Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page


Status of the sea cucumber fishery in the Red Sea - the Egyptian experience

Lawrence, A.J.[13], Ahmed, M.[14] [15], Hanafy, M.[16] [17] [18], Gabr, H.[19], Ibrahim, A.[20] and Gab-Alla, A.A-F.A.[21]


Abstract

The beche-de-mer fishery began in Egypt in 1998 in the southern part of the country. Initially this was at a low level and primarily performed by trawling boats. By 2000 the fishery had expanded dramatically, leading to fears of over-exploitation. As a consequence, the Red Sea Governorate initiated a ban on sea cucumber fishing in 2001 so that a baseline survey and stock assessment could be performed. This survey began in 2001 and was undertaken jointly by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) and Universities of Hull and Suez Canal through a UK Government sponsored Darwin Initiative project. The initial ban on fishing resulted in the development of a large illegal fishery along the coast of Egypt. In addition, pressure from the Government Fisheries Agency to reopen the fishery lead to the Red Sea Governorate lifting its ban in 2002. However, preliminary data collected by the Darwin project indicates that populations of commercial sea cucumber have undergone a rapid decline and this has now led all government agencies and departments to realise that the resource needs immediate protection. Consequently, a new ban was decreed in March 2003 to cover the whole coastline. The Government will make a new decision on the fishery in 2004 based on the results from the project stock assessment. This paper will review what is known of the current status of the fishery together with the preliminary data collected as part of the stock assessment.

Keywords: Red Sea, stock assessment, area survey, over-exploitation

Introduction

The sea cucumber fishery

The harvesting of sea cucumber has developed throughout the Indo-Pacific and beyond for the preparation and sale of beche-de-mer (MacKnight, 1976; Conand and Tuwo, 1996). China PR is the main market with the trade passing through Hong Kong SAR (China) and Singapore (FAO, 1990; Conand, 1997; Conand and Byrne, 1993; Sommerville, 1993). Final destinations include countries with Chinese communities all over the world and the current high demand for beche-de-mer is likely to continue, and strengthen, due to the high economic growth in China PR. Many countries want to develop this lucrative fishery resulting in many studies on the potential or viability of sea cucumber exploitation (FAO, 1990; Conand and Byrne, 1993; Done and Navin, 1990; Harriot, 1985; Joseph, 1993; Lokani, 1997; James, 1983, 1989).

Unfortunately, the fishery has a history of over-exploitation and collapse (FAO, 1990; Richards et al., 1994). Recently there has been considerable concern over declines in stocks with the closure of the fishery in some areas due to a lack of animals (Conand, 1997; Battaglene and Bell, 1997). The pattern of the fishery is characterized by boom and bust cycles with biological over-exploitation often occurring before economic over-exploitation (Preston, 1993; Conand, 1997). The fishery has collapsed throughout the Indo-Pacific with many species now commercially extinct (Sitwell, 1993; Jenkins and Mulliken, 1999). Over-harvesting can now be considered a worldwide phenomenon (Conand, 2000). Furthermore, the recovery of depleted populations is slow and sporadic (Kinch, 2002). In Torres Strait, for example, the Holothuria scabra fishery still has not recovered from heavy depletion in 1996, even though the fishery has been closed since 1998 (Skewes et al., 2000). Holothuria nobilis are also a particularly vulnerable species and are considered overexploited in the Great Barrier Reef (Uthicke and Benzie, 2001). Fundamental aspects of the biology and ecology of holothurians make them very vulnerable to over-exploitation - slow moving, easy to see and collect, with recent molecular evidence suggesting that the animals may live up to 100 years (Uthicke et al., 2003). Generally slow growing, holothurians are mostly broadcast spawners and, consequently, need to occur in high densities to ensure fertilization of gametes. The potential for over-exploitation is exacerbated by the fact that most countries are currently exploiting the resource without management plans. As a result whole populations have been depleted in many areas (Uthicke, 1996).

