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Part II
COUNTRY BRIEFS (continued)

SUDAN (continued)

2.1.4 Areas and growing stock at end 1985

In 1958, it was estimated that the total area occupied by forest growth, mostly open, (but occasionally well stocked:NHCf+NHc/NHO1) was 58.5 million ha (2). Owing to agricultural expansion, fire and creeping desert this area has decreased considerably over the past years and the process continues. In the absence of accurate figures, and taking into consideration the deforestation and degradation rates set in the two previous paragraphs, the areas of woody vegetation at the end of 1985 may be estimated as shown in the following table:

Areas of natural woody vegetation estimated at end 1985
(in thousand ha)

28 00016 50044 50012 00087 500
     5     5    5  10  
Broadleaved and Coniferous N.f1uvN.f1ucN.f1mN.f1N.f2N.fN.a 

20 000 ha of closed forest will presumably be lost to shifting cultivation, permanent cultures under tree cover or other human intervention. The same factors play a decisive role in the conversion of some 3 million ha of productive woodlands (NHc/NHO1) in permanent agricultural fields and pasture and in poorer vegetation types (unproductive tree savannas - NHc/NHO2 -, savannas altered by agricultural activities - NHc/NHOa -, and scrub vegetation - nH), as reflected in the above table.

The estimated areas of woody vegetation cover for the year 1985 immediately result in the following estimates of growing stock:

Growing stock estimated at end 1985
(in million m3)

Broadleaved and ConiferousN.f1uvN.f1ucN.f1mN.f1N.f2N.f  

2.2 Plantations

Existing industrial plantations will not have reached maturity in 1985, so no significant decrease of planted area is expected, apart from the normal fire hazards. On the other hand, the “Six-Year Plan of Economic and Social Development 1977/78 – 1982/83” projects an annual planting rate of 23 500 ha of Acacia senegal, 40% by the State and 60% by the private sector (free seeds and seedlings and technical advice being given to the local tenants to start planting in their private farms), an annual planting of 1 050 ha of shelter-belts in rainfed agricultural schemes, of 700 ha in irrigated schemes and of 350 ha around towns (21). This information, which is not given species-wise, has been used to draw the following tables assuming that the targets will not be achieved in totality. The annual planting rates for the period 1981–85 have been estimated at 1 300 ha of broadleaved industrial Plantations (PHL1), 100 ha of conifers and 12 000 ha of non-industrial plantations. Plantations of Acacia senegal will indeed increase significantly while the planting rates for the other species should be similar to those for the period 1976–80.

Areas of established industrial plantations estimated at end 1985
(in thousand ha)

CategorySpeciesYears81–8576–8071–7566–7056–6548–55before 48Total
Age class0–55–1011–1516–2021–3031–40> 38
PHL1 = PH.1Subtotal hardwood species6.506.546.537.6222.0211.701.0561.96
PS.1Subtotal softwood species0.500.500.420.36  1.22  0.19ε  3.19
P..1Total industrial plantations7.007.046.957.9823.2411.891.0565.15

Areas of established non-industrial plantations estimated at end 1985
(in thousand ha)

CategorySpeciesYears81–8576–8071–7566–7056–6548–55before 48Total
Age class0–55–1011–1516–2021–3031–40> 38
P..2 = PHL2Total non-industrial plantations60.0049.9330.9218.9822.903.823.15189.70

Areas of established plantations estimated at end 1985
(in thousand ha)

CategorySpeciesYears81–8576–8071–7566–7056–6548–55before 48Total
Age class0–55–1011–1516–2021–3031–40> 38
Subtotal hardwood species66.5056.4737.4526.6044.9215.524.20251.66
PSSubtotal softwood species  0.50  0.50  0.42  0.36  1.22  0.19     3.19
PTotal all plantations67.0056.9737.8726.9646.1415.714.20254.85


