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9. References and background documents

[1] American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Standard Terminology Relating to Biomass Fuels (E 1126 - 94a).

[2] BioTech's life science dictionary, available at <>

[3] Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. 1991. Energy Statistics: a Manual for Developing Countries, Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 56, United Nations

[4] Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. 1987. Energy Statistics: Definitions, Units of Measure and Conversion Factors, Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 44, United Nations.

[5] Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. 1982. Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with special reference to Energy Accounts and Balances (A Technical Report), Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 29, United Nations.

[6] European Parliament and the Council, 2000-12-28. Directive COM (2000) 884 final on the promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market.

[7] FAO, 1982. Classification and definition of forest products, FAO Forestry Paper 32.

[8] FAO, 2002. Yearbook Forest Products. Forestry Department.

[9] FAO,1995. Forest Fuels and the Future. Forestry Department. 3 wood energy and economic development/

[10] FAO, 1997. Wood Energy Today for Tomorrow, Part B: Background overview of available data on wood energy in Europe/OECD. Forestry Department.

[11] FAO, 2001. UWET - Unified Wood Energy Terminology. Forestry Department. March

[12] FAO, 2005. Interactive Wood Energy Information System – Update 2004. Working Paper, Wood Energy Programme (in press).

[13] IEA Bioenergy. 1997. Bioenergy Statistics. Proceedings of Workshops.

[14] ISO 1928. 1995. Solid mineral fuels — Determination of gross calorific value by the bomb calorimetric method, and calculation of net calorific value.

[15] ISO 1213-2. 1992. Solid mineral fuels. Vocabulary- Part 2: Terms relating to sampling, testing and analysis.

[16] Nordin, A.. 1994. Chemical elemental characteristics of biomass fuels. Biomass and Bioenergy, 6:5 (339-347)

[17] European Committee for Standardization (CEN), 2000. Characterization of waste  Terminology (prEN 13965-1)..— Part 1: Material

[18] European Committee for Standardization (CEN), 2002. Solid biofuels – Terminology, definition and description (final draft version of CEN/TC335/WG1_N46).

[19] Smith, K.R.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Thrän, D. 2001. Renewable Energy from Biomass. Contribution for the Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

[20] Thrän, D.; Härdtlein, M.; Kaltschmitt, M. 2001. Classification of solid biofuels as a tool for market development. Proceedings of Workshop at Swedish Energy Agengy 2001. Publication in preparation.

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