The Egyptian fishery

Fishing grounds throughout the world can be divided into three main groupings, the Western Central Pacific (subdivided into the Central Pacific and the Southern Tropical Pacific), the Indian Ocean (divided into Eastern Africa and Southwest Asia) and the North Eastern Pacific. The Red Sea opens into the Indian Ocean and any fishery developing here will be most clearly linked to the East African sub-zone.

The beche-de-mer fishery started in Egypt in 1998 in the south and on a small scale. It operates at the community level. Villagers collect and process sea cucumber and the products are sold to exporters, mostly bound for markets in Hong Kong SAR (China) and Singapore. Egypt has become one of the most important suppliers of beche-de-mer after the depletion seen other areas. However, little is known about the Egyptian fishery, the species of economic importance or levels of take and impact on the environment.

Aims and objectives

The Darwin Initiative funded project was developed with the principal aim of developing a sustainable fishery along the coast of Egypt under the guidelines of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The three main objectives of the project are to perform a stock assessment of the current resource, to develop a mariculture system appropriate to the commercial species and conditions experienced in the Red Sea and to explore the biotechnology potential of sea cucumber in the Red Sea.

The objective of this paper is to report on the progress made in the first of these three objectives, to present the data collected on the fishery and to report on the stock status. Assessment of stock status, generally expressed as the level of depletion compared to unexploited levels, is difficult from a single abundance survey. However, an indication of stock status can be provided, first, by comparing standing stock estimates between protected and non-protected sites along the Red Sea, second, by comparing fishing effort trends inferred from available information, third, by comparing standing stock estimates with estimates of the catch which to give a rough indication of the sustainability of the catch, and finally, by comparing density (number/hectare) of each species with the population density of the same species on reefs of other fisheries with variable levels of exploitation.

Methods

Study area

The Red Sea is located between Asia and Africa. At the north it splits to form the Sinai Peninsula and stretches over 1 000 miles south to join the Indian Ocean between Ethiopia and Yemen. In the north and west are desert plains, while in the south is a mountainous region (2 642 meters high), that is part of the mountain range stretching from deep in Saudi Arabia across the Sinai and then into Nubia on the African Continent. The Red Sea forms a part of the Sirian-African rift with its many unique and impressive geographical features. The Sinai Peninsula is bordered by the relatively shallow Gulf of Suez along its west side, and the much deeper Gulf of Aqaba along its east side. To the south, the partly very deep main body of the Red Sea extends down to its shallow and narrow exit to the Indian Ocean, at Bab El-Mandab.

The Egyptian coast of the Red Sea is approximately 1 000 km extending from Suez at the entrance of the Gulf of Suez to Shalatein on the Sudanese border and west into the Gulf of Aqaba. The Red Sea is divided into 2 main sectors. The first sector starts from Taba on the border with Israel, to Sharm El-Sheikh on the Sinai Peninsula. The second sector passes from north Hurgada south to the Sudanese border and includes a number of offshore islands (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Map of the Egyptian Red Sea coast running from Taba in the North to Shalatein in the South.

Survey method

Sampling was carried out from July 2002 to August 2003. The survey employed a modified rapid marine assessment technique applied to beche-de-mer surveys in Torres Strait and Moreton Bay (Long et al., 1996; Skewes et al., 2000). Field work was undertaken with two teams of divers. On the reef flat, a diver snorkelled along a 50 m transect and recorded information 2.5 m either side of the transect line. Holothurians and other echinoderms were counted. When necessary, length and weight measures of the commercial species of holothurian were taken. At each site the substrate was described in terms of percentage of live to dead coral, seagrasses and sand. The survey was designed to ensure that all habitat types (coral reef, seagrass bed, mangrove swamps and sandy lagoons) were surveyed in each Red Sea sector. Walking transects were carried out at extremely low tides when the reef flat was exposed.