  1. Shawki, M.K. 1957 “Sudan Forests” - Forestry memoires no. 10 - Agricultural Publications Committee - Khartoum

  2. Harrison, M.N. and Jackson, J.K. 1958 “Ecological Classification of the Vegetation of the Sudan” - Forests bulletin no. 2 - Agricultural Publications Committee - Khartoum

  3. Weck, J. 1960 “L'expérience des reboisements au Soudan” - Reinbek (West Germany)

  4. FAO 1960 “Interim Report to the Government of the Sudan on Forest Inventory” - Interim report based on the work of D.A. Francis - Rome

  5. FAO 1964 “Present Wood Consumption and Future Requirements” - based on the work of T.S. Saini - Report no. 1820 - Rome

  6. FAO 1966 “Report to the Government of the Sudan on Reforestation and Forest Management” - (draft) based on the work of J.L. Masson - Rome

  7. FAO 1968 “A forest Resources Survey Programme” - based on the work of C.L. James - Report no. TA 2515 - Rome

  8. Forests Department 1969 “National Progress Report on Forestry in the Sudan: 1966–1968” - prepared for the second session of the Africa Forestry Commission - Khartoum

  9. Ferlin, G. 1970 “Souvenirs du Sudan” - in ‘Bois et Forêts des Tropiques’, no. 133 - Septembre–Octobre 1970 - Nogent-sur-Marne (France)

  10. Forests Department 1971 “Statistics of Forests and Forest Products” - compiled by A.A. Bayoumi- Bulletin no. 16 - Soba

  11. Forests Department 1971 “National Progress Report on Forestry in the Sudan: 1969–1971” - prepared for the third session of the Africa Forestry Commission - Khartoum

  12. FAO 1972 “Forest Resource appraisal (Africa) - Draft for the Sudan” - Rome

  13. FAO 1973 “Perspective Study of Agricultural Development for the Democratic Republic of the Sudan: the Forestry Sector” - ESP/FOID/PS/SUD/73/10 - Rome

  14. FAO 1974 “Wildlife and National Parks Legislation” - based on the work of G. Moore - Report no. TA 3300 - Rome

  15. Uhart, E. 1976 “Charcoal Industry in the Sudan” - United Nations Economic Commission for Africa/FAO Forest Industries Advisory Group IND-103 - Addis Ababa

  16. Forests Department 1976 “National Progress Report on Forestry in the Sudan: 1970–1975” - prepared for the fourth session of the Africa Forestry Commission - Khartoum

  17. FAO 1977 “Wood Resources and Their Development in the Southern Region of Sudan” (draft) - based on the work of A. Devillé - SUD/76/020 - Rome

  18. FAO 1977 “Agricultural Development in the Jebel Marra Area; Annex VIII: Forestry” - based on the work of Hunting Technical Services Limited - Herts (U.K.)

  19. Forests Administration 1978 “Brief Notes on Sudan Forests Administration” - Khartoum

  20. FAO 1978 “Forestry Development in the Southern Region: Project Fincings and Recommendations” - Terminal report - FO:DP/SUD/76/020 - Rome

  21. Forests Administration 1978 “Forests Administration Summary: Six-Year Plan of Economic and Social Development 1977/78 – 1982/83” - Khartoum

  22. Forests Administration 1978 “National Progress Report on Forestry in the Sudan: 1975–1979” - prepared for the eighth session of the Near East Forestry Commission - Khartoum

  23. Forests Administration 1979 “Report for the Period July, 1974 to June, 1975” - Khartoum

  24. FAO 1979 “Forestry Education and Legislation for Local Community Development” - based on the work of L.O. Hillman and L.C. Christy - FOR:TF(INT 271 (SWE)) - Rome

  25. Forests Administration Letter of Director, 1979 Forests Administration to FAO Forestry Department in reply to questionnaire for FAO/UNEP Tropical Forest Resources Assessment Project - Khartoum


Tanzania is located on the east coast of Africa, between parallels 1°S and 12°S and meridians 30° and 40°E, extending from the Tanganyika Lake to the Indian Ocean. Mainland Tanzania has an area of 939 702 km2, and Zanzibar of 2 643 km2. Mean annual rainfall varies from about 400 mm to 2 500 mm and over, but both extremes occur only in restricted areas. The dry season has a duration of 4 to 6 months. It is shorter and less severe in the northeast than in the south.

