FAO FISHERIES TECHNICAL PAPER 463
Advances in sea cucumber aquacultureand management
Compiled and edited by
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
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© FAO 2004
PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
Session I Status of resources and utilization
Present status of world sea cucumber resources and utilisation: an international overview
by Chantal Conand
Present status and prospects of sea cucumber industry in China
by Jiaxin Chen
The status of the sea cucumber fisheries and trade in Japan: past and present
by Jun Akamine
Status of sea cucumber fisheries and farming in Indonesia
by Ambo Tuwo
Fisheries, trade and utilization of sea cucumbers in Malaysia
by Choo Poh-Sze
The status of sea cucumber fishery and mariculture in the Philippines
by Ruth Gamboa, Aurelia Luzviminda Gomez and Marie Frances Nievales
Status of the sea cucumber fishery in the Red Sea - the Egyptian experience
by Lawrence, A.J., Ahmed, M. , Hanafy, M. , Gabr, H., Ibrahim, A. and Gab-Alla, A.A-F.A.
Population density and fishery impacts on the sea cucumber (Isostichopus fuscus) in the Galapagos marine reserve
by M. Verónica Toral-Granda and Priscilla C. Martínez
World markets and trade flows of sea cucumber/beche-de-mer
by Fatima Ferdouse
Table 1. World imports of sea cucumber, fresh/frozen/dried/salted/ in brine, 1995-2001
Table 2. World imports of sea cucumber & other invertebrates, fresh/chilled/frozen/dried/salted/canned, 1995-2001
Table 3. World exports of sea cucumber, fresh/frozen/dried/salted in brine, 1995-2001
Table 4. China: Imports of sea cucumber, frozen/dried/salted/in brine, 1999-2001
Table 5A. China Hong Kong SAR: Imports of beche-de-mer (dried, salted or in brine), 1997 -June 2003
Table 5B. Hong Kong: Re-export of beche-de-mer (dried/salted/in brine), 1997 -June 2003
Table 6. Taiwan: Imports ofbeche-de-mer, 1997-2002
Table 7A. Singapore: Imports ofbeche-de-mer (dried/salted/in brine), 1997-2000
Table 7B. Singapore: Exports ofbeche-de-mer (dried/salted/in brine), 1997-2000
Table 8A. Malaysia: Imports of dried beche-de-mer, 1997 - June 2003
Table 8B. Malaysia: Imports ofbeche-de-mer (live/fresh/chilled/frozen), 1997 - June 2003
Table 8C. Malaysia: Exports ofbeche-de-mer (live/fresh/chilled/frozen), 1997 -Jan-June 2003
Table 8D. Malaysia: Exports of dried beche-de-mer, 1997 -Jan-June 2003
Table 11. Prices of sea cucumber in the international market, October 2003.
Table 12. Hong Kong: Average import prices of sea cucumber, 2001 -January/June 2003
From the sea to the market place: an examination of the issues, problems and opportunities in unravelling the complexities of sea cucumber fisheries and trade
by Mark Baine
Sea cucumber fishery and mariculture in Madagascar, a case study of Toliara, southwest Madagascar
by Richard Rasolofonirina , Edouard Mara and Michel Jangoux
Current status of the sea cucumber fishery in the south eastern region of Cuba
by Irma Alfonso, M.P. Frías, L. Aleaga and C.R.Alonso
Session II Resources management
Overfishing of holothurians: lessons from the Great Barrier Reef
by Sven Uthicke
When should restocking and stock enhancement be used to manage sea cucumber fisheries?