At each site on the reef slope, divers also swam transects parallel to the reef edge. These transects were positioned in the approximate depth ranges 5-10 m, 10-15 m and 15-20 m depending on local topography. Two transects were surveyed at each depth, beginning at the deepest stations, with each diver surveying a 2.5 m belt each side of the transect line. Each new species of holothurian encountered was collected for later identification and the divers counted each of the commercial species of interest. In addition, the length of each of the commercial species was measured and habitat information recorded. Each survey site was geo-referenced using a hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) device.

During each trip, time was taken to talk with a wide variety of people. Much of the fisheries data was gathered from these interviews with local people, mostly fishermen and traders. This is an accepted method in much artisanal fishery research (Johannes, 1993; Castillo and Rivera, 1991) and the most relevant information was gathered in this manner, rather than by use of strict questionnaires.

Results

The sea cucumber fishery in Egypt

First noted in the mid-1990s, the sea cucumber fishery started officially in 1998 in the southern part of Egypt. In the Red Sea the harvesting of sea cucumber involves two processes. In the south and in the Gulf of Suez, trawlers harvest the sea cucumber using a benthic trawl. Initially part of the by-catch, sea cucumber were later specifically targeted and subject to heavy trawling activity. In the central part of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, SCUBA diving is used for collecting the animals. In addition, some species are harvested by hand at low tide on the reef flats. In Egypt the processing of sea cucumber is not significantly different from the methods described previously in other fisheries and many descriptions have been given.

The catch and the total income derived from beche-de-mer fishing in the Red Sea is known to have increased significantly between 1998 and 2000, mainly due to the dramatic increase in the value of sea cucumber over that period. In 1999, as the price of beche-de-mer increased, the fishery expanded to cover the rest of the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. The expansion of the fishery is highlighted by the fact that during the period 2000-2002 the number of boats using either SCUBA or trawling techniques doubled (Figure 2a and 2b). Furthermore, the number of companies involved in the fishery increased significantly during the same period (Figure 2c). However, it has proven very difficult to determine reliable values paid for each species of sea cucumber during the period, making the total value of the fishery difficult to determine.

In April 2000, the Red Sea Governorate banned the fishing of sea cucumber in the Red Sea until the stock assessment supported by the Darwin Initiative could be performed. However, this ban only existed for the area of coastline under the jurisdiction of the Red Sea Governorate. The neighbouring Suez Governorate, for example, continued with an open fishery. This lead to further depletion of stocks in the Red Sea as a whole, and added to the difficulty of policing of Red Sea Governorate coastal areas. For example, fishermen and boats from the Suez region were observed fishing illegally in areas under the protection of the Red Sea Governorate. However, this was impossible to prove once the catch had been landed.

Figure 2. The growth in the number of boats involved in the sea cucumber fishery in Egypt employing a) SCUBA diving b) Trawling and c) The increase in the number of companies involved in the fishery.

Furthermore, the ban also resulted in the development of a large illegal fishery in the region under the jurisdiction of the Red Sea Governorate. This illegal fishery continued unabated both as a result of the low level of patrolling (and difficulty of policing such a large area) and the development of a conflict between the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), which wanted to limit the fishery, and the Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries, which aimed to exploit the resource to its maximum. The impact of the illegal fishery is highlighted by the significant reduction in the total catch landed per trip from 3 million animals in 1998 to 400 000 in 2001 despite the increase in the number of boats fishing during this period (Figure 3).

There was a further social consequence of the illegal fishery. The official number of recorded accidents of fishermen involved in fishing for sea cucumber using SCUBA increased six-fold between 2000-2002 (Figure 4). However, the unofficial estimate of the number of accidents is 10 times this figure (Selim, Pers. Comm.). The fishermen do not receive any training in SCUBA and might make up to 6 dives per day to depths of 30 m or more. It is known that due to the fear of prosecution, many boat crews have not reported deaths that have occurred during fishing of holothurians with individuals either dumped or buried on remote beaches. Furthermore, the EEAA has found itself in the difficult position of having to permit and cover the costs of fishermen using decompression chambers to recover from the decompression sickness, a cost the individuals could not cover themselves.