The following climatic zones have been distinguished (6):

The land rises from the coastal strip to about 350 m and continues rising in rolling plains to the central plateau with an elevation of around 1 200 m. To the west this plateau drops sharply to Lake Tanganyika, formed by the western branch of the great Rift Valley. The eastern branch dissects the elevated plains of central Tanzania from Lake Natron in the north to Mbeya in the south, where it joins with the western branch at the north end of Lake Nyasa. Volcanic mountains and steep hill ranges rise up from the central plateau; these uplands occur along a great figure G, beginning with a cluster composed of the Crater Highlands, various small volcanoes, Mt. Meru and Mt. Kilimanjaro (5 895 m) in the northeast. It continues via the Usambaras near the coast and curves inland along the Ngurus, Uluguru and the Usagaras towards the southern Highlands and volcanic Rungwe. From here the mountainline bifurcates, one branch going southwards into Malawi, the other curving north-westwards to the Ufipa Highlands and ending at Kungwe on the east of Lake Tanganyika (14). In the north west of the country, a series of hills is contiguous to Rwanda and Burundi.

Population is estimated at 18 million inhabitants in 1980 with an annual growth rate of 3.2%, and a density of 19 inhabitants per km2.

1. Present situation

1.1 Natural woody vegetation

1.1.1 Description of the vegetation types

The wide range of ecological conditions is responsible for an interesting pattern of vegetation from tropical forest to alpine moorland, though there is little of either extreme. Closed forests are scarce.

Closed broadleaved forests (NHC)

They can be divided in montane and submontane forests and lowland forests including “groundwater forest” (4). Nearly all the closed forests are confined to the uplands, with the most valuable parts occurring in two regions: the larger covering Mts. Meru and Kilimanjaro and the West Usambaras, the smaller the East Usambaras (14).

- The majority of the upland forests are in the form of isolated blocks and are of similar nature as those found elsewhere on the East African uplands, namely Ocotea forest, Juniperus forest, bamboo thicket and Cassipourea forest.

The Ocotea - Podocarpus forests occur along the West Usambara Mountains and in a zone on Mt. Kilimanjaro (not on north slopes). The most important tree species are Ocotea usambarensis, Podocarpus usambarensis, Entandrophragma excelsum and Prunus africana. The forest structure consists of three layers with an understorey of shrubs (mainly Rubiaceae). Forests of similar composition, but without Ocotea, occur on Mt. Meru, on the Mbulu Highlands, on the Ufio me-Mikiulu uplands and on the Ifiome and Hanang Mountains. Large areas of the Mporoto mountains and the Rungwe mountain are covered by a forest composed almost entirely of Ficalhoa laurifolia and Afrocrania volkensii.

In Tanzania, Juniperus1 occurs on the drier northwest slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Mt. Meru and the West Usambaras. Some authors believe that the Juniperus forest was in the past much more widely spread but that competition from less light demanding species have restricted it to dryer sites. On most places Juniperus is accompanied by large trees of Olea africana (in the higher parts) and Olea welwitschii (on the lower parts) and by smaller trees of broadleaved species.

Formations of mountain bamboo (Arundinaria alpina) are found in Tanzania on Mts. Meru and Rungwe, on the Ulugurus and the Livingstone Mountains (8 000 ha), and in the Iringa Highlands and the Mporotos. Small patches are noted in forest areas of southern Tanzania.

Between 1 200 and 2 750 m occurs a forest up to 21 m high of Cassipourea malosana, accompanied by Albizia gummifera. The most important area is found on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Other blocks of this forest have been reported at Mufundi, Ukwene, Myumbaniku, Uzungwa, Dabaga, the west side of Rungwe and Umalita.

