1 FAO, Special Report FAO/WWP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission to Azerbaijan 2, http://www.fao.org/giews/english/alertes/1999/SRAZERB1.htm
2 Csaba Csaki and Zvi Lerman, Land Reform and Farm Restructuring in Hungary during the 1990s, in Land Reform in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 224-261 (Stephen K. Wegren, ed., 1998).
3 Csaba Csaki, Zvi Lerman, and Sergey Sotnikov, Farm Restructuring in Belarus 15 (World Bank Technical Paper No. 475, 2000). [hereinafter Farm Restructuring].
4 Constitution of Belarus art. 13, sec. 9.
5 Farm Restructuring, supra note 3, at 15.
6 Id. at 17.
7 If no right to separately partition in kind existed, the form of ownership would be more properly regarded as group rather than private ownership.
8 Farm Restructuring, supra note 3, at 17-18.
9 The portion of Moldova that is east of the Dniester River (Transnistria) declared itself independent of Moldova and does not recognize many of Moldova’s laws. In this region the land remains owned by the state and used by the collective.
10 usaid/Booz Allen & Hamilton, Project to Develop Land and Real Estate Markets in Moldova: End of Contract Report (December 31, 2000). [hereinafter Booz Allen].
11 Decree of the President of Ukraine No. 372/2001 "On Main Trends for Land Reform in Ukraine for 2001 -- 2005" (May 30, 2001).
12 Personal communication between Leonard Rolfes, Jr. (RDI attorney) and the State Land Committee of Ukraine (July 12, 2001).
13 The “raion” is an administrative unit below the oblast (province) level.
14 RDI researchers who conducted field research in the early 1990’s found that the land set aside was often the worst-quality land. The actual land legislation at the time required agricultural land “not being cultivated” or “not used for one year” or “used inefficiently” to be taken by the soviet of people’s deputies and redistributed to new peasant farmers. RSFSR Law on Land Reform (November 23, 1990), art. 14 (the Law on Land Reform was repealed by Presidential Decree No. 2287 (December 24, 1993); RSFSR Law on the Peasant Farm (December 27, 1990, as amended January 5, 1991), art. 6 (Article 6 of the Law on the Peasant Farm was repealed by Presidential Decree No. 2287); Land Code of the RSFSR (April 25, 1991), arts. 23, 39, and 60 (Articles 23 and 39 were repealed by Presidential Decree No. 2287).
15 Presidential Decree of the RSFSR No. 323, “On Urgent Measures for Implementation of Land Reform in the RSFSR” (December 27, 1991) sec. 5.
17 Timothy Ash, Land and Agricultural Reform in Ukraine, in Land Reform in the Former Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe 62-86, 67 (Stephen K. Wegren, ed., 1998). [hereinafter Land Reform].
18 Economic Research Department, United States Department of Agriculture, (visited March 8, 2001), <http://www.ers.usda.gov>.
20 The World Bank, Ukraine Rural Policy Matrix, (visited July 16, 2001) <http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/ECA/ecssdext.nsf/pages/rpm.ukraine>.
21 Zvi Lerman & Csaba Csaki, Ukraine: Review of Farm Restructuring Experiences 1 (World Bank Technical Paper No. 459, 2000). [hereinafter Lerman & Csaki].
22 Id. at 20.
23 Id. at ix.
24 Id. at xi.
25 Id. at 4. The total agricultural land figure includes 9.3 million hectares of which 6.3 million hectares is arable land.
26 Farm Restructuring, supra note 3, at 4.
27 Id. at 22.
28 Id. at 19-20.
29 Id. at xi.
30 Booz Allen, supra note 10.
31 In 2000, a series of legal aid centers was established throughout rural Moldova as part of the USAID Project to Develop Land and Real Estate Markets. The centers currently operate under supervision of the “Rural Service” NGO in Chisinau. Operating with few resources, the centers have had great success in enforcing lease contracts and helping landowners to withdraw their land from lessees who refuse to honor lease terms.
32 Booz Allen, supra note 10.
34 Farm Restructuring, supra note 3, at 50.
35 Bradley J. Rorem & Renee Giovarelli, Agrarian Reform in the Russian Far East (Rural Development Institute Report on Foreign Aid and Development No. 95, 1997).
36 Decree No. 1767 attempts to set such a framework- but which has been of limited use (1) because it’s only a presidential decree and (2) even if that were sufficient, a Land Code that would undercut it had been pending since at least 1996 and impeding any market potential.
37 Lyudmila Alexandrova & Diana Rudakova, Duma Ends Spring Session by Adopting Land Code, TASS (July 14, 2001).
38 Business in Russian Regions: State Duma Approves Land Bill, Sioria Business Network, citing Moscow Times, June 25, 2001 (visited September 15, 2001) <http://www.siora.ru/english/news/2001/6/2520print.htm>.
39 Adrian Moore, Brick by Brick: Land Ownership Vote Moves Process Along, Moscow Times, February 6, 2001, available in LEXIS, News Library, International-Russia File.
40 Yevgenia Borisova, Duma Takes Up Kremlin's Land Bill, Moscow Times, June 15, 2001, available in LEXIS, News Library, International-Russia File.
41 Law of the Russian Federation No. 4196-1, “On the Rights of Citizens of the Russian Federation To Acquire as Private Property and To Sell Tracts of Land To Conduct Private Subsidiary Farming and Dacha Economies, Horticulture, and Private Housing Construction, (December 23 1992); Resolution of the Russian Government No. 503, “On Adoption of the Procedure in Buying-Selling of Land Plots by Russian Citizens, (May 30, 1993).
42 Booz Allen, supra note 10
43 Lerman & Csaki, supra note 21, at xiv.
44 Id. at ix.
45 Id. at xiv-xv.
46 Id. at xv.
47 Zvi Lerman, A Decade of Land Reform and Farm Restructuring: What Russia Can Learn From the World Experience, (2001) (visited on September 17, 2001) <http://departments.agri.huji.ac.il/economics/lerman-article3.pdf>.
48 Booz Allen, supra note 10.
49 Law of the Russian Federation “On Hypothecation (Pledge of Immovable Property),” (July, 1998).
50 Farm Restructuring, supra note 3 at 18.
51 Belarus adopts regulations for accepting land as collateral for loans, BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union – Economic, March 19, 2000.
52 Csaba Csaki & Achim Fock, The Agrarian Economies of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States 105 (ECSSD Working Paper No. 13, 1999). [hereinafter Csaki & Fock].
53 Booz Allen, supra note 10.
54 These legal aid centers were started in 1996-1998 by Rural Development Institute with funding by USAID, and are currently supported by private foundations in the United States.
55 Farm Restructuring, supra note 3, at 7.
56 Id. at xvi.
58 Id. at 24.
59 Id. at 18.
60 Provisional Instructions on Preparing Land Arrangement Projects, December 9, 1997; Provisional Instruction on Filling Out, Issuance and Maintenance for the Title Certificates Confirming Landholders’ Rights (December 9, 1997). The provisions, which were developed with the technical assistance of the USAID-financed Project to Develop Land and Real Estate Markets, provide detailed instruction on the process of measuring land, calculating each members share of land, and physically demarcating individual parcels.
