Working with local
institutions to support
sustainable livelihoods

by Robin Marsh
Agricultural Economist
Director of the Center for Sustainable Resource Development
University of California, Berkeley, USA

RURAL DEVELOPMENT DIVISION
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2003

 

Table of Contents


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ISBN 92-5-105048-1

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Table of Contents

Introduction

1. Local institutions, social capital and sustainable livelhoods

2. Review of research findings: India, Mozambique and Mexico

Local Institution - Livelihood Linkages
India
Mozambique
Mexico

3. Local institutional profiles

Dairy Co-operatives
Gram Panchayat
Traditional Authorities
Mutual Assistance
Churches
Migrant Associations
Traditional Savings and Credit Arrangements
Watershed Development User Committees
Ancestral Domain Claims and Community-based Natural Resource Management

4. Analytical conclusions on local institution - rural livelihood linkages

1. Bonding institutions nurture cohesion but lack power
2. Bridging institutions open access... to a point
3. Local institutions are more inclusive and reduce transaction costs
4. Government policies and civil strife can undermine local institutions
5. Traditional institutions are often resilient and flexible
6. NGOs can be effective intermediaries
7. Capitalizing on local strengths and moving forward

5. Policy implications and recommendations for working with local institutions

Mutual Assistance Institutions
Traditional Authorities
Migrant Associations
Churches
Savings and Credit Arrangements
Conclusion

ANNEXES

Annex 1
Complementary Research on Local Institutions and Social Capital

Local Level Institutions Study (LLI), 1995 - 2000
Initiative on Defining, Monitoring and Measuring Social Capital (SCI), 1996-2000
Local Organizations and Rural Poverty Alleviation (LORPA), 1998-2000
Policy, Institutions and Processes (PIP) Sub-Group, Sustainable Livelihoods

Annex 2
Policy Seminar on Mozambique Pilot Project: Group Work Conclusions (Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, July 1999)

Group 1- STRATEGY FOR ACTION
Group 2 - STRATEGY FOR ACTION

Annex 3
India Pilot Project Policy Conclusions (Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad)

Agriculture and Food Security
Local Institutions

Annex 4
Participation of Rural Poor in Dairy Cooperatives

A Case Study from Gujarat (India)
Introduction
Piparia Women's Milk Cooperative Dairy
Malan Milk Producers’ Cooperative Dairy
Other Barriers to Participation by the Poor
Illiteracy
Undemocratic Functioning
Conclusions

Annex 5
Gram Panchayats in Malawada and Malan, Gujarat: Democracy and Local Governance

Annex 6
Traditional Authorities in Mozambique

Historical Background
The Legislative Framework and the Current Decentralization Process
The New Land Law (19/97)
Natural Resource Management and Development Projects

Annex 7
Mutual Assistance Institutions in Mozambique

Introduction
Policy Implications
Institutional Forms and Actors

Xitique
Rotating Work System
Forms of Cooperation Based on Exchanging Work for Money
Exchange of Work for Food
Exchange of Work for Drink
Mutual Cooperation Based on Breeding Livestock
Dance Groups
Providing and Receiving Help, Redistribution and Reciprocity

Annex 8
Churches and Rural Development in Mozambique

The History of Religious Institutions in Mozambique and Relations with the State
Types of Churches in Mozambique
Role of Churches in the Development Process
Conclusion

Annex 9
Migrant Associations in Two Oaxacan Rural Communities

The Programa de Atenciòn a la Comunidad Mexicana en el Extranjero (PACME)
MA Impacts in the Sending Communities
Policy Recommendations

Annex 10
Livelihood Strategies and Savings and Credit Arrangements in Dodoma, Tanzania

Annex 11
Participatory Watershed Development in Rajasthan, India

Dealing with Drought in a Semi-Arid Region
Developing a Programme
Organization Building and Appropriate Technology
Sustaining and Extending Programme Activities
Staff Motivation, Social Capital, and Programme Performance
Policy Environment

Annex 12
Revitalizing Traditional Institutions for Peace and Natural Resource Management in the Cordillera, Philippines

Policy Environment

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