- The lowland forests consist in many cases of secondary semi-deciduous and low-growing stands, merging between 650 and 1 000 m on the eastern face of the mountains into evergreen rainforest, occupying only modest areas in the Usambaras, the Ngurus, the Ulugurus and parts of Zanzibar. The lowland bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica) occurs from the south of Iringa to the Lini district, up to 615 m altitude and also in the form of widespaced clumps in the miombo woodland. The so-called ground-water formations consist of gallery forest, often the only remnants in the lower zones of extensive forest areas.

Mangroves cover 80 000 ha along the continental coast (5) and 16 000 ha in the Zanzibar island (5) (19).

Open broadleaved forests (NHc/NHO)

The upper zone of the upland forest belt usually consists of low stature (12–18 m) woodland. On the southern slopes of Mt. Meru Hagenia woodland can be found, often accompanied by Rapanea rhododendroides.

Extensive areas are occupied by the so-called miombo woodlands, with generally small trees and a low stocking of valuable timber. It extends from sea level up to 1 600 m, with an annual rainfall of 500–1 200 mm and one rainy season, occupying the central plateau in the north and in the south-east, separated by a “miombo-free” corridor of about 500 km long and 60–120 km wide. The well-drained ridges bear miombo woodland on their upper and middle slopes; the valley bottoms are occupied by grasslands and in between bushland or wooded grassland with Combretum and others. Stands of Borassus palm occur where there is shallow ground water. The most important species is Brachystegia spiciformis, together with Julbernardia. Trees are normally deciduous. Other genera include Afzelia, Albizia, Burkea, Combretum, Dalbergia, Erythrophleum, Monotes, Ostryoderris, Pericopsis, Pterocarpus, Swartzia, Strychnos, Sterculia and Uapaca. The two most important characteristics of the miombo trees are their resistance to fire and the annual dieback of seedlings. The monotony of the miombo is broken by green shallow valleys, part of extensive drainage systems and locally known as “mbugas”.

The mbugas are scattered with termite mounds with a characteristic vegetation of well grown trees; among them occur muninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) and African blackwood or mpingo or poyi (Dalbergia melanoxylon).

Other trees common in the grasslands and sometimes farming woodlands belong to the genus Acacia: A. xanthophloea (fever tree), A. tortilis, A. abyssinica, A. gerrardii and others.

In the flood plains of the Igombe and Ugala rivers and in other riverine communities palm grassland occur with Borassus and, sometimes, crocked palm trees of Hyphaene (doum palm).

In the northern and central provinces of Tanzania and in the central highlands, where according to (14) upland forest has given place to grassland, a community is found called Protea-Dombeya highland grassland, with the following tree species: Brachystegia microphylla, Uapaca kirkiana, Aeschynomene burtii, Erythrina abyssinica, Dombeya quinquisete and Cussonia arborea.

Shrub formations (nH)

Near the eastern edge of the central plateau of Tanzania and occupying, according to (14), “not less than 6 000 km2”, occurs the so-called Itigi thicket, consisting of coppicing shrubs ranging from 2.5 to 5 m in height and with sometimes a flat-topped tree, up to 7.5 m projecting through its canopy.

1 Forests predominantly coniferous (either with Juniperus or Podocarpus) cover areas relatively small and have been for that reason included within the closed broadleaved forest category (NHC).

1.1.2 Present situation of the woody vegetation

Present areas

Areas of natural woody vegetation estimated at end 1980
(in thousand ha)

Forest ReservesNHCf1uvNHCf1ucNHCf1(u)NHCf2iNHCf2rNHCf2NHCfNHCa 
150340490  70410    480    970ε 
Outside F.R.100240340130     130    470100 
Total250580830200410    610  1440100 
Forest ReservesNHc/NHO1NHc/NHO2iNHc/NHO2rNHc/NHO2NHc/NHONHc/NHOanH
100001501250  140011400εε
Outside F.R.ε(27200)(2000)2920029200400013800

The above table has been built up from the compilation and reconciliation of the data found in documents (1), (2), (4), (5), (6), (10), (15), (17) and (20), and taking into account the deforestation rates indicated in section 2.1.1. The following indications are useful to understand how these estimates were arrived at.

