FAO FISHERIES TECHNICAL PAPER 463

FAO FISHERIES TECHNICAL PAPER 463

Advances in sea cucumber aquacultureand management

Compiled and edited by
Alessandro Lovatelli
Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service
FAO Fisheries Department
Rome, Italy
Edited by
Chantal Conand
Laboratoire ECOMAR
La Réunion, France
Steven Purcell
WorldFish Center, Pacific Office
Noumea, New Caledonia
Sven Uthicke
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
Townsville,Australia
Jean-François Hamel
Society forthe Exploration &Valuing of the Environment
Katevale, Canada
Annie Mercier
Society forthe Exploration &Valuing of the Environment
Katevale, Canada


FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Rome, 2004
 
Table of Contents

Cover photograph:
Sea cucumbers juveniles (Apostichopus japonicus). FAO/A. Lovatelli

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-105163-1

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders.
Applications for such permission should be addressed to:
Chief
Publishing Management Service
Information Division
FAO
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy
or by e-mail to:
copyright@fao.org

© FAO 2004


Table of Contents

PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

INTRODUCTION

GLOSSARY

Session I Status of resources and utilization

Present status of world sea cucumber resources and utilisation: an international overview
by Chantal Conand

Present status and prospects of sea cucumber industry in China
by Jiaxin Chen

The status of the sea cucumber fisheries and trade in Japan: past and present
by Jun Akamine

Status of sea cucumber fisheries and farming in Indonesia
by Ambo Tuwo

Fisheries, trade and utilization of sea cucumbers in Malaysia
by Choo Poh-Sze

The status of sea cucumber fishery and mariculture in the Philippines
by Ruth Gamboa, Aurelia Luzviminda Gomez and Marie Frances Nievales

Status of the sea cucumber fishery in the Red Sea - the Egyptian experience
by Lawrence, A.J., Ahmed, M. , Hanafy, M. , Gabr, H., Ibrahim, A. and Gab-Alla, A.A-F.A.

Population density and fishery impacts on the sea cucumber (Isostichopus fuscus) in the Galapagos marine reserve
by M. Verónica Toral-Granda and Priscilla C. Martínez

World markets and trade flows of sea cucumber/beche-de-mer
by Fatima Ferdouse

Table 1. World imports of sea cucumber, fresh/frozen/dried/salted/ in brine, 1995-2001
Table 2. World imports of sea cucumber & other invertebrates, fresh/chilled/frozen/dried/salted/canned, 1995-2001
Table 3. World exports of sea cucumber, fresh/frozen/dried/salted in brine, 1995-2001
Table 4. China: Imports of sea cucumber, frozen/dried/salted/in brine, 1999-2001
Table 5A. China Hong Kong SAR: Imports of beche-de-mer (dried, salted or in brine), 1997 -June 2003
Table 5B. Hong Kong: Re-export of beche-de-mer (dried/salted/in brine), 1997 -June 2003
Table 6. Taiwan: Imports ofbeche-de-mer, 1997-2002
Table 7A. Singapore: Imports ofbeche-de-mer (dried/salted/in brine), 1997-2000
Table 7B. Singapore: Exports ofbeche-de-mer (dried/salted/in brine), 1997-2000
Table 8A. Malaysia: Imports of dried beche-de-mer, 1997 - June 2003
Table 8B. Malaysia: Imports ofbeche-de-mer (live/fresh/chilled/frozen), 1997 - June 2003
Table 8C. Malaysia: Exports ofbeche-de-mer (live/fresh/chilled/frozen), 1997 -Jan-June 2003
Table 8D. Malaysia: Exports of dried beche-de-mer, 1997 -Jan-June 2003
Table 11. Prices of sea cucumber in the international market, October 2003.
Table 12. Hong Kong: Average import prices of sea cucumber, 2001 -January/June 2003

From the sea to the market place: an examination of the issues, problems and opportunities in unravelling the complexities of sea cucumber fisheries and trade
by Mark Baine

Sea cucumber fishery and mariculture in Madagascar, a case study of Toliara, southwest Madagascar
by Richard Rasolofonirina , Edouard Mara and Michel Jangoux

Current status of the sea cucumber fishery in the south eastern region of Cuba
by Irma Alfonso, M.P. Frías, L. Aleaga and C.R.Alonso

Session II Resources management

Overfishing of holothurians: lessons from the Great Barrier Reef
by Sven Uthicke

When should restocking and stock enhancement be used to manage sea cucumber fisheries?
by Johann Bell and Warwick Nash

