PROCEEDINGS OF THE VALIDATION FORUM ON
THE GLOBAL CASSAVA DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
Rome, 26 - 28 APRIL 2000

Strategic Environmental Assessment

An Assessment of the Impact of Cassava
Production and Processing on the
Environment and Biodiversity

Volume 5

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
Rome, 2001
 

Table of Contents


Cover photo bottom left: Grated cassava roots prior to fermentation
Cover photo center: The cassava plant
Cover photo right: Graph showing trends in cassava production

Reprinted 2004

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© FAO AND IFAD 2001


TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Cassava production and the environment
Cassava production and biodiversity
Cassava processing and the environment
Conclusions and recommendations

INTRODUCTION

IFAD INTERFACE WITH CASSAVA

A global cassava strategy
IFAD operations

IMPACT OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Cassava in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean
Production environments

Soils
Climate
Elevation and topography
Cropping systems

On-site effects of cassava cultivation on soil fertility

Nutrient removal in the crop harvest
Yield trends with and without fertilizer application
Nutrient balances

On-site effects of cassava cultivation and soil erosion on the environment

Comparison of cassava to other crops
Crop (C) factor in the Universal Soil Loss Equation
Other factors determining soil loss by water erosion
Nutrient losses in eroded sediments and runoff
On-site effect of erosion on productivity

Off-site effects of cassava cultivation and soil erosion on the environment

Effect of cassava cultivation on quality of water resources
Effect of eroded sediments on soil and water resources

EXISTING CASSAVA PRODUCTION/ENVIRONMENT KNOWLEDGE BASE

Technologies and crop/soil management systems

Crop/soil management to prevent nutrient depletion
Measures to reduce erosion

Enhancing the adoption of soil-conserving practices by farmers
Gaps in knowledge
Conclusions and recommendations

EFFECT OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION ON BIODIVERSITY

Impact on the biodiversity of other native species
Impact on Manihot biodiversity

Species inventory and ecogeography
Effect of cassava production
Effect of cassava breeding
Rationale for the conservation of wild Manihot
Blueprint for the long-term conservation of wild Manihot

Effect of breeding on the biodiversity of cassava
Conclusions and recommendations

IMPACT OF CASSAVA PROCESSING ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Introduction
Areas and products

Asia
Africa
Latin America and the Caribbean

Environmental impact

General background
Water use and quality
Wash water and effluents
Solid wastes
Visual impacts
Chemical use
Atmospheric pollution
Effect of cassava processing on forest resources

Conclusions

EXISTING CASSAVA PROCESSING/ENVIRONMENT KNOWLEDGE BASE

Currently available technologies to control pollution

Dealing with a waste situation
Treatment technologies for wastes from processing
Biological treatment of waste water
Value-adding of waste products
Prevention

Important gaps in knowledge
Conclusions and recommendations

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PLANNERS AND POLICYMAKERS

Soil/crop management
Biodiversity
Processing

REFERENCE LIST

APPENDICES

Appendix 1. Edapho-climatic classification of cassava production for Africa, Asia and Latin-America and Caribbean.
Appendix 2. Results of erosion experiments conducted with various crops and cropping systems in four Experiment Stations in Sao Paulo, Brazil from 1993 to 1999.
Appendix 3. Water quality standards.

TECHNICAL ADVISORY NOTES

I. Increasing the Productivity and Sustainability of Cassava by Better Soil/Crop Management

Improved nutrient management will increase yields - now and in the future
Integrated crop/soil management will increase yields and reduce erosion

II. Minimizing Environmental Impact through Sustainable Cassava Processing Methods: Small-, Medium- and Large-scale Starch Processing

Choosing a site location
Choosing a technology

Small- to medium-scale
Large-scale

Conserving Water

Small- to medium-scale
Large-scale

Dealing with waste water

Small- to medium-scale
Large-scale

Dealing with solid waste

Small- to medium-scale
Large-scale

Management measures

III. Minimizing Environmental Impact through Sustainable Cassava Processing Methods: Pastes, Chips and Flour

Choosing a site location
Choosing a technology
Conserving water
Dealing with wash water
Dealing with solid waste
Dealing with cyanide
Dealing with dust
Management measures

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE OF THE VALIDATION FORUM

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