- Forest reserves

Area estimates for the forest reserves are primarily derived from document (20) which provides area statistics “sorted out, corrected and adjusted accordingly up to 30th June 1979”, after having noted that the concept of “closed forest” used in that document includes dense miombo woodland and is wider than in this study. The actual breakdown of the forest reserves by broad vegetation categories is roughly the following:

closed forests (NHCf)=mangroves :70 000 ha(NHCf2i)
  other:900 000 ha 
woodlands (NHc/NHO)  :11 400 000 ha 
grasslands  :930 000 ha 
plantations  :55 000 ha 
Total forest reserve area:13 355 000 ha 

The closed reserved forests have been divided between productive (NHCf1u) and unproductive for legal reasons (NHCf2r) in the same proportions as the productive and protective “closed” reserved forests according to document (20), i.e. in the ratio 55/45.

The virgin closed reserved forests (NHCf1uv) have been estimated at 30% of the productive closed reserved forests (NHCf1u).

The open broadleaved forests unproductive for legal reasons (NHc/NHO2r) are composed of the protective forest reserves in “woodland” (865 000 ha according to (20)) and those protective forests in “closed forest” not included in NHCf2r (791 000 ha - 410 000 ha = 381 000 ha). Those unproductive for physical reasons (NHc/NHO2i) are those “woodland productive” forest reserves which can only provide fuelwood and poles (150 000 ha approximately according to (5)).

The productive open broadleaved forests (NHc/NHO1) are those productive “woodland” forest reserves capable of producing wood for industry (9 730 000 ha - 150 000 ha) plus that part of productive “closed” forest reserves not included in the NHCf1 category (946 000 ha - 490 000 ha), or approximately 10 million ha.

It is assumed that forest and woodland fallow (NHCa-NHc/NHOa) cover negligible areas in the forest reserves.

- Woody vegetation outside forest reserves

In the early 70's the total area of closed forests of the country was estimated at 1 600 000 ha (15), which means that area of closed forests outside forest reserves was 620 000 ha (60 000 ha of private forests according to (12) and 560 000 ha of unreserved forests on public land). In 1980 this area must have been reduced to 450 000 ha approximately of which 50 000 ha in private forests and 400 000 ha of unreserved forests on public land to which must be added about 20 000 ha of mangroves (in Zanzibar and unreserved patches on the mainland).

Area of unreserved forest and woodland on public land was estimated at 31.29 million ha in 1960 (2), which would correspond approximately to 30.1 million ha of woodland in 1970, after subtracting the closed forest area, and 29.2 million ha in 1980. The total area of woodland included in the national parks is not precisely known and it has been estimated very roughly at 2 million ha (NHc/NHO2r). The rest has been classified as unproductive woodlands (NHc/NHO2i), that is woodlands which cannot produce timber for industry (but may produce fuelwood and other roundwood such as poles, posts etc.). The area of woodland fallow (NHc/NHOa), i.e. those areas which are affected by agriculture and in various stages of secondary growth, is tentatively estimated at 4 million ha, a figure commensurate with the estimated level of annual clearing of woodlands for agriculture (see section 2.1).

The area of shrub vegetation has been equated to that of “bushland and thicket” given by (15). This area probably includes patches of agriculture and secondary growth.

Legal status and management

There are various forms of legal protection of woody areas: catchment areas (to protect watersheds) corresponding probably to the protective forest reserves, national parks (where flora and fauna are entirely protected) covering a total area of 3.75 million ha, game reserves (where wildlife enjoys almost the same degree of protection as in the national parks, but other forms of land use may be allowed) with a total area of 8.5 million ha, the wildlife conservation areas (10.78 million ha) and the Ngorongoro Conservation Unit (1.5 million ha) which is managed independently as a multiple use land area (15).

