A guide to the seaweed industry

FAO FISHERIES TECHNICAL PAPER 441

by
Dennis J. McHugh
School of Chemistry, University College
University of New South Wales
and
Australian Defence Force Academy
Canberra
Australia

FOOF AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2003

Table of Contents


Cover photograph: Durvillaea potatorum on wawe-swept rocks, Australia. Bruce Fuhrer.

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The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations nor of their affiliated organization(s).

The mention or omission of specific companies, their products or brand names does not imply any endorsement or judgement by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-104958-0
ISSN 0429-9345

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© FAO 2003

Table of Contents

PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

1. INTRODUCTION TO COMMERCIAL SEAWEEDS

1.1 Scope of the seaweed industry
1.2 Classification of seaweeds
1.3 Uses of seaweeds - an overview
1.4 Sources of seaweed

1.4.1 Brown seaweeds
1.4.2 Red seaweeds

1.5 Cultivation methods - general outline

2. SEAWEEDS USED AS A SOURCE OF AGAR

2.1 Genera and species used
2.2 Natural habitats
2.3 Sources of agarophytes
2.4 Harvesting methods for wild agarophytes
2.5 Cultivation of agarophytes
2.6 Quantities harvested
2.7 Markets
2.8 Future prospects

3. AGAR

3.1 Agar production methods

3.1.1 Food grade agar
3.1.2 Agar strips
3.1.3 Bacteriological agar
3.1.4 Agarose

3.2 Agar producers
3.3 Agar uses

3.3.1 Food
3.3.2 Other uses
3.3.3 Microbiological agar

3.4 Markets and marketing of agar
3.5 Future prospects

4. SEAWEEDS USED AS A SOURCE OF ALGINATE

4.1 Genera and species used
4.2 Natural habitats
4.3 Sources of alginophytes
4.4 Harvesting methods for wild seaweeds
4.5 Cultivation of seaweeds
4.6 Quantities harvested
4.7 Markets
4.8 Future prospects

5. ALGINATE

5.1 Alginate production methods

5.1.1 Sodium alginate
5.1.2 Other alginate products

5.2 Alginate producers
5.3 Alginate uses

5.3.1 Textile printing
5.3.2 Food
5.3.3 Immobilized biocatalysts
5.3.4 Pharmaceutical and medical uses
5.3.5 Other applications

5.4 Markets and marketing of alginates
5.5 Future prospects

6. SEAWEEDS USED AS A SOURCE OF CARRAGEENAN

6.1 Genera and species used
6.2 Natural habitats
6.3 Sources of carrageenophytes
6.4 Harvesting methods for wild carrageenophytes
6.5 Cultivation of carrageenophytes
6.6 Quantities harvested
6.7 Markets
6.8 Future prospects

7. CARRAGEENAN

7.1 Carrageenan production methods

7.1.1 Refined carrageenan and filtered carrageenan
7.1.2 Semi-refined carrageenan and seaweed flour
7.1.3 Philippine natural grade (PNG) and processed Eucheuma seaweed (PES)

7.2 Carrageenan producers and distributors

7.2.1 Refined carrageenan producers and distributors
7.2.2 PNG and PES and seaweed flour producers and distributors

7.3 Carrageenan uses

7.3.1 Dairy products
7.3.2 Water-based foods
7.3.3 Meat products
7.3.4 Pet food
7.3.5 Air freshener gels
7.3.6 Toothpaste
7.3.7 Immobilized biocatalysts
7.3.8 For further details
7.3.9 Refined grade vs natural grade

7.4 Markets and marketing of carrageenan
7.5 Future prospects

8. SEAWEEDS USED AS HUMAN FOOD

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Nori or purple laver (Porphyra spp.)
8.3 Aonori or green laver (Monostroma spp. and Enteromorpha spp.)
8.4 Kombu or haidai (Laminaria japonica)
8.5 Wakame, quandai-cai (Undaria pinnatifida)
8.6 Hiziki (Hizikia fusiforme)
8.7 Mozuku (Cladosiphon okamuranus)
8.8 Sea grapes or green caviar (Caulerpa lentillifera)
8.9 Dulse (Palmaria palmata)
8.10 Irish moss or carrageenan moss (Chondrus crispus)
8.11 Winged kelp (Alaria esculenta)
8.12 Ogo, ogonori or sea moss (Gracilaria spp.)
8.13 Callophyllis variegata
8.14 Future prospects

9. OTHER USES OF SEAWEEDS

9.1 Fertilizers and soil conditioners
9.2 Animal feed
9.3 Fish feed
9.4 Biomass for fuel
9.5 Cosmetics
9.6 Integrated aquaculture
9.7 Wastewater treatment

9.7.1 Treatment of wastewater to reduce nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing compounds
9.7.2 Removal of toxic metals from industrial wastewater

REFERENCES 1 - LITERATURE SOURCES

REFERENCES 2 - INTERNET SOURCES

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