Figure 3. The total catch of sea cucumber (numbers of individuals) collected per boat per trip using a) SCUBA and b) trawling along the Red Sea coast of Egypt between 1998 and 2002.

Figure 4. The official number of diving accidents occurring whilst fishing for sea cucumber in Egypt between 2000 and 2002, reported by Decompression Chambers.

Further evidence of the likely over-exploitation of the commercial species of sea cucumber in Egypt was illustrated by the fact that during the period 1998-2002 the number of species fished increased from an initial two, to up to 14 in the case of SCUBA (Figure 5). Thus, as the fishery increased, the numbers of the most valued species decreased and fishermen attempted to compensate for this by collecting other, less valuable species.

As a result of the conflict between different government agencies, the sea cucumber fishery was re-opened in 2002 and licenses were given to fishermen to collect sea cucumber. A total number of 52 boat licenses and 100 individual fishermen licenses were issued. Due to the further depletion of commercial holothurians, a meeting was held in the Red Sea Governorate in March 2003 to discuss the problem of sea cucumber fishing in the Red Sea. The meeting included representatives from the EEAA, Ministry of Agriculture and Red Sea Governorate. As a result of this meeting a second complete ban on the fishery was instigated until December 2003. At this time, the initial assessment of the stock, based on the current study will be presented together with preliminary recommendations on future exploitation and management of the fishery.

Whilst the expansion in the number of boats in the industry, catch per trip and increase in numbers of species taken are indicative of over-exploitation, it is currently difficult to assess the overall level of impact. As part of the on-going study, the team are still trying to get reliable estimates for the number of trips each boat takes per year and the value of each individual species. This would allow a better evaluation of the numbers of animals taken and value of the fishery prior to the ban.

Figure 5. The number of commercial species of sea cucumber collected by a) SCUBA and b) trawling techniques in Egypt between 1998 and 2002.

Preliminary Area Survey

To date over 690 transects have been surveyed at 116 sites from Taba, on the border with Israel in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, to Shalatein, on the border with Sudan in the southern region of the Red Sea. In Sharm El-Sheikh area 34 sites have been surveyed the whole coast of the Gulf of Aqaba sites have been surveyed in of the Red Sea.

A total of 22 species have so far been identified (Table 1). Of these, seven are described for the first time in Egyptian waters. Whilst none of the species so far identified are unique to the northern coastline of Egypt (Ras Mohammed to Taba), ten species have only been found in the southern region (Hurgada to Shalatein) (Figure 1 and Table 1). In addition, seven species are predominantly collected as the commercial species. These can be divided into three groups based on market value. First class species include Holothuria scabra (sandfish), Holothuria fuscogilva (white teatfish) and Holothuria nobilis (black teatfish). These are fished preferentially. Second class species include Stichopus hermanni and Stichopus horrens. Third class species include: Actinopyga mauritiana, Holothuria atra, and Pearsonothuria graeffi.

Table 1. Species of sea cucumber identified through an Area Survey along the Red Sea coast and offshore islands of Egypt. Species described for the first time in Egyptian waters or important commercially are highlighted together with their value category and broad geographic range.

Species

First record in Egypt

Commercially important and Grade

Range of Species
(North & South Sectors)

Actinopyga crassa

-

-

N&S

Actinopyga mauritiana

-

3rd Class

N&S

Pearsonothuria graeffei

Yes

3rd Class

South only

Bohadschia cousteaui

-

-

N&S

Bohadschia tenuissima

-

-

N&S

Bohadschia vitensis

-

-

N&S

Holothuria hilla

-

-

N&S

Holothuria edulis

-

-

N&S

Holothuria atra

-

3rd Class

N&S

Holothuria pardalis

-

-

N&S

Holothuria leucospilota

-

-

N&S

Holothuria scabra

-

1st Class

N&S

Holothuria fuscogilva

Yes

1st Class

South only

Holothuria nobilis

Yes

1st Class

South only

Holothuria impatiens

-

-

N&S

Holothuria rigida

Yes

-

South only

Holothuria coluber

Yes

-

South only

Holothuria sp.