In (5) it is mentioned that in 1966, 7 916 000 ha out of a total forest reserve area of 13 069 000 ha (or 61%) were “under some kind of management”. Silvicultural treatments are applied in some closed forests such as enrichment planting (mainly with Ocotea usambarensis (camphor tree), climber cutting and girdling of undesirable trees. However intensive management in the meaning adopted in this study does not exist on significant areas (NHCf1m≅ O).

Forest utilization

Log harvesting

Logging in high forest is either mechanized as in other African countries or in certain cases consist of the traditional pitsawing, with hand carrying of sawn wood (7).

Stumpage is calculated on the basis of log volumes, over bark, of felled trees, after bucking into log lengths. In the timber licences the height of the stump and the smaller diameter of log tops are specified (12).

The 1978 edition of the FAO Yearbook of Forest Products gives the following production of sawlogs and veneer logs.

Average annual production of sawlogs and veneer logs
(in thousand m3)

Coniferous  90  70  50
Broadleaved and coniferous

These statistics correspond to the recorded removals which, according to (11), are significantly smaller than the actual removals. The recorded removals show an important decrease, especially for the hardwoods. On the other hand there is an increasing participation of the forest reserves in the production of hardwood logs, although it is still lower than that of unreserved forests (8).

The most important species cut are Pterocarpus angolensis, Podocarpus spp., Chlorophora excelsa, Brachystegia spp., and Ocotea usambarensis (1). Other species are Julbernadia sp. and Afzelia quanzensis (8).

The highest density of the removals occurs in the Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Tanga regions and, to a lesser degree, in the coastal region and the Dodoma region (11). Most of the felling is carried out now by the Tanzanian Wood Industry Corporation (TWICO).

The average output per ha for the country as a whole is estimated for the closed forests at 5 m3/ha and for the miombo woodlands at 0.5 m3/ha.

Other forest products

According to (13) the total current consumption of wood amounted by 1975 to about 34 million m3 per year, of which over 95% are used for domestic purposes (mainly fuelwood and charcoal). By 1980 the same report foresees a production of 38 million m3 roundwood equivalent of fuelwood and charcoal.

Other products derived from forests and woodlands are many. (5) provides the following figures on exports:

Exports in 1965 and 1966 of secondary forest products
(in tons)

Honey   619   915
Palm nuts1 5872 145
Sanseviera fibre   154     20
Bark for tanning:  
 Mangrove    3741 791
 Wattle    211   351
 Other      29 
Natural gums, resins:  
 Gum arabic    629   426
 Other        1       2
Material for plaiting:  
 Raffia      93     90
 Other        -       -
Sandalwood chips      18     69
Sandalwood oil      253 322
Beeswax    544   624
Wattle bark extract 9 5468 928

1.1.3 Present situation of the growing stock

The large-scale forest inventory reported in (11) was carried out over 2.8 million ha of forest reserves and 4.2 million ha of other forest on public lands. It provides an average gross volume of 49 m3/ha for trees with DBH≥10 cm, corresponding to the concept of gross volume used in this study (VOB). The highest volume reported occurred around the Kilimanjaro with 190 m3/ha (DBH≥10 cm). The same study states that between 3 and 10 m3 are actually removed per ha (VAC).

(22) gives a “mean millable volume” of 12.95 m3/ha for a sample area of 259 ha at Mikumi, while (7) mentions that the miombo woodlands often have only one commercial tree per km2, but that in the better parts and using secondary species a volume up to 75 m3/ha can be reached. The same source states that in the indigenous forests the commercial trees seldom reach a total volume of 50 m3/ha.

(8) gives an exploitable standing volume under bark for the Mtwara forest reserves (southeast of Tanzania), which have only been scarcely exploited, equal to 1.18 m3/ha (DBH≥44 cm) but (9) reports that “the most frequent value of merchantable standing volume on sample plots” is from 10 to 20 m3/ha, in average 15 m3/ha.

