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SEAGA TOOLBOX


The following set of tools is a condensed version of the tools contained in the full-size SEAGA guide, Rural Households and Resources: a Guide for Extension Workers. This section provides some key SEAGA questions to help extension workers as they look at households and their resources in the identification and analysis of issues with household members and communities. It is assumed that most users will have had some exposure to participatory learning tools. For those who have had little experience using such tools, it is recommended to review the full-size guide and practice some of the tools in advance. The tools can help highlight key issues as illustrated in the table below. Please note that these are only meant as suggestions - there are other tools that may also be useful depending upon the context and the scope of work. The SEAGA Field Handbook also has an extensive collection of participatory tools.

The information gathered using these tools can provide a better understanding of extension clients, their household resources, and the management of these resources as well as the needs and priorities of different households and household members. It can also be used to identify how rural people can be better involved in extension activities and to ensure participation by men and women and other socioeconomic groups. Please see other SEAGA handbooks and guides for further tools or key questions for specific technical areas such as livestock and irrigation. You can obtain copies of these from FAO’s Gender and Population Division.

Before using the tools with a community, it is important to remember the following:

· Be ready to introduce and explain an exercise that you would like to use with the community.

· Decide how an exercise should be facilitated and by whom and who should take notes. Avoid repetition of questions if several of the tools are used.

· Pay particular attention to households with chronically ill or otherwise vulnerable members. Avoid stigmatising any group.

· Be clear about group formation for the different exercises (just who works with whom in the group can influence the information that comes out).

· Discuss and share the results of group work in plenary, so that everyone knows what each group discussed, so avoiding conflict and suspicion.

· Allow at least 1 - 2 hours for each of the exercises.

Key SEAGA questions for households and resources

No.

Tool name

What are the most important resources to women and men in different socio-economic groups and how do they value them?

1

Village resource map

What resources do men and women in different socio-economic groups use, and who controls them?
Who benefits from them?

2

Resource matrix

How do community members define “wealth” and “poverty?”

3

Economic ranking

Who are the most disadvantaged groups? Do HIV/AIDS and/or other chronic diseases have an impact on the community or some of its households?

4

Health ranking

Within a household, what activities do men, women, children, hired labourers, etc. carry out?
How do they use their time, and how is the work divided through the days and seasons? What is the best time to schedule training or other extension services?

5

Activity matrix

What are the main sources of income for different household members? What are the main items of expenditure? What services do they pay for or are they willing/able to pay for?

6

Sources and use of money

Who are the main stakeholders of the extension services? Who are the other service providers, and what services do they provide?

7

Stakeholder analysis

What are the priority problems of rural men and women and relevant socio-economic groups?

8

Pair-wise ranking


9

Problem analysis chart

Which activities could realistically be implemented? What role can village members, extension services, other local service providers and organisations play?

10

Community action plan

Tool 1 - Village resource map

Relevance for extension and household resource management: This tool facilitates learning about resources in a community and about women and mens’ perceptions and values attached to those resources. It is also useful in developing community ideas for the future.

Use: Different maps can be made to compare changes over time. Discussions can focus on main differences and causes for change, e.g. soil degradation, land distribution, inheritance and ownership, changes in access to and control over resources. Maps can also be used to show conflicts over resource use.

It is possible to focus on specific resources or relate the resources to a particular topic during the mapping exercise so that you avoid overloading the map with information (e.g. natural resources such as fodder crops, forests, land, water, fish ponds, etc.) that are the most important for household food security; physical resources (e.g. health clinics, schools, roads, bus stop) that are important for time use. Social resources (e.g. number of people of different age and gender in each household) can be drawn onto this or a separate map or be written up in notes.

Examples of questions to ask after the map is completed:

Tool 2 - Resource matrix

Relevance for extension and household resource management: Understanding who uses and controls the use of different resources is essential for planning extension services. Addressing constraints and building on opportunities can help strengthen rural people’s livelihoods and help identify who is likely to lose or gain from a particular intervention.

Use: The resource matrix helps us learn about the use and control of resources (e.g. natural, human, socio-cultural) - within households and among different socioeconomic groups (e.g. age, ethnicity).

Examples of questions to ask while facilitating:

Example of resource access and control from Uganda 2003

RESOURCES NumberÖ = level of access/control.
MoreÖ = more access and control.

Access to (use)

Control over (decides use)

Women

Men

Women

Men

Seeds

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Pump

-

Ö

-

ÖÖ

Pesticides

-

Ö

-

ÖÖ

Water

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Market

-

ÖÖ

-

ÖÖ

Money

-

Ö

-

ÖÖÖ

Building materials

-

Ö

-

ÖÖ

Hired labour

Ö

ÖÖ

-

ÖÖ

Tool 3 - Economic ranking

Relevance for extension and household resource management: Economic ranking can help identify disadvantaged groups and better understand inequalities in a community. Health ranking (Tool 4) is an adaptation of this tool with a health approach.

Use: The tool provides learning about how economic situations and inequalities are perceived by community members, and can help extension workers and facilitators to identify poor and disadvantaged households. Be aware that the information generated is sensitive. Many people will not appreciate being classified as poor or rich, and they may not want to disclose such sensitive information.

Crop production, household food security and livestock ownership are used as indicators of wealth/poverty in the example below. Other issues that may indicate economic status are e.g. number of meals a day, school attendance of girls and boys and sources of household income.

