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Studies prepared under the Project GCP/SYR/006/ITA “Assistance in Institutional Strengthening and Agricultural Policy”, FAO/Government of Italy Cooperation Programme/MAAR, Damascus, Syria

Cummins, G. 2001. Final Report on Livestock sub-Sector. October 2000. (Basis for Chapter 9)

Edwards-Jones, G. 2002. Final Report on Agricultural Policy and the environment in Syria: An examination of impacts and suggestions for policy reform. June 2002. (Chapter 5)

Forni, N. 2001. Final Report on Land tenure systems: Structural features and policies”. March 2001. (Quoted in Chapter 11, basis for Chapter 12)

García-Alvarez-Coque, J.M. 2001. Final Report on Syrian-E.U. Association and its Impact on Agriculture. October 2001. (Chapter 2)

Maletta, H. 2001. Final Report on Promotion of Private Investment in the Agro-Food Sector. October 2001. (Chapters 2, 3)

Malevolti, I. 1999. Final Report on Olive and Olive Oil sub-Sector. August 1999. (Chapters 7, 10)

Parthasarathy, N.S. 2002. Final Report on Agricultural Credit. October 2001. (Chapter 15)

Parthasarathy, N.S. 2001. Final Report on Agricultural Inputs Liberalisation. December 2000. (Chapter 14)

Rama, D. 2001. Final Report on Agricultural Marketing and Processing. October 2000. (Chapter 10)

Sarris, A. 2002. Final Report on Agricultural Development Strategy for Syria. December 2001. (Chapter 1)

Sarris, A. 2002. Agricultural Development Strategy for Syria: Background Reference Paper. December 2001. (Chapters 1, 13)

Varela-Ortega, C. and Sagardoy, J.A. 2001. Final Report on Agricultural Water Use. August 2001. (Chapter 13)

Wehrheim, P. 2002. Taxation and Net Transfers to the Agricultural Sector. December 2001. (Chapters 1, 4)

Westlake, M. 2001. Final Report on Strategic Crops' sub-Sector. April 2001. (Chapters 2, 6)

Westlake, M. 2000. Final Report on Citrus Sector. October 2000. (Chapters 2, 8)

Other references

Abbot, J. (ed.). 1993. Agricultural and food marketing in developing countries: Selected readings. CAB. (Chapter 10)

Abbot, J. 1970. Marketing fruits and vegetables. Rome, FAO. (Chapter 10)

Abbot, Ph, C. 2002: Tariff-rate Quotas: Failed Market Access Instruments? European Review of Agricultural Economics. (Chapter 2)

Abdel Nour, A. 2001. Syrian views of an Association Agreement with the EU, EuroMeSco Papers 14, December. (Chapter 2)

Abed, G.T. 1998. Trade liberalisation and tax reform in the Southern Mediterranean Region, IMF Working Paper No. 98/49, Washington, DC. (Chapter 02)

AFMESA. 1999. Small farmer marketing improvement in the context of marketing liberalization (Report of an AFMESA/FAO workshop, Harare, October 1999). (Chapter 10)

AFMESA. 1995. Food marketing liberalization - a critical review of experiences to date (Report of an AFMESA/FAO workshop, Lusaka, September 1995). (Chapter 10)

Ajamiya, H. 2000. ‘The conditions of work in the agricultural sector in Syria’ lecture delivered on 2 August 2000 in Damascus. (Chapter 12)

Al Hindi, A. 1998. The Syrian agriculture and its role in the national economy, (report). Damascus. (Chapter 7)

Al Jundi A., Khaddour H. & Mirreh M. 2000. Range monitoring in the Syrian Steppe. Technical working paper # 4. GCP/SYR/OO3/ITA. (Chapter 5)

Al Madani, Abdel Hamid et alia. 2001. Agricultural Trade Liberalization in Syria, in Context of Bilateral Trade Agreements, Arabic Free Trade Area and WTO, Research Report by Team 4, Supervised by Prof. F. de Filippis, GCP/SYR/006/ITA. (Chapter 2)