Criteria for release strategies and evaluating the restocking of sea cucumbers
by Steven W. Purcell

Sea cucumber fishery in Tanzania: identifying the gaps in resource inventory and management
by Twalibu K. Mmbaga and Yunus D. Mgaya

The Papua New Guinea national beche-de-mer fishery management plan
by Philip Polon

Management of sea cucumbers in the Northern Territory, Australia, and current research to further improve understanding of the fishery
by Colin C. Shelley and Philippe Puig

Density of Holothuria nobilis and distribution patterns of common holothurians on coral reefs of Northwestern Australia
by Glenn R. Shiell

Management of the Seychelles sea cucumber fishery: status and prospects
by Riaz Aumeeruddy and Rondolph Payet

The application of the adaptive principle to the management and conservation of Isostichopus fuscus in the Galapagos Marine Reserve
by Manfred Altamirano, M. Verónica Toral-Granda and Eliécer Cruz

Customary marine tenure in Solomon islands: a shifting paradigm for management of sea cucumbers in artisanal fisheries
by Christain Ramofafia, Idris Lane and Cletus Oengpepa

Fishery and resource management of tropical sea cucumbers in the islands of the South China Sea
by Xiangmin Li

Session III. Aquaculture advances

Pond culture of sea cucumbers, Apostichopus japonicus, in Dalian
by Chang Yaqing, Yu Changqing and Songxin

The progress and prospects of studies on artificial propagation and culture of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus
by Sui Xilin

Breeding and culture of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, Liao
by Wang Renbo and Cheng Yuan

Studies on hatchery techniques of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus
by Liu Xiyin, Zhu Guanghui, Zhao Qiang, Wang Liang and Gu Benxue

Diseases of cultured sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, in China
by Wang Yin-Geng, Zhang Chun-Yun, Rong Xiao-Jun, Chen Jie-Jun and Shi Cheng-Yin

Parasites and biotic diseases in field and cultivated sea cucumbers
by Igor Eeckhaut, Eric Parmentier, Pierre Becker, Serge Gomez da Silva and Michel Jangoux

Nutrient requirements and growth of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus
by Sun Huiling, Liang Mengqing, Yan Jingping and Chen Bijuan

Breeding and rearing of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra in Viet Nam
by Rayner Pitt and Nguyen Dinh Quang Duy

Aquaculture of the Galapagos sea cucumber, Isostichopus fuscus
by Annie Mercier, Roberto Ycaza Hidalgo and Jean-François Hamel

Synchronous gamete maturation and reliable spawning induction method in holothurians
by Jean-François Hamel and Annie Mercier

Mariculture of sea cucumber in the Red Sea - the Egyptian experience
by Howaida R. Gabr, Ashraf I. Ahmed, Mahmoud H. Hanafy, Andrew J. Lawrence, Mohammed I. Ahmed and Salah G. El-Etreby

Captive breeding of the sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, from India
by Baskar D. James

Sea cucumbers: a compendium of fishery statistics

Sea cucumbers: a compendium of fishery statistics
by Stefania Vannuccini

Table 1. CAPTURE fisheries production of sea cucumbers by species and country in tonnes.
Table 2. CAPTURE fisheries production of sea cucumbers by species and country in selected years in tonnes and in percentage.
Table 3. CAPTURE fisheries production of sea cucumbers by continent in selected years in tonnes and percentage.
Table 4. CAPTURE fisheries production of sea cucumbers by fishing area in selected years in tonnes and percentage.
Table 5. EXPORTS of sea cucumbers and other invertebrates by product form in tonnes, US$ ‘000 and US$/kg.
Table 6. IMPORTS of sea cucumbers and other invertebrates by product form in tonnes, US$ ‘000 and US$/kg.
Table 7. Total EXPORTS of “sea cucumbers” by principal exporters in US$’000.
Table 8. Total IMPORTS of “sea cucumbers “ by principal importers in US$ ‘000.
Table 9. Total EXPORTS of “sea cucumbers and other invertebrates “ by principal exporters in US$ ‘000.
Table 10. Total IMPORTS of “sea cucumbers and other invertebrates “ by principal importers in US$ ‘000.

Sea cucumber specimen preservation for taxonomic identification

The Belgian focal point to the global taxonomy initiative and its role in strengthening individual and institutional taxonomic capacity for, inter alia, sea cucumbers
by Yves Samyn, Didier Vanden Spiegel, Anne Franklin, Arnaud Réveillon, Hendrik Segers and Jackie Van Goethem

List of participants

Back cover