61 FAO, Special Report FAO/WWP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission to Azerbaijan 2, <http://www.fao.org/giews/english/alertes/1999/SRAZERB1.htm>
62 Zvi Lerman & Astghik Mirzakhanian, Private Agriculture in Armenia 7 (2001). [hereinafter Lerman & Mirzakhanian].
64 Robert Cemovich, Privatization and Registration of Agricultural Land in Georgia, 17 Post-Soviet Affairs 81, 83 (2001). This law has been passed yet and it is unclear how the land will be privatized (to individuals or to the farms that are using the land).
65 Resolution of Cabinet of Ministers of Georgia No. 48, January 1992.
66 FAO Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture, Georgia (1999) (visited Sept. 17, 2001) <http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/faoinfo/economic/giews/english/alertes/1999/SRGIO12.htm>. [hereinafter FAO Early Warning].
69 Lerman & Mirzakhanian, supra note 62, at 69.
70 Csaki & Fock, supra note 52, at 96.
71 Lerman & Mirzakhanian, supra note 62, at 2-3.
72 Id. at 18.
73 Id. at 70.
74 Id. at 16.
75 Decree of the President of the Republic of Georgia No. 446 “On the Rule of Leasing State-Owned Agricultural Land” (August 2, 1998).
76 Cemovich, supra note 64, at 84.
77 FAO Early Warning, supra note 66.
78 Dr. Ashraf A. Shikhaliev, FAO, Azerbaijan, (visited on July 10, 2001) <http:www.fao.org/regional/seur/public1/Azerbij.htm>.
79 Trend News Agency, More than 1.3m Hectares of Land Privatized in Azerbaijan, BBC Monitoring International Reports, (March 29, 2001).
80 The Armenian Agricultural Sector, (visited on July 3, 2001) <http://www.planetnoah.com/coun_p/armenian_agricultural_sector.htm>.
81 Lerman and Mirzakhanian, supra note 62, at 8.
82 Id. at 2-3.
83 Ganzalo Pastor & Amer Bisat, International Monetary Fund, Armenia: Reform and Growth in Agriculture 7-8 (1993).
84 Lerman & Mirzakhanian, supra note 62, at 7.
85 FAO Early Warning System, supra note 66.
88 Lerman & Mirzakhanian, supra note 62 at 2-3.
89 Zvi Lerman, From Common Heritage to Divergence: Why the Transition Countries are Drifting Apart by Measure of Agricultural Performance, 82 American Journal of Agricultural Economics 2 (2000).
90 SPECIAL REPORT FAO/WFP CROP AND FOOD SUPPLY ASSESSMENT MISSION TO ARMENIA 5 October 2000(www.fao.org)
91 Law of Georgia No. 389-IIS “On Agricultural Land Ownership” (June 14, 2000).
92 Cemovich, supra note 64, at 84.
93 Id. at 94.
94 Georgian law states that registration of land must take place in order to validate a real estate transaction. Article 59 of the Civil Code states that a real estate transaction will be invalid if it is conducted in a manner contrary to the law, which requires registration of property. Article 183 of the Civil Code requires real estate transaction documents to be written, notarized and registered for the sale to be legally valid. Id. at 86.
95 Jaba Ebanoidze, Land Policy Group Update, (visited on June 29 2001) <http://www2.worldbank.org/hm/hmlandpolicy/0167.html>.
96 Cemovich, supra note 64, at 94.
97 Law of Georgia No. 665-1G “Land Market Law” (May 7, 1999).
98 Amin Ismailov, Legal Aspects of Land Reform in Azerbaijan, in Country Studies: Real Estate Privatization in Selected Eastern European and Eurasian Countries 7-8, (2001).
99 Id. at 2-3.
100 Asian Development Bank, Economic Report and Interim Operational Strategy for Azerbaijan VOL. 1, 1, (2000).
101 Ismailov, supra note 98, at 1-2.
102 Lerman & Mirzakhanian, supra note 62, at 16.
106 Cemovich, supra note 64, at 94.
107 FAO Early Warning, supra note 66.
108 Csaki & Fock, supra note 52, at 99.
109 Asian Development Bank, Economic Report and Interim Operational Strategy for Azerbaijan, Vol. 2: Sector Review and Appendixes 6 (December, 2000). [hereinafter ADB, Vol. 2].
Id. at 9.
111 Jaba Ebanoidze, Land Policy Group Update, (visited June 29, 2001) <http://www2.worldbank.org/hm/hmlandpolicy/0167.html>.
112 Cemovich, supra note 64, at 94.
113 Lerman & Mirzakhanian, supra note 62, at 52.
114 Id. at 52-53. Precious metals and stones represented 68% of collateral used; machinery and equipment 13%; animals 12%; houses 7%; land 7%; and harvests in the field 5%.
115 Csaki & Fock, supra note 52, at 96.
116 Ismailov, supra note 98, at 4-5.
117 ADB Vol. 2, supra note 109, at 6.
118 As stated in Article 9 of the Law on Land Registration, fines and penalties are imposed on a landowner if he intentionally fails to register his land. Article 2.4 of the same law establishes that the landowner is legally obligated to register documents regarding land ownership it he wants full rights associated with land ownership. He is restricted from conducting land transactions until his parcel is officially registered. Law of Georgia No. 490-IS “Land Registration,” (November 14, 1996); Cemovich, supra note 64, at 86.
119 Cemovich, supra note 64, at 84-85.
120 Decree of the President of the Republic of Georgia No. 327 “On Urgent Measures for the Initial Registration of Agricultural Land Ownership Rights and Issuance of Registration Certificates to Citizens of Georgia,” (May 16, 1999).
121 Cemovich, supra note 64, at 89.
122 Id. at 81. Registration was a part of a USAID project run by Booz-Allen.
123 Id. at 90.
124 Id. at 91.
125 Lerman & Mirzakhanian, supra note 62, at 2.
126 Cemovich, supra note 64, at 95.
127 Worldwide Refugee Information - Country Report: Macedonia (visited July 12, 2001) <http://www.refugees.org/world/countryrpt/europe/macedonia.htm>.
128 See david bledsoe & richard gaynor, u.s. agency for international development, evaluation of the albanian land market project, (2000). [hereinafter BLEDSOE & GAYNOR].
129 laurel rose et al., gtz, land tenure issues in post-conflict countries: the case of bosnia and herzegovina 6. (1999). [hereinafter Rose Et Al].
130 BBC News, Country Profile: Yugoslavia, (visited July 13, 2001) <http:news.bbc.bbc.uk/hi/english/world/europe/country_profiles/>.
131 Human Rights Watch, Int’l, Croatia, Second Class Citizens; the Serbs of Croatia, March 1999, vol. 11, no. 3(d), <http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/croatia.> [hereinafter Second Class Citizens]. See also Human Rights Watch, Int’l, Resolution of Property Disputes and the Right to Return (1997) <http://www.hrw.org/reports/1997/croatia/Croatia-03.htm>.