Asfary, F. 1998. The status quo of the olive oil mills in Syria, (draft). Aleppo, Syria. (Chapter 7)

Bardaragoda, D.J. 1998. Needs for institutional impact assessment in planning irrigation system modernization. Research report 21. Colombo, Sri Lanka, International Irrigation Management Institute. (Chapter 13)

Batatu, H. 1999. Syria’s peasantry, the descendants of its lesser rural notables, and their politic. Princeton, Princeton University Press. (Chapter 12)

Blench, R. 1996. Rangeland Degradation and Socio-Economic Change Among the Bedu of Jordan: Results of the 1995 IFAD Survey. (Chapter 9)

Bureau of Statistics. Agricultural Census 1994. The Syrian Arab Republic, Central Prime Minster’s Office (1999). (Chapter 13)

Caballero, J.M., 1997. Improvement of olive production and processing in the Arabic Republic of Syria, (report) SYR/92/016/E Rome, FAO. (Chapter 7)

Central Bank of Syria (various issues). Statistical Abstract. Damascus. (Chapter 4)

Central Bureau of Statistics (various issues). Statistical Yearbook. Damascus, Office of the Prime Minister of the Syrian Arab Republic. (Chapter 10)

Central Bureau of Statistics Statistical Abstract (various issues). (Chapter 4)

Ciparisse, G. 1999. Esperienze internazionali di gestione sostenibile delle proprietà collettive’ Communication to a workshop held at the Università della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy, 1999. Unpublished. (Chapter 12)

Commissariat Géneral du Plan. 2000. Le Partenariat Euro-méditerranéen. La Dynamique de l’integration Régionale, Rapport du groupe de travail Méditerranée ‘Économies et migrations’. Paris. (Chapter 2)

Cullinan, C. 1999. Law and markets. Improving the legal environment for agricultural marketing. Rome, FAO. (Chapter 10)

Dessus, S.; Devlin, J. & Safadi, R. (eds.). 2001. Towards Arab and Euro-Med Regional Integration, Development Centre of the OECD Economic Research Forum for the Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey. Paris, The World Bank, Development Centre Seminars. (Chapter 2)

Dinar, A. & Subramanian, A.. 1997. Water pricing experiences. An international perspective. World Bank technical paper Nº 386. Washington, The World Bank. (Chapter 13)

Dixie, G. 1989. Horticultural marketing - a resource and training manual for extension officers. Rome, FAO. (Chapter 10)

Dugdill, B. T. &. Gadri, A.G. 1999. Milk collection and processing, Technical Mission Report GCP/SYR/003/ITA. Damascus, FAO. (Chapters 9, 10)

Elamin, N. 1997. Implications of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations for Agricultural Policies in Syria. Study prepared for the MAAR. (Chapters 4, 9)

El Gonemy, R. 1996. Recent changes in agrarian reform and rural development strategies in the Near East.. Paper prepared for the Rural Development International Workshop. Godollo, Hungary. (Chapter 12)

ERM. 1998a. National Environmental Action Plan for the Arab Republic of Syria. World Bank/UNDP. (Chapter 5)

ERM. 1998b. The Seven Water Basins of Syria’s Environmental Action Plan. World Bank/UNDP. (Chapter 5)

Facon, T. 1997. Modernization of Irrigation Schemes: Synthesis of Country Papers. In: FAO, Modernization of irrigation schemes: past experiences and future options, pp.147-156. (Chapter 13)

FAO. 2002. The State of Food and Agriculture 2002 (SOFA 2002). Rome. (Chapter 4)

FAO. 1999. Technical co-operation programme: Agribusiness development in the new lands. Egypt. (Chapter 10)

FAO. 1997. Draft Strategy for National Agricultural Development Horizon 2010: Syria. (World Food Summit Follow-up). (Chapter 13)

FAO. 1997. Irrigation in the Near East region in figures. Water reports Nº 9. Rome. (Chapter 13)

FAO. 1997. Modernization of irrigation schemes: past experiences and future options. Water Report 12, FAO/RAP Publication: 1997/22. Bangkok. (Chapter 13)