Yes

-

South only

Stichopus hermanni

-

2nd Class

N&S

Stichopus horrens

-

2nd Class

N&S

Synapta maculata

-

-

N&S

Synaptula sp.

Yes

-

South only

The distribution of each species has also been examined in relation to depth and habitat type. Results from this are shown in Figures 6 and 7. Figure 6 highlights the fundamental importance of seagrass beds to most of the main commercial species from each class. The two exceptions being H. nobilis and P. graeffei which have only been found on coral substrate. In addition, each of the commercial species have been mostly found in the depth range of 5-10 m (Figure 7). The main exception to this is H. fuscogilva which was predominantly found beyond 30 m depth and H. nobilis and H. atra which was mostly found on the reef flat.

Figure 6. The habitat distribution of the main commercial species of sea cucumber along the Egyptian Red Sea coast expressed as mean number per transect (S = sand, SG = Seagrass, C = coral and M = mangrove).

Figure 7. The depth distribution of the main commercial species of sea cucumber in the Egyptian Red Sea expressed as mean number per transect (RF = Reef Flat, A = 5-10 m, B = 10-20 m, C = 20-30 m and D = >30m).

Clear differences have been found in the abundance of the main commercial species when fished and non-fished areas are compared (Figure 8). However, it should be noted that it is almost impossible to find non-fished sites along the coast of Egypt. In this instance, therefore, non-fished refers to sites that are mostly unexploited. These sites benefit from some form of protection, being either too remote, difficult to approach, near to army installations or forming part of the private beach to hotel complexes. Figure 8 highlights the almost complete loss of the most valuable species H. scabra and H. nobilis, as well as the removal of most commercial species from most fished areas. Whilst both seagrass and coral sites have been targeted by fishermen, their impact on seagrass areas appears to have been more severe.

Figure 8. The impact of fishing on the total number of species of sea cucumber, number of commercial species and their composition on seagrass (a & c) and coral (b & d) habitats. Data is expressed as mean number per transect (Am = Actinopyga mauritiana, Hs = Holothuria scabra, Hf = Holothuria fuscogilva, Hn = Holothuria nobilis, Sh = stichopus hermanni, Bv = Bohadichia vitensis).

Based on the numbers of animals counted on each of the transects, the mean density of the main commercial species per hectare has been calculated for sand and seagrass areas (Table 2). For each of the species the density is higher in the southern sector than in the northern sector. Also apparent is the low density of most valuable species (Class 1) compared with the less valuable. Generally, the highest density species is A. mauritiana, one of the lower valued species. It should be noted that the value calculated for H. scabra is the result of a high density of animals found at one specific site. The project is currently liaising with the EEAA Remote Sensing Group based in Hurgadato estimate the overall area of sand and seagrass along the coast of Egypt and to a depth of 30 m. From this the project will be able to estimate the current standing stock of each commercial species.

Table 2. The density of animals per hectare of the main commercial species of sea cucumber in Egypt, compared with the highest and lowest estimated densities found in the literature.

Species

Gulf of Aqaba Sector

Hurgada Sector

Highest density from literature

Lowest density from literature

H. scabra

0.0

158.0

> 600(1)
2 900 (2)

0.00 (3)

H. fuscogilva

4.0

8.0

> 18(1)

0.42 (3)

H. nobilis

2.2

6.4

> 13(1)

0.18(3)

S. hermanni

28.0

46.0

450(1)

0.09 (3)

S. horrens

4.0

19.6

-

-

P. graeffi

0.0

26.0

-

0.37 (3)

A. mauritiana

70.0

204.0

300(1)

0.12(3)

H. atra

950.0

1002.4

> 500(1)

9.8 (3)

1- Preston, 1993, 2- Shelley, 1981; 3-Kinch, 2002.