For Zanzibar (19) gives a standing volume of “a bush of mixed hardwoods” equal to 90 m3/ha. For the forests of Tanzania the report states that the total annual out potential from the indigenous forests amounts to 24 360 000 m3, of which 4 430 000 m3 of sawlogs.

All the data above have been used to draw the following table.

Growing stock estimated at end 1980
(in million m3)

NHC f1uvNHC f1ucNHC f2NHc/NHO 1

1.2 Plantations

1.2.1 Introduction

Towards the end of the 19th century german foresters carried out a systematic introduction of exotic species. By 1914–18 a large number of species had been tried, including teak, Cassia siamea, Cedrela spp., Cupressus lusitanica, C. sempervirens, Cryptomeria sp., Cinammomum, camphora, Juniperus sp., Araucaria sp., Swietenia spp., and various eucalypts. Pines were introduced later, P. radiata in 1930 and P. patula in 1935. In the mid-forties several plots of exotic conifers were planted on Kilimanjaro but the main expansion of species trials dates from the fifties (6).

In the early fifties at Sao Hill, 600 km east from Dar es Salaam, an afforestation programme was undertaken, aiming at the establishment of 63 000 ha of conifers. Later on, in the mid sixties, the Ruva afforestation programme was initiated at 60 km from Dar es Salaam, with a plantation target of 96 000 ha of conifers.

1.2.2 Areas of established plantations

Industrial plantations (9) (17) (20)

Areas of established industrial plantations estimated at end 1980
(in thousand ha)

CategorySpeciesYears76–8071–7566–7061–6551–6041–50before 41Total
Age class0–56–1011–1516–2021–3031–40> 40
PHL 1Teak 0.601.170.850.400.310.10ε3.43
 Others 1.432.331.170.600.500.200.086.31
 Total PHL 12.033.502.021.000.810.300.089.74
PHH 1Eucalyptus spp.εε0.44
PH. 1Subtotal hardwood plantations2.083.552.111.150.910.300.0810.18  
PS. 1Cedar
 Pinus patula5.506.176.014.301.820.10 23.90  
 P. radiata0. 2.12
 P. caribaea2.452.722.640.640.03  8.48
 P. elliottii1.451.611.571.160.21  6.00
 P. kesiya0.   0.30
 P. taeda0.   0.31
 Mixed pines0.ε0.74
 Mixed pines and cypress0. 1.71
 Mixed softwoods and hardwoods
 Subtotal softwood plantations13.50  15.02  13.84  9.254.610.750.6057.57 
P..1Total industrial plantations15.58  18.57  15.95  10.40  5.521.050.6867.75 

Hardwood species used other than teak are Olea welwitschii, Chlorophora excelsa and Maesopsis eminii (5) (12). Some Grevillea robusta and Eucalyptus spp. are also used, but according to (5) plans exist to replace the Eucalyptus plantings with Pinus patula in the Kawetire area.

Cupressus lusitanica and Pinus patula are used mainly at elevations over 1 500 m. P. caribaea is planted in the coastal region (12).

Other plantations

The following table summarizes very tentatively the areas of non-industrial plantations used for production of fuel and poles and extraction of tannin, existing at end 1980.

Areas of established non-industrial plantations estimated at end 1980
(in thousand ha)

Category Species  Years76–8071–7566–7061–6551–6041–50before 41Total
Age class0–56–1011–1516–2021–3031–40> 40
P..2 = PHH2Cassia siamea
Acacia decurrens and others

Although (19) mentions an area of 844 000 ha (1979) of village fuelwood plantations, the same report gives a total of 9 200 ha afforested from 1973 to 1977. (23) mentions a planting of 40 000 ha between the three years from 1979 to 1982. The village afforestation programme started in 1960 with the grouping of scattered households to form the Ujamaa communities which must be self-reliant. The present number of Ujamaa villages is 8210.