FAO. 1993. Study of land transactions in Tunisia. Rome. (Chapter 12)

FAO-ESCWA-MAAR. 1994. National Farm Data Handbook of the Syrian Arab Republic. (Chapter 13)

FAO-WFP. 1999. Crop and Food Supply Assessment Special Report: Mission to the Syrian Arab Republic. FAO. (Chapter 9)

Federation of Peasants Unions. (Various issues). Statistical Yearbook. (Chapter 10)

Forni, N. 1999. Rural Institutions, GCP/SYR/003/ITA. Damascus. (Chapter 9)

Fruit Trees Development Project. 1990. Fruit tree project: Marketing report. Damascus. (Chapter 10)

Garcia-Alvarez-Coque, J.M. 2002. Agricultural trade and the Barcelona Process. Is full liberalisation possible? European Review of Agricultural Economics. (Chapter 2)

Garrido, A., Varela-Ortega, C. & Sumpsi, J.M. 1997. The interaction of agricultural water pricing policies and water districts' modernization programs: a question with unexpected answers. Contributed paper presented at the Eighth Annual Conference of the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, Tilburg, The Netherlands (26-28 June 1997). (Chapter 13)

GCP/SYR/006/ITA. 2001. Syria Databases. Damascus, FAO-MAAR-Italian Cooperation. (Chapter 13)

GCP/SYR/006/ITA. 1999. Country Profile: The state of food and agriculture in Syria. Damascus, FAO-MAAR-Italian Cooperation. (Chapters 10, 13)

Hinkle, L. E. & Montiel, P. (eds). 1999. Exchange rate misalignment. Concepts and measures for developing countries. Oxford University Press. (Chapter 10)

Hopfinger, H. (editor). Economic Liberalization and Privatization in Socialist Arab Countries, Algeria, Egypt, Syria and Yemen as examples. (Chapter 9)

Huffaker, R.G. & Whittlesey, N.K. 1995. Agricultural water conservation legislation. Will it save water?. Choices, 4th quarter: 24-28. (Chapter 13)

Ilaiwa, M.; Jabour, E. & Abdelgawad, G. Syria:Human induced soil degradation. (a paper communicated by MAAR). (Chapter 5)

IMF. 2000. Syrian Arab Republic - Recent Economic Developments. Staff report on the 2000 Article IV consultations, Middle Eastern Department, 3 August 2000. (Chapter 2)

INEA. 1998. Rapporto sull'olio di oliva (Olive oil report based on processed data from FAO, ISMEA, IOOC, EUROSTAT sources), September 1998. (Chapter 7)

Informatore Agrario, (various issues). Prezzi e Mercati (Prices and Markets). (Chapter 7)

International Monetary Fund. 2000a. Syrian Arab Republic. Staff Report for the 2000 Article IV Consultation. Washington, DC, 3 August, 2000. (Chapter 1)

International Monetary Fund. 2000b. Syrian Arab Republic. Recent Economic Developments. Background report for the 2000 Article IV Consultation. Washington, DC, 7 August 2000. (Chapter 1)

IOOC, (1998) World table olive balance, COT/R59/Doc. No 2, September 1998. (Chapter 7)

ISMEA, (1997) Filiera olio di oliva. Roma. (Chapter 7)

International Water Management Institute. 2000. World Water Supply and Demand: 1995-2025. Monograph. IWMI. Colombo, Sri Lanka. (Chapter 13)

Jensen, H.T., Robinson, S. & Tarp, F. 2003. General Equilibrium Measures of Agricultural Policy Bias in Fifteen Developing Countries, IFPRI, TMD Discussion Paper No 105. Washington, DC. (Chapter 4)

Jbara, M. 1998. A sight of olives planting in Syria, (draft). Damascus. (Chapter 7)

Karabeej, M. & Al-Hindi, A. 1996. Present and future status of olive oil production, marketing and processing in Syria, (report). Damascus. (Chapter 7)