Discussion

Stock size and indications of stock status are two useful parameters on which to base robust management strategies. In the absence of detailed, reliable fisheries data, stock size can only be estimated by abundance surveys. Using a combination of outputs from the abundance survey and limited fisheries dependant data, stock status can be estimated with some confidence. These parameters can then be used to indicate future catch levels that allow for sustainable development of the fishery.

It is apparent from the data gathered during the stock assessment that the sea cucumber fishery in Egypt has followed the pattern seen elsewhere with a boom in the fishery being followed by the collapse of most stocks. It is currently impossible to find any site in Egypt that has not been fished. However, comparison between sites afforded some protection with those heavily exploited shows a significant difference between the two, with the most valuable species completely absent at the fished sites. This was reflected in the area survey in which the same high value species were absent from almost all sites. Thus it appears that overfishing has lead to the extirpation of several of the most commercial species from many sites. These local extinctions might have continued to be masked by the lack of any detailed collection of fishery statistics, particularly at the species level. This problem has been highlighted in other fisheries (Dulvy et al., 2000) and will be a continuing problem with sea cucumber given their difficult taxonomy and changed shape and form following processing. However, the collection of species specific fisheries data is imperative given the potential consequences of these extirpations both to the meta-population and to the habitat (Thorpe et al., 2000; Uthicke, 2001).

Clearly the use of trawling methods in the southern part of Egypt is not sustainable as is evidenced by the complete collapse of populations in this region. The use of benthic trawls has the added problem that it significantly impacts on the habitat and has been compared to forest clear cutting in this capacity (Wattling and Norse, 1998). Impacts include the reduction of habitat complexity (Engel and Kvitek, 1998), changes to sediment structure (Schwinghammer, 1998) and reduction in species diversity (Engel and Kvitek, 1998). Furthermore, models have shown that these impacts are highest for sensitive, complex and stable areas (Auster, 1998; Kaiser et al., 2000). As such, coral reefs and seagrass beds are likely to be particularly sensitive to trawling, the impacts of which are not only unsustainable, but likely to reduce the quality of the habitat and, therefore, recovery times for depleted stocks.

Whilst there are no pre-fishery baseline data for sea cucumber populations in Egypt, species densities are almost all higher in the southern sector. Comparison of the densities in this region with other studies indicate that the populations are not as depleted as has been reported in the Torres Strait, Great Barrier Reef or Warrior Reef (Long et al., 1996; Skewes et al., 2000; Uthicke and Benzie, 2001; Kinch, 2002). However, they are much lower than the densities reported by Shelley (1981) and Preston (1993). This, together with the comparison of densities between fished and un-fished sites, provides further evidence to suggest that overfishing has occurred in Egypt and that all species have been over-exploited with the exception ofH. atra and possibly A. mauritiana. However, this assumes that the populations in the Red Sea mirror those seen elsewhere throughout the Indo-Pacific and ignores the possible effects of this unique environment on each species.

The fact that densities are not as low as reported in some parts of the Indo-Pacific may suggest some hope for the fishery in Egypt. The current ban should be extended for at least two years to assess whether any populations show signs of recovery. Given the density-dependent nature of the reproductive process, and the failure of populations described elsewhere to show recovery after 6 years, this is fundamental to any future sustainable fishery development. In addition, during this two-year moratorium, a management plan for the whole of the Egyptian coastline should be developed and approved by all stakeholders. This should include relevant government agencies, the Fishermen Society and recognized traders. A sense of ownership of the fishery by the stakeholders has proven successful in the past in other invertebrate fisheries, aiding the collection of biomass estimates and self-policing of the fishery (Young, 2001; Castilla and Defeo, 2001).

