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1 Introduction

Understanding tree health

The aim of this guide is to help readers recognize symptoms of ill health in trees and understand their general significance. The guide provides 140 photographs of symptoms from more than 50 tree species to be used as a basis for demonstrating the effects of pest (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) influences on trees. It aims to assist anyone interested in tree health or responsible for managing trees.

Tree health is not always routinely monitored in developing countries, and working guidelines and forest protection measures are not always incorporated into forest management. Many people working with trees do not pay systematic attention to tree health until trees have died and it is too late for intervention. Preliminary diagnoses of problems using this guide will assist in better planning and more effective management of trees.

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