The need for fuelwood is considerable, taking into account that apart from the households, the fuel is needed for curing tobacco (in 1977/78 there were 42 000 ha of tobacco, needing 50 m3(r) of fuelwood per ha for its curing (3)), for brick and tile kilns, pottery, ceramics and kaolin factories, and for fish smoking. Previous areas include some bamboo plantations.

All plantations

Areas of established plantations estimated at end 1980
(in thousand ha)

CategorySpecies Years76–8071–7566–7061–6551–6041–50before 41 Total 
Age class0–56–1011–1516–2021–3031–40> 40
Hardwood sp.other than fast-growing
  2.03  3.50  2.02  1.000.810.300.08  9.74
PHHFast-growing hardwood species17.05  6.05  2.59  2.151.600.750.2530.44
PHSubtotal hardwood plantations19.08  9.55  4.61  3.152.411.050.3340.18
PSSubtotal softwood plantations13.5015.0213.84  9.254.610.750.6057.57
PTotal all plantations32.5824.5718.4512.407.021.800.9397.75

1.2.3 Plantation characteristics

Final cut
Thinnings -m3/ha
Cupressus lusitanica31–3625–30   900(12)
 26–3125–30500120180800(  7)
   23–301    (  5)
Pinus radiata26–3130–35   920 
Pinus patula31–3625–30   900(12)
 31–3625–30500120180800(  7)
  19.7–20.43    (16)
  23.24    (21)
  (11 years)     
Pinus caribaea1515    (  5)
 2521   525(12)
  5.4–28.45    (16)
  19.9       6    (21)
  (8 years)     
Pinus elliottii 18.1       4    (21)
  Hardwoods40–60(11 years)     
  Fuelwood species10     (23)

1 u.b., up to 5 cm top diameter
2 For site indices 24 and 30 and ages of respective 24 and 22 years
3 Age range from 14 to 16 years
4 Sao Hill area (20)
5 Under bark; ages ranging from 5.4 up to 15.7; 28.4 m3/ha/year corresponds to an age of 7.4
6 Coastal regions (20).

2. Present trends

2.1 Deforestation

Average annual deforestation
(in thousand ha)


1976–80   and   1981–85


The above figures of reduction of closed forests have been obtained mainly from the comparison of area statistics in the progress report of year 1966 (5) and the data provided in the document (11). Some deforestation takes place in forest reserves as indicated in document (5) where it is mentioned that encroachment in the forest reserves present a serious problem, the main cause being clearings for agriculture and fuelwood gathering. It is assumed that half of the deforested areas will not revert to fallow forest (NHCa) because of soil degradation and erosion caused by clearing.

Towards the end of the 19th century part of the original forests had already been cleared or replaced by secondary forest. However, it seems certain that the total area under closed forest has never been lower than it is now. When the forest reserves were created, still substantial forest areas remained outside the reserves broken up by cultivation. Most of these remnants have now disappeared except in a few places, like on the eastern Nguru foothills (northeast part of the country) where deforestation is still going on (3).

For the woodlands (NHc/NHO) a figure of 120 000 ha of annual clearing has been adopted tentatively; 80% of these areas are assumed to remain as “woodland fallow” (NHc/NHOa) the rest being lost as tree vegetation for a long time because of terrain conditions (erosion and serious soil degradation).

2.1.2 Degradation

Degradation of woody vegetation is caused mainly by fires, grazing and exploitation or fuelwood collection. According to (5) overgrazing and trampling by cattle pose a particular threat to the woody vegetation making regeneration particularly difficult and creating erosion hazards. In the central part of the country, the increasing production of tobacco puts a heavy toll on the existing miombo forest reserves as supplier of fuelwood, resulting in a gradual degradation of these woodlands (15).

2.1.3 Trends in forest utilization

Log output from the natural forests should continue to decline while plantations will play an increasing role in providing industrial roundwood. There should not be significant changes in the output per ha nor in the number of species used (17).

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