The plan should include the adoption of no-take zones in important areas and a permanent ban on benthic trawling. Additional management regimes are likely to include the continuance of the permit system but with permit holders having to submit fishing logs/catch statistics, the introduction of closed seasons and a Total Allowable Catch (TAC) based on a precautionary approach, size restrictions and gear restrictions. In addition, the allocation of permits should be given only to those boats using qualified divers following dive regulations, to reduce the human losses currently occurring in the fishery.

Sea cucumber catch data collected from fishing logs should be species based as highlighted earlier. This would have the added advantage that it might encourage policy-makers to further consider the listing of sea cucumber under CITES Appendix II. Ultimately, it requires a concerted international effort under a mechanism such as CITES to ensure the recovery, future protection and sustainable use of sea cucumber both in Egypt and worldwide.

As a signatory to the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Jakarta Mandate, Egypt is committed to the conservation and sustainable use of species and coastal resources. In the case of its sea cucumber resource this will require the continuance of the current ban alongside the area and seasonal survey programme and further development of its embryonic mariculture facilities. It will also require the full participation and agreement of all stakeholders in the future management decisions related to the fishery. It is only this approach that will ultimately allow Egypt to develop a sustainable fishery under the guidelines of the CBD.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Darwin Initiative for their financial support of this project and the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency and Red Sea Governorate for their continued support of the project.

References

Auster, P. 1998. A conceptual model of the impacts of fishing gear on the integrity of fish habitats. Cons. Biol. 12:1198-1203.

Battaglene, S.C. & Bell, J.D. 1999. Potential of the tropical Indo-Pacific sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, for stock enhancement. In: Howell, B.R., Mokness, E., Svasand, T., Eds, Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching. Proceedings First International Symposium on Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching, 8-11 September 1997, Bergen, Norway. Blackwell, Oxford, Chap.33. p.478-490.

Castilla, J.C. & Defeo, O.2001. Latin American benthic shellfisheries: Emphasis on co-management and experimental practices. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 11(1): 1-30.

Castillo. G.A. & Rivera, R.A. 1991. Municipal fishermen as research partners. In: Towards an integrated management of tropical coastal resources, ICLARM, Manilla, p.233-235.

Conand, C. 1997. Are holothurian fisheries for export sustainable? Intern. Cong. Reefs, Panama, 2:2021-2026. Conand, C. 2000. Editorial. Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 13:1-2.

Conand, C. & Byrne, M. 1993. A review of recent developments in the world sea cucumber fisheries. Mar. Fish. Review, 1-13.

Conand, C & Tuwo, A. 1996. Commercial holothurians in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Fisheries and mariculture. Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 8:17-21.

Done, T. J. & Navin, K.E. 1990. Vanuatu marine resources. Report of a biological survey. AIMS, Townsville.

Dulvy, N., Metcalfe, J., Glanville, J., Pawson, M. & Reynolds, J. 2000. Fishery stability, local extinctions and shifts in community structure in skates. Conserv. Biol., 14:283-293.

Engel, J & Kvitek, R. 1998. Effects of otter trawling on a benthic community in Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Cons. Biol., 12:1204-1214.

FAO. 1990. The fishery resources of Pacific island countries, Pt 2 Holothurians. by C. Conand. FAO Technical Paper 272.2, FAO, Rome. 143 pp.

Harriot, V.J. 1985. The potential for a beche-de-mer fishery. Australian Fisheries, June 1985.

James, D.B. 1983. Sea cucumber and sea urchin resources and the beche-de-mer industry. In: Mariculture potential of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. CMFRI Bulletin 34. India.

James, D.B. 1989. Beche-de-mer resources of Lakshadweep. In: CMFRI Bulletin 43. Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep, CMFRI. India.

Jenkins, M & Mulliken, T.A. 1999. Evolution of exploitation in the Galapagos Islands: Ecuador's sea cucumber trade. Traffic Bulletin 17(3).

Joseph, L. 1993. Review of the beche-de-mer (sea cucumber) fishery in the Maldives. Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 5:11-12.

