60.
Tave, D. 1984. Effective breeding efficiency: An index to quantify the effects that different breeding program and sex ratios have on inbreeding and genetic drift. Progressive Fish-Culturist 46:262–268.
Tave, D. 1988. Effective breeding number and broodstock management. Pages 46–57 in E.A. Kenney, ed. Genetics, Breeding and Domestication of Farmed Salmon Workshop. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, and B.C. Salmon Farmers' Association, North Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Tave, D. 1990. Effective breeding number and broodstock management: I. How to minimize inbreeding. Pages 27–38 in R.O. Smitherman and D. Tave, eds. Proceedings Auburn Symposium on Fisheries and Aquaculture. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, Alabama, USA.
Tave, D. 1990. Effective breeding number and broodstock management: II. How to minimize genetic drift. Pages 39–46 in R.O. Smitherman and D. Tave, eds. Proceedings Auburn Symposium on Fisheries and Aquaculture. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, Alabama, USA.
Tave, D, and R.O. Smitherman. 1980. Predicted response to selection for early growth in Tilapia nilotica. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 109:439–445.
Teichert-Coddington, D.R., and R.O. Smitherman. 1988. Lack of response by Tilapia nilotica to mass selection for rapid early growth. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 117:297–300.
Thompson, D. 1983. The efficiency of induced diploid gynogenesis in inbreeding. Aquaculture 33:237–244.
Verspoor, E. 1988. Reduced genetic variability in first-generation hatchery populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45:1686–1690.
Vuorinen, J. 1984. Reduction of genetic variability in a hatchery stock of brown trout, Salmo trutta L. Journal of Fish Biology 24:339–348.
Waples, R.S. 1989. A generalized approach for estimating effective population size from temporal changes in allele frequency. Genetics 121:379–391.
Waples, R.S. 1990. Conservation genetics of Pacific salmon. II. Effective population size and rate of loss of genetic variability. Journal of Heredity 81:267–276.
Waples, R.S. 1990. Conservation genetics of Pacific salmon. III. Estimating effective population size. Journal of Heredity 81:277–289.
Waples, R.S., and D.J. Teel. 1989. Conservation genetics of Pacific salmon. I. Temporal changes in allele frequency. Conservation Biology 4:144–156.
Waples, R.S., G.A. Winans, F.M. Utter, and C. Mahnken. 1990. Genetic approaches to the management of Pacific salmon. Fisheries 15(5):19–25.
Waples, R.S., G.A. Winans, F.M. Utter, and C. Mahnken. 1990. Genetic monitoring of Pacific salmon hatcheries. Pages 33–37 in R.S. Svrjcek, ed. Genetics in Aquaculture. Proceedings of the Sixteenth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Charleston, South Carolina, October 20 and 21, 1987. NOAA Technical Report NMFS92, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia, USA.
Winemiller, K.O., and D.H. Taylor. 1982. Inbreeding depression in the convict cichlid, Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum (Baird and Girard). Journal of Fish Biology 21:399–402.
Withler, R.E. 1988. Genetic consequences of fertilizing chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) eggs with poled milt. Aquaculture 68:15–25
Withler, R.E. 1990. Genetic consequences of salmonid egg fertilization techniques. Aquaculture 85:326.
Withler, R.E., and T.D. Beacham. 1994. Genetic consequences of the simultaneous addition of semen from multiple males during hatchery spawning of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Aquaculture 126:11–23.
Young, W.P., P.A. Wheeler, and G.A. Thorgaard. 1995. Asymmetry and variability of meristic characters and spotting in isogenic lines of rainbow trout. Aquaculture 137:67–76.