Kaisi, A.; Daovd, M.; Daniel & Somi, G. 2000. Strengthening the links between water users and agricultural research and extension institutions in The Syrian Arab Republic. Directorate of Irrigation and Water Use. Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. (Chapter 13)

Kunstantin, M. 2001. Paper on water use for agricultural purposes. The Syrian Arab Republic, Department of Exploitation and Maintenance, Ministry of Irrigation. (Chapter 13)

Lee, D.R. & Barrett, C.D. (eds.). 2001. Trade-offs or Synergies? Agricultural intensification, economic development and the environment. Wallingford, United Kingdom, CABI Publishing, 538 pp. (Chapter 5)

Lemel, H. 1988. ‘Land titling: conceptual, empirical and policy issues’ in Land Use Policy, July 1988. (Chapter 12)

Liefert, W.; Sedik, D.; Koopman, R.; Serova, E. & Melyukhina, O. 1996. Producer Subsidy Estimates for Russian agriculture: Estimation and interpretation. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 78(3): 792-798. (Chapter 4)

MAAR. 2001a. Preliminary proposed plan on the implementation of agricultural strategy in Syria in the field of management of water resources and rationalization of their uses for agriculture. Arab Republic of Syria, Directorate of Irrigation and Water Use, Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform,. (Chapter 13)

MAAR. 2001b. Technical and economic results of the agricultural water management improvement project SYR/90/001 in the Syrian Arab Republic. Arab Republic of Syria, Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform.(Chapter 13)

Macclachi, Don. 1999. Trade Policy and Domestic Policies in an Open Economy Setting GCP/SYR/006/ITA. (Chapter 9)

Malevolti, I. 1999. Improving the efficiency of the olive oil subsector, study prepared for the National Agriculture Policy Center, Assistance in Institutional Strengthening and Agricultural Policy - Project GCP/SYR/006/ITA. Damascus. (Chapters 2, 10)

Malevolti, I. 1998. Immagine, informazione, organizzazione per un mercato competitivo e per nuove aree di consumo dell'olio extravergine di oliva di qualita', Atti convegno “Réseau Agronomique Mediterranéen, Avignon,1998”. (Chapter 7)

Malevolti, I. 1993. Il mercato dell'olio di oliva. Qualità, integrazione, organizzazione, marketing, Atti dell'Accademia dei Georgofili. Firenze, Italy. (Chapter 7)

Malevolti, I. & Marchi, V. 1992. Produzione e mercato: quale integrazione per favorire la valorizzazione dell'olio extravergine di oliva, Atti del convegno internazionale “Olive oil quality”, Firenze, Italy. (Chapter 7)

Masri, A. 1994. Rangeland cartography and feed resource. Consultancy report - Project GCP/SYR/003/ITA. (Chapter 5)

Masri, A. 1991. The tradition of Hema as a Land Tenure institution in arid land Management: The Syrian Arab Republic. Rome, FAO. (Chapter 5)

Melyukhina, O.; Qaim, M. & Wehrheim, P. 1998. Regional protection rates for food commodities in Russia: Producer and consumer perspectives. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 25: 395-411. (Chapter 4)

MAAR. (Several issues). Agricultural Statistical Abstrac. Damascus, Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. (Chapter 10)

Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade. 2000. Export Strategy in Syria, Damascus. (Chapter 4)

Mirreh, M.M. & Razzouk, T. 1997. Survey of the cooperatives. GCP/SYR/003/ITA, FAO Palmyra. (Chapter 5)

Ngaido, T. 1997. Land tenure issues and the development of rangelands in Syria. Report to IFAD, Appraisal Mission for Al Badia Rangeland Development Project in Syria, 1997. (Chapter 5)

Nsouli, S. M. & Rached, M. 1998. Capital account liberalization in the Southern Mediterranean, in: Finance and Development, vol. 35, No. 4 (December 1998). (Chapter 10)

Nucifora, A. & Sarri,D. 1997. Levels of protection for the fruit, vegetables, olive oil and wine sectors of the European Union.. Siena, Italy, CIPAS, Siena University. (Chapter 7)

OECD. 2002. Agricultural policies in OECD countries: Monitoring and evaluation. Paris, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (Chapter 4)