132 BBC News, Country Profile: Croatia, (visited July 30, 2001) <http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_1097000/1097128.stm>.
133 Constitution of Macedonia, art. 30 and art. 55 (1991).
134 Constitution of Albania, art. 11 (1991). Law of Albania No. 7501, "On the Land," (1991).
135 Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, art II, (1995).
136 Law of Bosnia and Herzegovina, “On Property Relations,” (1998).
137 Constitution of Croatia, art. 48 (1990).
138 Constitution of Yugoslavia, art. 73 (1992).
139 Regulation of the Government of Kosovo No. 1999/24 “On the Law Applicable in Kosovo.”
140 Constitution of Yugoslavia, art. 73 (1992).
141 Jolyne Melmed-Sanjak, Et Al., Land Tenure Center, Project for the Analysis of Land Tenure and Agricultural Productivity in the Republic of Macedonia 7 (Oct. 1998) [hereinafter Melmed-Sanjak, Et Al.].
142 Refik M. Numic, UN FAO, Country Report of National Experience in Reforms and Adjustment: Bosnia and Herzegovina (1997).
143 Rose Et Al, supra note 129, at 6.
144 See Second Class Citizens, supra note 131.
146 In this context, privatization means both individual ownership and cultivation in individual farming units. This definition is used to distinguish the situation from one where land shares have been issued but the land continues to be farmed in large farms that combine the land represented by many land shares.
147 Steven W. Sowards, Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History, Lecture 23: Social and Economic Change in the Balkans (visited July 5, 2000) <http://www.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lect23.htm>.
148 Library of Congress, Yugoslavia: A Country Study (1990) <http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/yutoc.html>.
149 Sowards, supra note 147.
150 Yugoslavia: A Country Study, supra note 148.
151 Melmed-Sanjak, Et Al, supra note 141, at 93.
152 Freedom House, Nations in Transit: Privatization 4.00/7 (visited December 14, 2000) <http://www.freedomhouse.org/research/nitransit/2000/macedonia/macedonia_el.htm>. [hereinafter Freedom House].
153 Social ownership denotes ownership by the citizens of the state and management of the land by the state.
154 Melmed-Sanjak, Et Al, supra note 141, at 93.
155 Id. at 24-26.
156 Freedom House, supra note 152.
157 Melmed-Sanjak, Et Al, supra note 141, at 24-26.
158 World Bank Group, FYR Macedonia Rural Sector Information, (visited July 11, 2001) <http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/ECA/ecssdext.nsf/pages/rpm.macedonia>.
159 Melmed-Sanjak, Et Al, supra note 141, at 5.
160 Id. at 27.
161 World Bank Group, Bosnia and Herzegovina Rural Sector Information (visited July 10, 2001) <http://wbn0018.worldbank.org/ECA/ecssdext.nsf/pages/rpm.BOSNIA%20AND%20HERZEGOVINA>. See also Rose Et Al, supra note 129.
162 See Law of Albania No. 7501 “On Land” (1991); Law of Albania No. 7512, “Law for Sanctioning and Protection of Private Property, Free Initiative of Independent Private Activities, and Privatization,” (1991). Some agro-processing still remains in the form of state owned enterprises. See World Bank Group, Albania, Country Facts, (visited October 1, 2001) <http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/ECA/ecssdext.nsf/pages/rpm.albania>.
163 Peter C. Bloch, Picking up the Pieces: Consolidation of Albania's Radical Land Reform, in Land Reform, supra note 17, at 196.
164 Sharif Lusho & Dhimiter Papa, Land Fragmentation and Consolidation in Albania 11 (Land Tenure Center Working Paper No. 25, 1998).
165 Bloch, supra note 163, at 193-4.
166 Law of Albania No. 8053, "For Transferring Ownership of Agricultural Land Without Compensation" (1995).
167 FRY Investment Profile 2001, Business Forum London 22-24, at 14 (April 2001).
168 FAO World Food Program, Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 1-2 (visited July, 1999) <http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/faoinfo/economic/giews/english/alertes/1999/srmcd996.htm>.
169 World Bank Group, Croatia Rural Sector Information (visited July 16, 2001) <http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/ECA/ecssdext.nsf/pages/rpm.croatia>. [hereinafter WB: Croatia].
170 Croatian Chamber of Economy, Agriculture, Food Industry, and Forestry Department (visited Sept. 17, 2001) <http://www.hgk.hr/komora/eng/eng.htm>.
171 WB: Croatia, supra note 169. See also Miroslav Bozic, UN/FAO, Country Report Of National Experience In Reforms And Adjustment: Croatia 1 (1997).
172 Bozic, supra note 171, at 5.
173 WB: Croatia, supra note 169.
174 Interview with Arban Molla, (Director, Agricultural Programme Office, Albanian Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Tirana, Albania) (November, 2000).
175 Law of Albania, “On the Protection of Fruit Trees,” (1995).
176 Second Class Citizens, supra note 131.
177 UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Cross Border Returns Between Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the Context of the Dayton Peace Accords 6 (May 2001). [hereinafter Cross Border Returns].
178 Second Class Citizens, supra note 131.
179 Id. See also Cross Border Returns, supra note 177.
180 See Melmed-Sanjak, Et AL, supra note, 141, at 44-47
181 A new land use law was being drafted as of 1998. The basic law regarding land ownership and mortgages was written in 1980 and updated in 1990. The Law on Obligations regulates contracts for the sale, lease, and transfer of land, while the Law on Succession (1973) regulates interstate and testate inheritance rights. Melmed-Sanjak, Et AL, supra note 141, at 47-48
182 Law of Albania No. 7983 "On Buying and Selling Agricultural Land, Meadows and Pastures," art. 6 (1995).
183 Law of Albania No. 8337. “On the Ownership of Agricultural and Forestry Land, Pastures and Meadows” (1998).
184 Law of Albania No. 8318. “On Renting of Agricultural Land, Forestry Land, Pastures and Meadows” (1998).
185 Lusho & Papa, supra note 164, at 16, 23.
186 Id. at 11.
187 A. Jazoj, Et Al., Albanian Land Market Action Plan: Purposes, Achievements, Lessons, (Land Tenure Center Working Paper No. 1, Albania Series, 1997).
188 Harold Lemel, A Glimpse of Change in Albania's Post-Communist Countryside, 38 Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture (Zeitschrift fur auslandische Landwirtschaft) 28 (1999).
189 See Bledsoe & Gaynor, supra note 128.
190 Rose Et Al, supra note 129, at 11.
191 International Committee of the Red Cross, The Silent Menace: Landmines in Bosnia and Herzegovina 31 (visited October 1, 2001) <http://www.icrc.org/icrceng.nsf/c1256212004ce24e4125621200524882/96edfd07b9257e21412565cd004c8851?OpenDocument>.