by Johann Bell and Warwick Nash
Criteria for release strategies and evaluating the restocking of sea cucumbers
by Steven W. Purcell
Sea cucumber fishery in Tanzania: identifying the gaps in resource inventory and management
by Twalibu K. Mmbaga and Yunus D. Mgaya
The Papua New Guinea national beche-de-mer fishery management plan
by Philip Polon
Management of sea cucumbers in the Northern Territory, Australia, and current research to further improve understanding of the fishery
by Colin C. Shelley and Philippe Puig
Density of Holothuria nobilis and distribution patterns of common holothurians on coral reefs of Northwestern Australia
by Glenn R. Shiell
Management of the Seychelles sea cucumber fishery: status and prospects
by Riaz Aumeeruddy and Rondolph Payet
The application of the adaptive principle to the management and conservation of Isostichopus fuscus in the Galapagos Marine Reserve
by Manfred Altamirano, M. Verónica Toral-Granda and Eliécer Cruz
Customary marine tenure in Solomon islands: a shifting paradigm for management of sea cucumbers in artisanal fisheries
by Christain Ramofafia, Idris Lane and Cletus Oengpepa
Fishery and resource management of tropical sea cucumbers in the islands of the South China Sea
by Xiangmin Li
Session III. Aquaculture advances
Pond culture of sea cucumbers, Apostichopus japonicus, in Dalian
by Chang Yaqing, Yu Changqing and Songxin
The progress and prospects of studies on artificial propagation and culture of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus
by Sui Xilin
Breeding and culture of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, Liao
by Wang Renbo and Cheng Yuan
Studies on hatchery techniques of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus
by Liu Xiyin, Zhu Guanghui, Zhao Qiang, Wang Liang and Gu Benxue
Diseases of cultured sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, in China
by Wang Yin-Geng, Zhang Chun-Yun, Rong Xiao-Jun, Chen Jie-Jun and Shi Cheng-Yin
Parasites and biotic diseases in field and cultivated sea cucumbers
by Igor Eeckhaut, Eric Parmentier, Pierre Becker, Serge Gomez da Silva and Michel Jangoux
Nutrient requirements and growth of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus
by Sun Huiling, Liang Mengqing, Yan Jingping and Chen Bijuan
Breeding and rearing of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra in Viet Nam
by Rayner Pitt and Nguyen Dinh Quang Duy
Aquaculture of the Galapagos sea cucumber, Isostichopus fuscus
by Annie Mercier, Roberto Ycaza Hidalgo and Jean-François Hamel
Synchronous gamete maturation and reliable spawning induction method in holothurians
by Jean-François Hamel and Annie Mercier
Mariculture of sea cucumber in the Red Sea - the Egyptian experience
by Howaida R. Gabr, Ashraf I. Ahmed, Mahmoud H. Hanafy, Andrew J. Lawrence, Mohammed I. Ahmed and Salah G. El-Etreby
Captive breeding of the sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, from India
by Baskar D. James
Sea cucumbers: a compendium of fishery statistics
Sea cucumbers: a compendium of fishery statistics
by Stefania Vannuccini
Table 1. CAPTURE fisheries production of sea cucumbers by species and country in tonnes.
Table 2. CAPTURE fisheries production of sea cucumbers by species and country in selected years in tonnes and in percentage.
Table 3. CAPTURE fisheries production of sea cucumbers by continent in selected years in tonnes and percentage.
Table 4. CAPTURE fisheries production of sea cucumbers by fishing area in selected years in tonnes and percentage.
Table 5. EXPORTS of sea cucumbers and other invertebrates by product form in tonnes, US$ 000 and US$/kg.
Table 6. IMPORTS of sea cucumbers and other invertebrates by product form in tonnes, US$ 000 and US$/kg.
Table 7. Total EXPORTS of sea cucumbers by principal exporters in US$000.
Table 8. Total IMPORTS of sea cucumbers by principal importers in US$ 000.
Table 9. Total EXPORTS of sea cucumbers and other invertebrates by principal exporters in US$ 000.
Table 10. Total IMPORTS of sea cucumbers and other invertebrates by principal importers in US$ 000.
Sea cucumber specimen preservation for taxonomic identification
The Belgian focal point to the global taxonomy initiative and its role in strengthening individual and institutional taxonomic capacity for, inter alia, sea cucumbers
by Yves Samyn, Didier Vanden Spiegel, Anne Franklin, Arnaud Réveillon, Hendrik Segers and Jackie Van Goethem
List of participants