OECD. 2000. New classification of PSEs, CSEs, and total transfers. Paris, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (Chapter 4)

Presidency of the Council of Ministers, Government of Syria.2001. Present status and the development of future demand for water resources until year 2015. Damascus. (Chapter 13)

Radha Sinha. 1984. Landlessness- a growing problem. Rome, FAO. (Chapter 12)

Rae, J. 2000. ‘Outlines to potential participatory management arrangements for the management and rehabilitation of steppe rangelands’ Briefing paper, Project GCP/SYR/009/ITA. (Chapter 12)

Rae, J. 1999. Customary Management of Dryland Natural Resources (Property Rights and Collective Action). Project GCP/SYR/003/ITA. (Chapter 9)

Rassouk, Talal, Jani, Khalil, Mouhammed Ibrahim. 1998. A Socio-economic Study of the Herders in the Syrian Badia. Al Badia Dept., MAAR, FAO. (Chapter 9)

Riddell, J.C. 2000. ‘Emerging trends in land tenure reform: progress towards a unified theory’. SD Dimensions. Rome, FAO. (Chapter 12)

Roberts, M. & Wehrheim, P. 2001. Regional Trade Agreements and WTO Accession of CIS countries, Review of European Economic Policy - Intereconomics, 36 (6): 315-323. (Chapter 4)

Rosegrant, M.W. 1997. Water Resources in the twenty-first Century: Challenges and Implications for Action. Food, Agriculture and Environment Discussion Paper 20. Washington, DC, IFPRI. (Chapter 13)

Rosegrant, M.W. & Svendsen, M. 1993. Asian Food Production in the 1990s: Irrigation Investment and Management Policy. Food Policy, 18:13-32. (Chapter 13)

Rosegrant, M.W., Scheleyer, R.G. & Yadav, S.N. 1995. Water policy for efficient agricultural diversification: market based approaches. Food Policy, 20: 203-223. (Chapter 13)

Sarris, A. 2001. Analysis of Structure and Performance of the Agricultural Sector of Syria: Background to the Articulation of an Agricultural Sector Strategy for Syria”, Project GCP/SYR/006/ITA. Damascus, FAO. (Chapters 1, 11)

Sarris, A. 1995. “A policy framework for agricultural development strategy in Syria”. Volumes 1 and 2. Report to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, project TSS-1. (Chapters 1, 11, 12)

Satin, M. 1996. Food quality and international trade. Rome, FAO. (Chapter 10)

Seale, P. 1988. Asad-the struggle for the Middle East. London, Tauris. (Chapter 12)

SEBC. 2000. Fruit and Vegetables Export Company - Final Report. Damascus, Syrian-European Business Center. (Chapter 2)

SEBC. 1999. Executive summary of the export promotion missions to the Gulf States 1998/99 organized by SEBC. Damascus, Syrian European Business Center. (Chapter 10)

SEBC. 1998. Olive oil sub-sector in Syria: a survey. Damascus, Syrian-European Business Center. (Chapter 7)

SEBC. 1997. Olive oil sub-sector in Syria: a survey. Damascus, Syrian European Business Center. (Chapter 10)

Seckler, D. 1996. The New Era of Water Resources Management: From “Dry” to “Wet” Water Savings. Research Report 1. Colombo, Sri Lanka, International Irrigation Management Institute. (Chapter 13)

Shahaideh, A., Nahas, B., Shhadeh, W., Kiwan, N., Mousa, N. & Tobeh, N. 2001. “Territorial and structural differentiation of Syrian agriculture: case studies”, Research Training Report, Project GCP/SYR/006/ITA. Damascus, FAO. (Chapter 11)

Shepherd, A.W. 1997. Market information services: Theory and practice. Rome, FAO. (Chapter 10)

Shepherd, A.W. 1993. A guide to marketing costs and how to calculate them. Rome, FAO. (Chapter 10)

Shepherd, A.W. & Schalke, A.J.F. 1995: The Indonesian horticultural market information service. Rome, FAO. (Chapter 10)