192 Rose Et Al., supra note 129, at 11.
193 Id. at 6, 15.
195 WB: Croatia, supra note 169.
196 Second Class Citizens, supra note 131.
197 Law of Macedonia, “Law of Basic Ownership Relations,” art. 61 and “Law on Obligations,” art. 969 & 989.
198 UN/FAO, International Land Tenure School and High-Level Technical Seminar, Chapter 4: Experiences from Southeastern Europe 6, SD Dimensions (Dec 2000). [hereinafter Southeastern Europe].
199 Id. at 5.
200 WB: Croatia, supra note 169.
202 bozic, supra note 171, at 11.
203 european bank for reconstruction and development, Proposed Mortgage Facility to Privredna Banka Zagreb for Financing of Housing Loan Operations in Croatia (April 27, 1998) <http://www.ebrd.com/english/opera/pressrel/pr1998/20apr27.htm>.
204 Lida Stamo and Norman J. Singer, Albanian Immoveable Property Registration System: Review of Legislation 5-6 (Land Tenure Center Working Paper No. 7, 1997).
205 Kathrine Kelm, Petrit Harasani, and David Stanfield, Land Privatization in Albania, at 15 (Land Tenure Center, December 2000).
206 Author’s personal interview with Artan Kadriaj, Manager of Credit and Marketing, and Mirala Zoto, Mortgage Loan Officer, American Bank of Albania, Tirana, Albania, November 2000.
207 Macedonia, supra note 141, at 7.
208 Southeastern Europe, supra note 198, at 6.
209 rose, et al., supra note 129, at 21-22.
210 un economic commission for europe, Inventory of Land Administration Systems in North America And Europe 10 (April 1998) <http://www.unece.org/env/hs/wpla/docs/inventory/contents.html>.
211 rose, et al., supra note 129, at 21.
212 ilim zherka, et al., land tenure center, Some Issues Regarding the Ownership and the Evidence of Immovable Property Registration in the Republic of Kosovo 1 (1999).
213 Scott Leckie, Housing And Property In Kosovo: Rights, Law And Justice, 9 (UNCHS Proposals For A Comprehensive Plan Of Action For The Promotion And Protection Of Housing And Property Rights In Kosovo, 1999). <http://www.fmreview.org/fmr074.htm>.
214 zherka, et al., supra note 212, at 1.
215 Hans Das, UN Centre for Human Settlement, Regularizing Housing and Property Rights in Kosovo (last visited Sept. 18, 2001) <http://www.unchs.org/unchs/english/hdv6n2/housing_kosovo.html>.
216 zherka, et al., supra note 212, at 2.
217 Id. at 3.
218 Leckie, supra note 213, at 13-15.
219 zherka, et al., supra note 212, at 2.
220 Vladmir Mikalev et. al., Qualitative Poverty Assessment, Kosovo: Review of Secondary Materials 5-6 (2000).
221 Leckie, supra note 213.
222 WB: Croatia, supra note 169.
223 The Decree of the Organization and Manner of Work of the State Administration, art. 21 (1996) (Monte.).
224 bledsoe and gaynor, supra note 128, at 13-14.
225 Id. at 3, 6.
226 Id. at 28-37.
227 Macedonia, supra note 141, at 1-2
228 Id. at 4
229 Again, social ownership denotes ownership by the citizens of the state and management of the land by the state. In this case, the right of first refusal would be extended to the state to accept or reject on behalf of the citizens.
230 Macedonia, supra note 141, at 15-16, 20, 48.
231 Bloch, supra note 163, at 189-207.
233 lusho & papa, supra note 164, at 9.
234 Id. at 18.
235 Id. at 24.
236 world bank, Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Credit in the amount of USD $9.9 Million to Albania for an Agricultural Services Project, (May 16, 2001).
237 Law "Concerning the Conditions and the Use of Credit for Change of Destination of Agricultural Land." (1994) (Croat.).
238 bozic, supra note 171, at 11.
239 Zoran Grgić, et al., UN/FAO Country Report on the Present Environmental Situation in Agriculture, Croatia 3 (last visited July 16, 2001) <http://www.fao.org/regional/SEUR/ceesa/Croatia.htm>.
240 Macedonia, supra note 141, at 5.
241 Id. at 24.
242 bozic, supra note 171, at 11.
243 European Stability Initiative, Reshaping International Priorities In Bosnia And Herzegovina - Part three (March 22, 2001) <http://www.esiweb.org/pdf/ESI_rep_bosnia10.pdf>.
244 organization for security and co-operation in europe, The Impending Property Crises in Kosovo, Background Report 1-3, 5-7 (Sept. 25, 2000).
245 bledsoe & gaynor, supra note 128, at 26.
246 Center For Advanced Legal Studies, Model Laws, (visited Sept. 20, 2001) <http://www.cups.org.yu/projekti/emodeli.htm>.
247 Superior Council of the Body of Notaries of Albania and Chamber of Notaries of Croatia, (visited Sept. 26, 2001) <http://www.onpi.org.ar/ingles/un03.htm>.
248 See bledsoe & gaynor, supra note 128, at 26.
249 Sarajevo City Info Service (last visited Sept. 26, 2001) <www.city.ba/eng/sarajevo/realestate.shtml>.
250 Central European Real Estate Association Network Country Pages: Albania (visited Sept. 26, 2001) <http://www.cerean.com/country_alb.asp>.
251 Croatia-Estate Real Estate Brokerage (visited Sept. 26, 2001) <http://www.croatia-estate.com/index01.htm>; Imobillia Trade Bosnia Real Estate Brokerage, <http://www.imobiliatrade.com/eng/nekretine/htm>.
252 Broker Real Estate Agency (visited Sept. 26, 2001) <http://www.respect-for-beliefs.com/eng/o_nama.htm>.
253 Peter Dale and Richard Baldwin, Emerging Land Markets in Central and Eastern Europe, in Structural Change in the Farming Sectors in Central and Eastern Europe 83 (Csaba Csaki and Zvi Lerman eds., 1999).
254 Isabelle Lindemans, Process and Politics of Agricultural Privatization in the Czech and Slovak Republics, in Political Economy of Agrarian Reform in Central and Eastern Europe, 164 (Johan F.M. Swinnen, ed., 1997).
255 Csaba Csaki, Michel Debatisse & Oskar Monisch, Food and agriculture in the czech republic 27 (World Bank Technical Paper No. 437, 1999).
257 Csaki and Fock, supra note 52, at 46.
258 European Commission Directorate General for Agriculture, Agricultural Situation and Prospects in the Central and Eastern European Countries, Czech Republic, May 1998, (visited August 3, 2001), <http://europa.eu/int/comm/agriculture/publi/peco/czech/czech_en.pdf>.
259 Dale and Baldwin, supra note 253, at 83.
260 oecd, agricultural policies, markets and trade: monitoring and outlook 1993 22-26 (1993) at 22.
261 Id. at 25.
262 P. Bielek, J. Valis, T. Bogaerts, Country Case Studies: Slovak Republic, Annex A, in ACE PROJECT P2128R (1998).
263 Dale & Baldwin, supra note 253, at 81-106.
266 Stjepan Tanic, FAO SEUM, Country Experiences in Adjustment of Farm Structures in Slovenia, 1 (1999). See also the discussion of former Yugoslav Balkan states not presently pending EU accession in Section II, below.
