FAO FISHERIES TECHNICAL PAPER NO 450

FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No 450

 

Health management and biosecurity maintenance in white shrimp (Penaeus Vannamei) hatcheries in Latin America

by
Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service
Fishery Resources Division
FAO Fisheries Department

 

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
ROME, 2003

 

Table of Contents


Cover photograph: Courtesy of Granja Pescis and Ana Bertha Montero Rocha, Mexico

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ISSN 0429-9345
ISBN 92-5-105022-8

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© FAO 2003

FAO.
Health management and biosecurity maintenance in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) hatcheries in Latin America.
FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 450. Rome, FAO. 2003. 64p.

ABSTRACT

Aquaculture is an important food-producing sector, and it provides much needed protein, employment, income and livelihoods support to many people in the world. Shrimp, in particular, is a high value commodity that is mainly produced in Asia and Latin America, especially for export purposes, and brings a wealth of revenue to many developing countries in those regions. Over the past decade, there have been considerable problems in shrimp aquaculture, mainly due to viral diseases. Latin America, in particular, where Penaeus vannamei is the main species produced, has been suffering from severe viral disease problems since the early 1990s. During the efforts to find lasting solutions to the disease problems affecting P. vannamei culture in Latin America, it was perceived that stocking with healthy postlarvae is a key factor for achieving better survival during production. However, to successfully produce healthy postlarvae requires a clear understanding of the basic principles of sound health management and hatchery biosecurity.

This document provides technical guidance on how to improve the health and quality of postlarvae produced in hatcheries through improved facility maintenance and husbandry, broodstock maturation, larval rearing, feeding, water quality management, biosecurity and health management, using interventions at different points of the hatchery production process. The document also provides valuable information on how Standardized Operating Procedures (SOPs) and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) type interventions can be applied during hatchery production of P. vannamei postlarvae. This document is expected to facilitate the efforts of hatchery operators and managers to produce quality, disease-free, healthy P. vannamei postlarvae, thus improving overall production and the sustainability of white shrimp aquaculture.


CONTENTS


PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

PREFACE

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

1 INTRODUCTION

2 THE CONTRIBUTION OF MARINE SHRIMP TO GLOBAL AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION

2.1 MARINE SHRIMP AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION TRENDS IN LATIN AMERICA
2.2 SHRIMP AQUACULTURE IN LATIN AMERICA: THE HEALTH ISSUES

3 REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE HATCHERY PRODUCTION

3.1 INFRASTRUCTURE
3.2 WATER QUALITY AND TREATMENT
3.3 BIOSECURITY
3.4 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs)
3.5 HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) APPROACH
3.6 CHEMICAL USE DURING THE HATCHERY PRODUCTION PROCESS
3.7 HEALTH ASSESSMENT

4 THE PRE-SPAWNING PROCESS

4.1 BROODSTOCK SELECTION
4.2 PROCEDURES FOR BROODSTOCK QUARANTINE
4.3 ACCLIMATIZATION
4.4 MATURATION
4.5 SPAWNING
4.6 HATCHING
4.7 BROODSTOCK HEALTH SCREENING
4.8 BROODSTOCK NUTRITION

5 THE POST-SPAWNING PROCESS

5.1 FACILITY MAINTENANCE
5.2 WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT
5.3 BROODSTOCK DISINFECTION
5.4 WASHING OF NAUPLII
5.5 SELECTION OF NAUPLII
5.6 HOLDING OF NAUPLII
5.7 TRANSPORTATION OF NAUPLII
5.8 LARVAL REARING AND MAINTENANCE
5.9 LARVAL NUTRITION AND FEED MANAGEMENT
5.10 LARVAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT
5.11 GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF LARVAL CONDITION
5.12 SELECTION OF POSTLARVAE FOR STOCKING
5.13 RISK ASSESSMENT FOR STOCKING
5.14 SHIPPING AND TRANSFER OF POSTLARVAE
5.15 DOCUMENTATION AND RECORD KEEPING

6 REFERENCES

7 ANNEX I - PERSONS RESPONSIBLE FOR COMPILING THIS DOCUMENT

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