Three Fishing Villages In Tamil Nadu - A Socio-Economic Study With Special Reference To The Role and Status of Women

WORKING PAPERS - BOBP/WP/14

Three Fishing Villages In Tamil Nadu - A Socio-Economic Study With Special Reference To The Role and Status of Women


by
Edeltraud Drewes
Socio-Economist (Associate Expert); Bay of Bengal Programme


Executing Agency: FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Funding Agency: SWEDISH INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY

Development of Small-Scale Fisheries in the Bay of Bengal. Madras, India, February 1982

Table of Contents


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© FAO 2004

PREFACE

This paper results from a socio-economic study conducted during March-May 1981 in three fishing villages south of Madras - Perianeelankarai, Chemmencheri and Pattipulam.

The study examined the socio-economic conditions of marine fisherwomen, their involvement inproductive activities and the scope for new in come-generating activities. The study also sought to improve knowledge and understanding of the organisation and economics of traditional fishing communities. It is hoped that the paper will be found useful by planners, sociologists and economists, and by those concerned with small-scale fisheries development in general and women’s role in fisheries in particular. It is vital that data obtained from such a study should be sufficiently comprehensive and accurate. The strategy adopted for data collection was to first approach headmen of the villages through local contacts familiar with the villages, and secure general information about the villages from the headmen. Questionnaires for individual interviews with village women were prepared on the basis of this information.

Ten selected women investigators were briefed thoroughly on interview methods, both in the office and in the field; they then conducted individual interviews with 300 women from the three villages over a period of 14 days in March 1981. This was followed by group interviews and supplementary interviews with influential people such as teachers. All this data was tabulated with the help of two of the investigators who were qualified statisticians.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


WORKING PAPERS - BOBP/WP/14pdf

PREFACE

1. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

1.1 The survey
1.2 Infrastructure and services
1.3 Incomes and expenditures
1.4 Role and status of women
1.5 Opportunities for progress
1.6 Development, capital investment and technical assistance

2. DESCRIPTION OF SURVEY

2.1 Background
2.2 Purpose of survey
2.3 Method of survey

3. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STRUCTURE OF THE THREE VILLAGES

3.1 Geographic location and infrastructure
3.2 Structure of population, housing, cultural-religious background, political leadership and employment
3.3 Assets and distribution of assets

4. INTERVIEWS WITH INDIVIDUAL WOMEN: RESULTS

4.1 Social data
4.2 Nutrition
4.3 Medical facilities and health
4.4 Water and energy supply
4.5 Fisherwomen and household activities
4.6 Involvement of women in the fishing economy
4.7 Women’s influence in family finances
4.8 Role of credit in fishing communities
4.9 Opinions of women on improvement of their socio-economic situation

TABLES

1. Presence of men during interviews of individual women
2a. Age structure of adult women
2b. Family status of interviewed women by age
3a. Family types in the three villages
3b. Size of family by family type
4. Rate of literacy of women by age
5a. Women who do not get any meals on some days
5b. Weakness due to lack of food
5c. Reasons adduced for meal-less days
6. Frequency of intake of selected food items
7a. Sickness and source of treatment
7b. Women who have access to modern medicines
7c. Source of modern medicines (multiple answers)
7d. Place of child delivery by women of different age groups
8. Source of water by purpose of consumption (multiple answers)
9. Source of energy for cooking and lighting
10a. Time of morning when women get up by family status
lOb. Involvement in marketing by women who share household work
11. Spare time of women by their involvement in marketing
12a. Reasons adduced by women for not marketing fish
12b. Reasons for selling fish to the trader occasionally
12c. Families with women engaged in marketing by family type
12d. Reasons for selling fish to other women in the village
13. Fish bought from other women in the village for selling in the market
14. Form of product marketed
15. Mode of transport of fish to markets by women
16. Place of marketing
17a. Women who want better transport facilities
17b. Opinions on required facilities for improved fish marketing by women’s involvement in fish marketing
18. Reasons for not marketing the fish immediately after landing
19. Control of income received from fish selling (multiple answers)
20a. Influence of women on the purchase of nets by family status
20b. Involvement in financial decision-making for the family by involvement in marketing fish
21a. Opinion of women on the frequency with which the men in their family go fishing
21b. Opinion of women on the frequency with which men in the village go fishing
22a. Opinion of women on the amount of money spent daily by men on drinking and smoking 43
22b. Answers from women regarding own drinking habits
23a. Women whose families borrow money
23b. Source of credit (multiple answers)
24. Present stated debt position
25a. Marketing of fish through traders
25b. Reasons for marketing fish through trader
26. Opinion of women on how to improve family lifestyle (multiple answers)
27. Source of income of families without nets.
28a. Opinions on need for improved vegetable growing
28b. Experience in vegetable growing
28c. Reasons for not growing vegetables (multiple answers)
29a. Families rearing goats and chicken
29b. Reasons for not keeping chicken (multiple answers)
29c. Reasons for not keeping goats (multiple answers)
30. Available time per day for new productive activities
31. Expressed willingness to learn handicrafts 51
32. Response accorded to the set up of women’s production and marketing cooperative for handicrafts
33. Restraint on leaving the village overnight for training courses

APPENDICES

1. Questionnaire used for the survey
2. Location of the three investigated villages in Chingleput district of Tamil Nadu
3. Perineelankarai village map
4. Chemmencheri village map
5. Pattipulam village map

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