267 Slovenia 1999: Country Commercial Guide – (FY – 1999), (visited July 2, 2001) <http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/business/com_guides/1999/europe/slovenia99_07.html>.
268 Stefan Bojnec & Johan F. M. Swinnen, Privatization in Slovenian Agriculture: Process and Politics, in POLITICAL ECONOMY OF AGRARIAN REFORM IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE 345-349 (Johan F. M. Swinnen ed., 1997).
269 Slovenia 2000, 2000 Regular Report From the Commission on Slovenia’s Progress Towards Accession, (visited July 3, 2001) 47 of 99 <http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/dwn/report_11_00/pdf/en/sl_en.pdf>.
270 Jernej Turk, The Institutional Economics Approach in Analyzing the Path of Economic Reform in Slovene Agricultural Production, 39 Eastern European Economics 80 (2001).
271 Id. at 79.
272 Csaba Csaki, G. Modos, et al, Summary of Hungary Country Case Study, Annex A, in ace project p2128r (1998).
273 Dale and Baldwin, supra note 253, at 83.
274 Erik Mathijs, Process and Politics of Agrarian Reform in Hungary, in political economy of agrarian reform in central and eastern europe 237 (Johan F. M. Swinnen, ed., 1997).
276 Id. at 252.
278 Csaki and Fock, supra note 52, at 54.
280 Mathijs, supra note 274, at 252.
281 William H. Meyers & Natalija Kazlauskiene Land Reform in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: a Comparative Analysis, in land reform in the former soviet union and eastern europe 87-110, 89 (Stephen K. Wegren, ed., 1998).
283 World Bank Country Study – Estonia, Implementing the EU Accession Agenda, (visited July 9, 2001) < http://firstname.lastname@example.org.
284 world bank unpublished internal agricultural project, Estonia Supervision Mission, 4-5, aide memoire (June 2001).
285 B. Ziemele & P. Dale, Summary of Latvia Country Case Study, in ACE PROJECT P2128R (1998).
288 Z. Veitners, State Land Service of Latvian Republic, Agrobalt ’99 – Land Reform in Latvia, (visited September 24, 2001) <http://www.zum.lt/departinf/department/Informacija/02.htm>.
289 johan f. m. swinnen, an explanation of land reform choices in central and eastern europe 9 (Policy Research Group Working Paper No. 5, 1997).
290 bronislovas mikuta, land privatisation and land market in lithuania 8 (BASIS Workshop – A Land Privatization Index, August 2000). Sixty percent of the land in Lithuania is classified by the government as agricultural land. Forestland comprises 31% and “other” land is 9%.
291 Roy Prosterman and Leonard Rolfes, Review of the Legal Basis for Agricultural Land Markets in Lithuania, Poland, Romania, in structural change in the farming sectors in central and eastern europe 110-139 (Csaba Csaki & Zvi Lerman, eds., 1999).
292 William H. Meyers & Natalija Kazlauskiene, Land Reform in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania: a Comparative Analysis, in land reform in the former soviet union nad in eastern europe 87-110, 93 (Stephen K. Wegren, ed., 1998). For example, 1998 numbers provided by the Department of Land Management and Law indicate that of the total number of citizen applications for a restituted ownership right, 69% requested restitution in kind, 17% requested compensations and 14% requested the restitution of an equivalent land area. Department of Land Management and Law – Land Reform in Lithuania (brochure) 1998.
293 Meyers, supra note 281, at 93.
294 william valetta, completing the transition: lithuania nears the end of its land restitution and reform programme (FAO Legal Papers online, No. 11, September 2000). The author asserts that Lithuanian “ministries and technical agencies have been able to carry out the tasks of parcel-creation, transfer of legal rights and formation of real property markets mechanisms without obstruction or confusion.” RDI’s own fieldwork in Lithuania, however, suggests that this assessment requires very significant qualifications. See the text immediately following, Prosterman and Rolfes, supra note 291.
295 Prosterman & Rolfes, supra note 291.
296 Katherine Verdery, The Elasticity of Land: Problems of Property Restitution in Transylvania 53 slavic review 1071 (Winter 1994). Law 18/1991
297 Id. See also, Lavinia Stan, Romanian Privatization: Assessment of the First Five Years 28 communist & post-communist studies 427, 430 (1995).
298 Verdery, supra note 296, at 1072.
300 catalina nicolae, bertinora iii international land tenure school & high-level technical seminar: final report 2000.
301 Ron Synovitz, Romania: Land Restitution Law a Step Toward Farm Reforms, RADIO FREE EUROPE 13 January 2000.
302 Land Law Enters into Force, agrafood east europe, February 1, 2000.
304 Johan Swinnen & Hamish Gow, Agricultural Credit Problems and Policies During the Transition to a Market Economy in Central and Eastern Europe 6 (policy research group working paper no. 6, 1997).
305 eu enlargement: the challenge of agriculture, european report (December 11, 1999).
306 nicolae, supra note 300.
307 Prosterman & Rolfes, supra note 291.
308 ministry of agriculture and rural development—poland, Note on Polish Agriculture, (visited August 5, 2001) <http://www.minrol.gov.pl/eng/Reports/polishagriculture.html#Note>.
309 Prosterman & Rolfes, Jr., supra note 291.
310 Id. at 123.
312 Id. at 123-124.
313 Id. at 124.
314 David Dale-Johnson and W. Jan Brzeski, long-term public leaseholds in poland: Implications of contractural incentives, 3 (2000).
315 Meyers and Kazlauskiene, supra note 281, at 87-94.
316 Roger Norton, Long-term Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Agricultural Sector (July 10, 2001) <http://www.server.ee/~mai/contents.htm>.
317 aide memoire, supra note 284.
318 Right of Perpetual Usufruct in Polish Civil Law (visited July 13, 2001) <http://library.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getfile.pl?FILE=firms/wgm/wgm00056&Title=subjec…>.
320 Zbigniew Karaczun, actors, institutions and attitudes to rural development: the polish national report 3 (Department of Environmental Protection – Warsaw Agricultural University 2000).
322 Id. at 15.
323 Prosterman and Rolfes, supra note 291, at 127.
324 Id. at 130.
328 Summary of Slovak Republic, supra note 262.
329 oecd, agricultural policies in emerging and transition economies, 73 (1999).
330 Meyers & Kazlauskiene, supra note 281, at 87-94.
333 Ulle Roosmaa, FAO, Country Report on the Present Environmental Situation in Agriculture: Estonia (1999) <http://www.fao.org/regional/seur/ceesa/estonia.htm>.
334 Csaba Csaki & Zvi Lerman, Structural Change in the Farming Sectors in Central and Eastern Europe 231 (World Bank Technical Paper No. 465, 1999).
335 Meyers and Kazlauskiene, supra note 281 at 87-94.
336 Janos Juhasz, Institutional Patterns of Rural Development in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe, (July 9, 2001) <http://www.copacgva.org/for a/berlin1999/fao.html>.