Smith, L.D. 1998. Agricultural Parastatal Reform (paper prepared for FAO-TCAS). (Chapter 10)

Società per la commercializzazione delle verdure, frutta e prodotti agricoli. 1999. Sommario dello studio di produttività economica (in Italian).Union of the chambers of commerce. (Chapter 10)

Somi, G., Al Aine, G., Al Shaieb, R. & Ziadeh, R. 2001. The technical and economic impacts of using modern irrigation methods and techniques on cotton crops. An introduction in Cotton Seminar from Agriculture to Consumer. Directorate of Irrigation and Water Use. The Syrian Arab Republic, Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. (Chapter 13)

Telahigue, T. 1994. Wildlife establishment and range/livestock development. GCP/SYR/003/ITA- FAO consultancy report. (Chapter 5)

Terpend, N. 1997. Guide pratique de l’approche filière. Le cas de l’approvisionnement et la distribution des produits alimentaires dans les villes. Rome, FAO. (Chapter 10)

Tidiane Ngaido. 1997. Land tenure issues and the development of rangelands in Syria, report prepared for IFAD Appraisal mission for the Badia Rangeland Development Project in Syria.(Chapter 12)

Timmer, P., Falcon, W. & Pearson, S. 1983. Food Policy Analysis. A World Bank Publication. Baltimore, USA, John Hopkins University Press. (Chapter 4)

Tollens, E. 1997. Les marchés de gros dans les grandes villes africaines. Rome, FAO. (Chapter 10)

Tracy, M. 1997. Agricultural policy in the European Union, APS/AGRA. Brussels, FOCUS. (Chapter 7)

Ufficio commerciale dell' Ambasciata d’Italia in Siria. 1999. Guida pratica per operatori economici. Damasco. (Chapter 10)

Varela-Ortega, C., Blanco, M. & Sumpsi, J.M. 2000. Integrating irrigation modernization programs and water pricing polices. Empirical evidence and water policy implications. Paper presented at the XXIV International Congress of the IAAE (International Association of Agricultural Economists). Berlin (13-19 August 2000). (Chapter 13)

Varela-Ortega, C. and Sagardoy, J.A. 2001. The utilization of water resources for agriculture: Analysis of current regime and policy. Project GCP/SYR/006/ITA. Damascus, FAO. (Chapter 13)

Varela-Ortega, C., Sumpsi, J.M. & Blanco, M. 2002. Water availability and the interactions between agriculture and nature in the Mediterranean region. In: Brouwer, F. and Van der Straaten, J. (eds): Nature and Agriculture Policy in the European Union. International Library of Ecological Economics. Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. (Chapter 13)

Wiebelt, M., Herrmann, R., Schenk, P. and Thiele. R. 1992. Discrimination against Agriculture in Developing Countries? Kiel studies, Horst Siebert (ed.). (Chapter 4)

World Bank. 1999. Syrian Arab Republic at a glance. Washington, DC. (Chapter 10)

World Bank. 1997. Les apports de capitaux privés aux pays en développement. Washington, DC.(Chapter 10)

World Bank. 1996. India Livestock Sector Review. Washington, DC. (Chapter 9)

World Bank. 1995. Bureaucrats in business. Washington, DC.(Chapter 10)

Yamazaki, F. 1996. Potential Erosion of Trade Preferences in Agricultural Products, Food Policy, 21: 4-5. (Chapter 2)

FAO Agricultural Policy and Economic Development Series

1. Searching for common ground - European Union enlargement and agricultural policy, 1997

2. Agricultural and rural development policy in Latin America - New directions and new challenges, 1997

3. Food security strategies - The Asian experience, 1997

4. Guidelines for the integration of sustainable agriculture and rural development into agricultural policies, 1997

5. The potential extension of the Customs Union between Turkey and the EU, 1999

6. Handbook for defining and setting up a Food Security Information and Early Warning System (FSIEWS), 2001

7. Reform and decentralization of agricultural services: A policy framework, 2001

9. Syrian Agriculture at the Crossroads, 2003

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