Kaiser, M., Spence, F., & Hart, P. 2000. Fishing gear restrictions and conservation of benthic habitat complexity. Cons. Biol., 14:1512-1525.

Kinch, J. 2002. The beche-de-mer fishery in the Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea. A report to the National Fisheries Authority, Port Meresby, P.N.G. & CSIRO, Queensland, Australia.

Lokani, P. 1997. Fishery dynamics, ecology and management of beche-de-mer at the Warrior Reef, Torres Straight Protected Zone, Papua New Guinea. Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 9:38-39.

Long, B.G., Skewes, T.D., Dennis, D.M., Poiner, I.R., Pitcher, C.R., Taranto, T., Manson, F., Polon, P., Karre, B., Evans, C. & Milton, D. 1996. Distribution and abundance of beche-de-mer on Torres Strait reefs. CSIRO Division of Fisheries Final Report, March 1996, 99 pp.

MacKnight, C.C. 1976. The voyage to Marege - Macassan trepangers in Northern Australia, Melbourne University Press.

Preston, G.L. 1993. Beche-de-mer. In: Nearshore marine resources of the Southern Pacific: information for fisheries development and management. Forum Fisheries Agency, Honiara, Solomon Islands, p.371-407.

Richards, A.H., Bell, L.J., and Bell, J.D. 1994. Inshore fisheries resources of the Solomon Islands. Mar. Poll. Bull. 29:90-98.

Schwinghamer, P., Gordon, D., Rowell, T., Prena, J., McKeown, D., Sonnichsen, G. & Guignes, J. 1998. Effects of experimental otter trawling on surficial sediment properties of a sandy-bottom ecosystem on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. Cons. Biol., 12:1215-1222.

Shelley, C. 1981. Aspects of the distribution, reproduction, growth and 'fishery' potential of holothurians (beche-de-mer ) in the Papuan Coastal lagoon. MSc. University of Papua New Guinea. 165 pp.

Sitwell, N. 1993. The grub and the Galapagos. New Scientist, 11 December.

Skewes, T.D., Dennis, D.M. & Burridge. 2000. Survey of Holothuria scabra (Sandfish) on Warrior Reef, Torres Strait, January 2000, CSIRO Division of Marine Research.

Sommerville, W.S. 1993. Marketing of beche-de-mer. Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 5:2-7.

SPC. 1995. Holothuries et beches-de-mer. Un manuel a l'intention des pecheurs, South Pacific Commission, Noumea.

Thorpe, J.P., Sole-Cava, A.M. & Watts, P.C. 2000. Exploited marine invertebrates: genetics and fisheries. Hydrobiologia, 420:165-184.

Uthicke, S. 1996. Beche-de-mer: a literature review on Holothurian fishery and ecology. AIMS, Townsville, 45pp. Uthicke, S. 1997. Nutrient regeneration by abundant coral reef holothurians. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 265:153-170.

Uthicke, S., Conand C. & Benzie, J.A.H. 2003. Population genetics of the fissiparous holothurians Stichopus chloronotus and Holothuria atra (Aspidochirotida): A comparison between Torres Strait and La Reunion. Mar. Biol., 139:257-265.

Uthicke, S. & Benzie, J.A.H. 2001. Effect of beche-de-mer fishing on densities and size structure of Holothuria nobilis (Echinodermata, Holothuridea) populations on the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs, 19:271-276.

Watling, L & Norse, E. 1998. Disturbance of the seabed by mobile fishing gear: A comparison to forest clear cutting. Cons. Biol., 12:1180-1197.

Young, E. 2001. State intervention and abuse of the commons: Fisheries development in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 91(2):283-306.


[13] University of Hull, Hull, UK
[14] University of Hull, Hull, UK
[15] Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
[16] Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, Hurgada, Egypt;
[17] The Red Sea Governorate, Hurgada, Egypt
[18] Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
[19] Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
[20] Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
[21] Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page