337 Mathijs, supra note 274, at 237.
338 Zvi Lerman, Status of Land Reform and Farm Restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe: A Regional Overview, in Structural Change in the Farming Sectors in Central and Eastern Europe 8 (Csaba Csaki and Zvi Lerman eds., 1999).
339 Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Briefing Room Hungary: Outlook, (visited September 13, 2001). <http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/hungary/outlook.htm>.
340 csaki et al., supra note 255, at 27.
341 Lerman, supra note 338, at 8.
342 Carolina Trivelli, Land Markets and Land Prices in the Central European Free Trade Agreement Countries, (visited July 24, 2001) <http://www.fao.org/sd/ltdirect/ltan0017.htm>.
343 Csaki and Fock, supra note 52, at 46.
344 The slovak republic, negotiating position of the slovak republic: agriculture (last visited July 17, 2001) <http://www.mpsr.sk/english/dok/nego_en.pdf>. In Slovakia, cooperatives can issue vouchers instead of restituting assets to former owners. These vouchers, however, cannot be traded for seven years. Erik mathijs & johan F.M. swinnen, the economics of agricultural decollectivization in east central europe and the former soviet union (Policy Research Group Working Paper No. 9, 1997).
345 oecd, supra note 329, at 67.
346 Id. at 69.
347 Paul Spencer, Agricultural Situation Report for Slovakia – 1999 2 usda global agricultural information network report no LO9011 (1999).
348 Renee Giovarelli, mortgage in the bulgarian agricultural sector (RDI Report on Foreign Aid and Development, #104, March 2000) (on file at RDI).
350 oecd, supra note 329, at 67.
351 giovarelli, supra note 348.
352 Prosterman & Rolfes, supra note 291.
353 EU Enlargement: The Challenge of Agriculture, european report (December 11, 1999), p. 7 of 8.
355 Prosterman & Rolfes, supra note 291.
356 european report, supra note 353.
357 oecd, supra note 329, at 67.
358 Prosterman and Rolfes, supra note 291, at 123.
359 Id. at 126. Estimates of the average price for agricultural land sold in private transactions in Poland ranged from around 3,000 zlotys/hectare ($790/hectare) to 7,000 zlotys/hectare ($1,850/hectare). By comparison, it was estimated that agricultural land in the western region of Germany sells for an average price of DM 15,000/hectare (about 32,000 zlotys/hectare), while such land in the eastern region of Germany sells for DM 7,000-9,000/hectare (about 15,000-19,000 zlotys/hectare).
360 Regional variations in land market activity should be noted. For example, the land market in Vilnius county accounts for 18% of the entire Lithuanian land market while Taurage county accounts for 6% of the annual land market. Mikuta, supra note 290, at 6.
363 Prosterman & Rolfes, supra note 291, at 119.
364 Csaki et al., supra note 255, at 31.
365 Dale and Baldwin, supra note 253, at 107.
366 Tomas Ratinger and Jaroslav Prazan, Country Report on the Present Environmental Situation in Agricuulture, Czech Republic, (visited August 3, 2001), http://www.fao.org/Regional/SEUR/ceesa/Czech.htm>.
367 Dale & Baldwin, supra note 253, at 97.
368 Ziemele and Dale, supra note 285, at 2.
369 european commission – directorate-general for agriculture, sapard programmes 2000-2006: rural development plan for european community support for pre-accession measures in agriculture and rural development in latvia (2000).
370 Andris Miglavs, Country Report of National Experience in Reforms and Adjustments: Latvia (visited June 29, 2001) <http://www.fao.org/regional/seur/public1/latvia.htm>.
371 Giovarelli, supra note 348.
372 Dr. Eva Varhegyi, Role of Mortgage Finance in Stimulating the Estate Market, (July 24, 2001) <http://www.cipe.org/pub/cee/epr6.php3>.
373 Endre Tanka, The Impact of Land Laws and Related Legal Institutions on the Development of Land Markets and Farm Restructuring in Hungary 6 (world bank environmentally and socially sustainable development working paper servies, 1998).
374 Dale & Baldwin, supra note 253, at 108.
375 The Law of Restrictions on Transfer of Real Estate to Foreign Natural Persons, Foreign States and Legal Entities (June 1996).
376 Doing Business in Estonia, Real Property, (July 11, 2001) <http://www.kaasik.ee/eng/real.html>.
377 Csaki & Lerman, supra note 334.
378 Prosterman & Rolfes, supra note 291, at 127.
379 Poland Seeks Delay to Foreign Farmland Sales, Agra Europe pEP/10 (July 16, 1999).
380 Id. See also Prosterman and Rolfes, supra note 291, at 126-127.
382 Under the 1920 Act on Acquisition of Real Estate by Foreign Persons (as amended in 1996).
383 See Prosterman & Rolfes, supra note 291, at 126.
384 Hungary: Land Law of 1994 (Act LV)Text of Land Law available at: <http://www.tring.hu/jogasz/angol/1994_55_tv.htm#Act%20LV%20of%201994>.
385 BBC Monitoring Europe, Hungary: Premier hails EU talk results, opposition slams hasty compromise, BBC Worldwide Monitoring (June 19, 2001).
386 BBC Monitoring Europe, Hungary: About 3,000 farms sold to foreigners through “pocket contracts,” BBC Worldwide Monitoring, (July 16, 2001).
387 Janos Juhasz, Institutional Patterns of Rural Development in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe (COPAC Open Forum: Successful Cooperative Development Models in East and Central Europe) 26 October 1999.
388 Prosterman and Rolfes, supra note 291; and Summary Presentation on Rural Land Market Development in Romania by Roy Prosterman and Jennifer Duncan for World Bank, July 7, 1999.
390 Prosterman & Rolfes, supra note 291, at 120.
391 Andrej Udovc, Peter F. Dale, Richard Baldwin, Institutions supporting the Development of agricultural Land markets in CEE countries and in Slovenia in special, (visited July 3, 2001) 10 of 18 < http://www.sigov.si/zmar/conference2000/pdf/udovc.pdf>.
392 Dale and Baldwin, supra note 253, at 109.
394 Prosterman & Rolfes, supra note 291, at 126.
396 Id. at 127.
397 Meyers and Kazlauskiene, supra note 281, at 105.
399 Mikuta, supra note 290, at 7.
400 Prosterman & Rolfes, supra note 291, at 120.
401 Csaki et al., supra note 255 at xvii.
402 Id. at 31.
403 Dr. Jim Riddell and Dr. Fritz Rembold, Farm Land Rationalisation and Land Consolidation: Strategies for Multifunctional Use of Rural Space in Eastern and Central Europe, (visited August 3, 2001) <http://www.ddl.org/figtree/pub/proceedings/prague-final-papers/riddell-rembold.htm>.
404 Csaki and Fock, supra note 52, at 46.
405 Erik Mathijs and Johan F.M. Swinnen, Major Features of the New Farming Structures in Central and Eastern Europe, in Structural Change in the Farming Sectors in Central and Eastern Europe 35 (Csaba Csaki and Zvi Lerman eds., 1999).
406 Lerman, supra note 338.
407 Tanka., supra note 373.
409 Dr. Geijza Blaas, Country Report of National Experience in Reforms and Adjustment: Slovakia 1997, (visited June 29, 2001) <http://www.fao.org/regional/seur/public/slovakia.htm>.
410 Republic of Bulgaria Law “On Land Lease,” Promulgated State Gazette No. 82/27.09.1996, (September 27, 1996), Art. 3.1.
411 Land Lease Law, Art. 4.1
412 giovarelli, supra note 348.
413 tanic, supra note 266.
415 Summary Presentation on Rural Land Market Development in Romania, by Roy Prosterman and Jennifer Duncan, World Bank (July 7, 1999).
417 giovarelli, supra note 348.
418 Central and Eastern European Property and Finance Report, Mortgages and Public Auctions in the Czech Republic, Summer 1999, (August 4, 2001) <http://www.weil.com>.
419 Central and Eastern European Property and Finance Report, Changes to Czech Law Concerning Mortgages, Spring 2001, (August 4, 2001) <http://www.weil.com>.
421 Prosterman & Rolfes, supra note 291, at 128.
422 Id. at 129.
423 Ronald Rewald, A Survey of Real Property Law in Poland, The Central and Eastern European Economic Research Center at the University of Warsaw, (1997) <http://www.ceeerc.wne.uw.edu.pl/wwwpages/rewald.htm>.
425 Prosterman and Rolfes, supra note 291, at 129.
426 Andrzej Ratajczyk, Secrets are Out: New Law Aims to Make Polish Banks more Competitive with EU Institutions- Loosening Confidentiality Along the Way, WARSAW VOICE No. 38 (465) (September 21, 1997) <http://www.warsawvoice.pl/v465/Busi05.html>.
427 Prosterman and Rolfes, supra note 291, at 128-129.
428 Id. at 129.
429 Summary Presentation on Rural Land Market Development in Romania, supra note 415.
430 Renee Giovarelli, Mortgage, in legal impediments to effective rural land relations 139-164 (Roy Prosterman and Tim Hanstad, eds., 1999).
432 Csaba Csaki, G. Modos, et al, Summary of Hungary Country Case Study – Hungary (Annex A ACE Project P2128R)
433 Johan Swinnen & Hamish Gow, Agricultural Credit Problems and Policies During the Transition to a Market Economy in Central and Eastern Europe 8 (Policy research group working paper No.6, 1997).
434 Varhegyi, supra note 372.
437 the world bank country study, lithuania, an opportunity for economic success, vol 2: analytic background, 155 (1998).
440 Meyers and Kazlauskiene, supra note 281, at 104.
441 Csaki and Fock, supra note 52, at 89.
442 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development oecd, Workshop on Housing Finance in Transition Economies, June 19-20, 2000 (visited August 7, 2001), <http://www.oecd.org/daf/financial-affairs/non-members/housing%20finance/slovenianote.pdf>.
443 Slovenia 1999: Country commercial Guide – (FY – 1999), (visited July 2, 2001) <http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/business/com_guide/1999/europe/slovenia99-07.html>.
444 oecd Housing Finance, supra note 442.
447 Rural Finance Policy Note,: Banking on Farmers and Rural Entrepreneurs, prepared for the World Bank by Kenneth Peoples of the Peoples Group, Ltd, USA. (1999).
448 Tanka, supra note 373.
449 Swinnen & Gow, supra note 433, at 5.
450 Csaki and fock, supra note 52.
451 Andres Miglavs, Country Report of National Experience in Reforms and Adjustments: Latvia (visited June 29, 2001) <http://www.fao.org/regional/seur/public1/latvia.htm>.
452 european commission, agricultural situation and prospects in the central and eastern european countries: latvia (Directorate General for Agriculture Working Document DG VI, 1998).
454 P. Bielek, J. Valis, T. Bogaerts, ACE Project P2128R, Country Case Studies: Slovak Republic Annex A, (1998).
455 Dr. Geijza Blaas, Country Report of National Experience in Reforms and Adjustment: Slovakia 1997, (visited June 29, 2001) <http://www.fao.org/regional/seur/public/slovakia.htm>.
456 Swinnen & Gow, supra note 433.
460 Id. This is due to a combination of the incomplete and slow land reform, and to some extent the negative attitude of Romanian farmers to borrowing. In a World Bank survey of private farmers, 65.9% of Romanian farmers indicated that they did not wish to borrow credit and 66.2% were unwilling to provide land as collateral.
462 Csaki et al, supra note 255, at 31.
463 Pesl, Five Years of Cadastral Reform in the Czech Republic, (visited August 2, 2001) <http://www.sli.unimelb.edu/au.fig7/brighton98/comm7papers/lts50-pesl.html>.
464 Maido Pajo, Land Tenure Experiences in Estonia (April 1997) (visited July 6, 2001) http://www.fao.org/sd/lrdirect/forum/ltfo0006.htm>.
470 Udovc, Dale and Baldwin, supra note 391.
471 Id. at 12. The author of this report argues that the manual system results in long delays and inaccurate owner records. This is, however, by no means an inevitable result of “manual” systems, which were in use in all developed countries until quite recent times, and functioned satisfactorily. Cost-benefit assessments are clearly needed for each case (including the issue of whether rural land records should remain “manual” longer than urban land records.)
472 Id. at 9.
473 Id. at 13.
475 Prosterman and Rolfes, supra note 291.
476 aide memoire, supra note 284.
477 Bulgaria Law on Obligations and Contracts, Art. 18 (1951, as amended 1993).
478 Prosterman and Rolfes, supra note 291.
480 Vitolds Kvetkovskis and Edvins Kapostins, The State Land Service of Latvia, The Legal Ways of Privatization in Latvia (visited June 26, 2001) <http://www.wisc.edu/ltc/live/baseur991124.pdf>.
481 European Commission Directorate-General for Agriculture, Latvia: Agriculture and Enlargement 1999, (visited September 26, 2001) <http://europa.eu.int/comm/agriculture/external/enlarge/countries/files/latvia.pdf>.
482 Pajo, supra note 464.
483 Land Lines: Land Policy in Estonia: Establishing New Valuation and Taxation Programs, (September 1995, Volume 7, Number 5—Visited July 6, 2001) <http://www.lincolninst.edu/landline/1995/september/estonia.html>.
484 Bielek, Valis, Bogaerts, supra note 454.
485 Land Registration in Hungary (visited August 1, 2001) <http://lazarus.elte.hu/gb/rep95/11.htm>.
486 Prosterman and Rolfes, supra note 291, at 129-130.
488 Land Consolidation Act No 284 (1991), on Land Consolidation and on Land Offices
489 Csaki and Fock, supra note 52, at 89.
490 Udovc, Dale, and Baldwin, supra note 391, at 11.
491 Id. at 15.
493 Csaki and Fock, supra note 52, at 89.
495 German-Hungarian Land Reorganization Consolidation (TAMA) Project, (visited August 1, 2001) <http://www.lazarus.elte.hu/gb/rep95/43.htm>.
497 Dale and Baldwin, supra note 253, at 95.
498 Tanic, supra note 266.
499 Tanka, supra note 373.
501 commission of the european communities, report from the commission to the council, the european parliament, the economic and social committee and the committee of the regions (2000).
503 report from the commission to the council, the european Parliament, the economic and social committee and the committee of the regions 2000.
504 World bank, “The Romanian Chapter” (1999).
505 Swinnen & Gow, supra note 433.
506 nicolae, supra note 300.
509 Swinnen & Gow, supra note 433.
510 nicolae, supra note 300.
512 eu enlargement: the challenge of agriculture, european report (December 11, 1999). and Summary Presentation on Rural Land Market Development in Romania by Roy Prosterman and Jennifer Duncan for World Bank, July 7, 1999.
513 Prosterman and Rolfes, supra note 291, at 125.
519 Pajo, supra note 464.
523 Udovc, Dale, and Baldwin, supra note 391, at 12.
524 A. Udovc, B. Lipej, A Zichy, R. Baldwin, Slovenia ANNEX A, Summary of Slovenia Country Case Study, 3 (ACE project P2128R).
525 The author notes that: (1) the Supreme Court is responsible through 44 county courts for the operation and upkeep of the land registry offices; (2) Surveying and Mapping Authority of Slovenia (SMA) is responsible for the maintenance of the cadastre through 46 district offices, as well as for all geographic information matters; (3) Ministry of Environment and Planning is responsible for planning at state level; (4) Ministry of Justice is responsible for legal matters concerning land register, (5) Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for agricultural land valuation, land consolidation, activities of the Land Fund, and monitoring and approval of agricultural land sales; (6) Finance Ministry is responsible for taxation, (7) Municipalities are responsible for the issuance and management of building and land use permits; (8) Valuation Commission is appointed by parliament to create valuation services; and (9) Restitution Commissions are locally appointed to make decisions regarding restitution claims.
526 Udovc, Lipej, Zichy, Baldwin supra note 524 at 3.
527 Ziemele & Dale, ACE Project P2128R, Annex A – Country Studies: Latvia (1998) at 4.
528 Id.( ACE Project: Latvia)
529 Dale and Baldwin, supra note 253.
530 Ministry of agriculture of the slovak republic, report on agriculture and food sector in the slovak republic 2000 (green report), (November 2000), <http://www.mpsr.sk/english/kok/zs/food2000.pdf>.
531 giovarelli, supra note 348
532 Udovc, Dale, and Baldwin, supra note 391 at 16.
533 For a discussion of the infrequency of collective farms in industrialized countries, see Klaus Deininger, Cooperatives and the Break-up of Large Mechanized Farms: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence 19 (World Bank Discussion Paper #218, 1993). The empirical evidence indicates that collective farms are typically inefficient. A study of the experience with collective farms in Israel, Ethiopia, Nicaragua, Cuba, Peru, China, and Vietnam drew three main conclusions. First, collectivization of small farms was always associated with productivity losses. Second, cooperative forms of production established as a consequence of the takeover of large farms were not efficient. Third, reversal of collectivization facilitated gains in production and efficiency in a number of instances.
534 Frederic Pryor, the red and the green: the rise and fall of collectivized agriculture in marxist regimes 216-217 (1992). In Asia, collectivized farming was virtually ended in China in the early 1980s and in Vietnam in the late 1980s; only North Korea remains collectivized.
535 Since the collective farming sector was generally heavily subsidized, and still reflects the existence of past subsidies in many ways even when subsidies have been reduced (for example, in machinery, buildings, and other long-term investments) it can be argued that a “level playing field” would require preferential access to credit for start-up private farms. This was done in Russia in 1992-93, at which time the great majority of private farms were begun.
Economic Research Service, Russia: Policy, US Department of Agriculture, (updated March 8, 2001) (visited on September 17, 2001) <http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/Russia/polycies.htm#subsidies>
537 Mathew Gorton, Agricultural Land reform in moldova, 9 (INTAS Research Project on Agri-food Industry Restructuring in Ukraine and Moldova (AFIRUM) Working Paper No.1, 2000).
538 Stephen hodgson & cormac cullinan, food and agricultural organization of the united nations, a comparative survey of legal and administrative measures to restrict, regulate, or benefit from the ownership or use of land by foreigners, (1995).
539 Croatia, Second Class Citizens: the Serbs of Croatia, March 1999, vol. 11, no. 3(d) (visited on August 29, 2001) <http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/croatia/>.
540 Id. at 17.
541 Laurel Rose, Joachim Thomas, and Julie Tumler, Land Tenure Issues in Post-Conflict Countries: the Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina, GTZ, at 10, 15-16.
542 Id. at 12.
543 Balkan Returns: An Overview of Refugee Returns and Minority Repatriation, United States Institute of Peace, (Dec 1999) <http://www.usip.org/oc/sr/sr991221/sr991221.html>.
544 Anicia C. Sayos, Ross Q. Quisao and Rosario G. Manasan, Local Efforts in Housing Provision, (Philippine Institute for Development Studies Discussion Paper Series No. 98-44, 1998). Available at <http://dirp4.pids.gov.ph/ris/pdf/pidsdps9844.pdf>.
545 Id. at 7.
546 Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (43 USC sec. 1701, 1761-1771)
547 Land Exchange Criteria for the Great Divide RMP, (visited on August 29, 2001) <http://www.wy.blm.gov/minerals/lands/Lxcriteria2_4.pdf>.
548 Rose Et Al, supra note 129, at 15, 17.
549 John Bruce, Do Indigenous Tenure Systems Constrain Agricultural Development?, in Land in African Agrarian Systems 44 (Thomas Bassett & Donald Crummey eds., 1993).
550 European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Proposed Mortgage Facility to Privredna Banka Zagreb for Financing of Housing Loan Operations in Croatia (viewed September 10, 2001) <http://www.ebrd.com/english/opera/pressrel/pr1998/20apr27.htm>.
551 In the U.S. the period is five years, and may be extended by a federal court for up to a further three years.
552 Klaus Deininger and Gershon Feder, Land Institutions and Land Markets, 11 (World Bank: Policy Research Working Paper No. 2014, 1998).
554 Antonio Salazar, P. Brandao and Gershon Feder, Conceptualizing Land Markets and Property Rights, in Regulatory Policies and Reform: A Comparative Perspective 191-209 (Claudio Frischtak, ed. 1995).
556 Johan F. M. Swinnen, Ten Years of Transition in Central and Eastern European Agriculture, at 6 (Oct 2000).
557 Deininger and Feder, supra note 552, at 11.
558 Frank F.K. Byanugisha, The Effects of Land Registration on Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Theoretical and Conceptual Framework, 8 (World Bank Working Paper No. 2240, 1999).
559 Deininger and Feder, supra note 552, at 11.
560 Duncan, Agriculture as a Resource: Statewide Land Use Programs for the Preservation of Farmland, 14 Ecology L.Q. 401, 403.