- Issue -

Less poor

Middle poor

Poor

Very poor

Crop production, food security

produce large surplus from crop production, most of which is marketed

produce small surplus from crop production. Food self-sufficient all year.

food self-sufficient for less than six months a year. Meet food needs in deficit months by casual work

food insecure for many months a year.

Livestock

own draught animals, cattle, goats, chicken, pigs

many have a few cattle. Own goats, chicken and pigs

own a few small animals (goats, chicken)

very few or none

Examples of questions to ask while facilitating:

Tool 4 - Health ranking

Relevance for extension and household resource management: Health ranking classifies households into health categories and aims at obtaining an overview of: i.) households suffering from bad health (disadvantaged groups); ii.) local definitions of health, and; iii.) how wide-spread this problem is for the community.

Use: Health ranking is an adaptation of tool 3 Economic Ranking. The criteria categories and questions are adjusted to address health issues. Let the participants define the health categories and definitions. Be aware that the information generated is sensitive, and avoid to stigmatise people with poor health, for instance people living with HIV/AIDS.

Weakest health

Weak health

Good health

Very good health

- Chronic illness
- Too weak to perform x, y, z

- Often sick
- Do heavy work only when not sick

Seldom sick

Almost never sick
Strong

Number of households in this category

No. households in this category

No. of households in this category

No. of households in this category

Examples of questions to ask during facilitation

Tool 5 - Activity matrix

Relevance to extension and household resource management: There are many ways for extension workers to learn about how work is divided among household members; this can be helpful for planning extension activities (e.g. time of day/season for different household members to take training, meet, etc.). These include: daily activity clocks, seasonal calendars, and activity or division-of-labour matrices.

Use: The activity matrix is useful for telling extension workers more about the labour within households and provides a good overview of who does what in a community or household, and can help extension workers to target their services.

Example:

Activity

AM

AF

B

G

HM

HW

Time

Where

- land clearing
- ploughing
- grazing livestock









- taking care of the sick
- cooking
- child-rearing









- member - village committee
- mending road









AM = adult men, AF = adult female, B = boys, G = girls, HM = hired men, HW = hired women

Example of questions to ask while facilitating:

Tool 6 - Sources and use of money

Relevance for extension and household resource management: The tool can help to identify the main sources of income and expenditure for households and individual household members.

Use: This tool and the two examples below are adapted from IFAD (2002) and can be used in many different situations. If chronic illness (e.g. HIV/AIDS) is a big problem, it might be useful to have a group represent households with chronically ill members, or have them join existing groups in the community (be careful of creating stigma when forming groups). The template can be adapted to different situations, and to reflect the views of more than two groups.

Example: Ranking main items of expenditure

Main items of expenditure (according to Women’s Group in Zambia)

Women’s expenditure

Men’s expenditure

· food
· school fees
· clothes
· medical expenses
· kitchen utensils and household items

· marrying a new wife/girlfriends
· cattle, fertilizer and food
· seed and farm implements
· school fees
· beer

First item listed indicates highest priority. If more than one item is listed on a line it indicates that those items are ranked equally.

Main items of expenditure (according to Men’s Group in Zambia)

Women’s expenditure

Men’s expenditure

· kitchen utensils
· clothes
· food
· school fees, household items, small livestock

· fertilizer
· clothes, school fees
· farm implements
· medical expenses
· household items

Examples of questions to ask while facilitating:

Tool 7 - Stakeholder analysis

Relevance for extension and household resource management:

Stakeholder analysis is useful for clarifying interests, decision-making roles and potential collaboration or conflicts between different socio-economic groups and service providers.

The importance of various institutions to their community: perceptions among men and women in a village of Santiago Island, Cape Verde, December 2003.

Use: A matrix (table) showing the various stakeholders involved at different levels (field, institutional, macro level) can be quite revealing to a community in terms of seeing who is involved or has an interest in a particular intervention or activity. Alternately, a Venn diagram (example on the right) can be used. It is best if groups brainstorm a list of potential stakeholders and then discuss what sort of interest, or stake, they think they have and their relation to other stakeholders.

Examples of questions to ask while facilitating

Tool 8 - Pair-wise ranking

Relevance for extension and household resource management: Pair-wise ranking highlights how the priority problems of different community and household members differ and where they overlap.

Use: This can show differences and similarities between women and men, across socioeconomic groups, or in areas where such illnesses as HIV/AIDS are prevalent - the particular constraints faced by households with chronically ill members, those taking care of orphans, or that have lost labour.

Example

Problems

Weeds

Cost of inputs

Lack of land

Lack of knowledge

Weeds


Cost of inputs

Lack of land

Lack of knowledge

Cost of inputs



Cost of inputs

Cost of inputs

Lack of land




Lack of land

Lack of knowledge






Ranking

Times preferred

Rank

Weeds

0

4

Cost of inputs

3

1

Lack of land

2

2

Lack of knowledge

1

3

Examples of questions to ask while facilitating

Tool 9 - Problem analysis chart

Relevance for extension and household resource management: The tool can be helpful for analysing the priority problems of different groups and identifying areas to be addressed by the community and extension services.

Use: Once the priority problems of all the different groups in a community are identified, the next step is to bring everyone together for further analysis. This chart facilitates the presentation and discussion of problems and opportunities with the community as a whole and also service providers where relevant. The list should be short enough to allow focus on the key issues. The list of problems can be shortened by bringing similar problems together, excluding problems for which there are no solutions, and where a problem has been identified several times, listing it only once.

Example

According to

Problem

Cause of problem

Coping mechanism
(how do we live with the problem?)

Gender implications

Possible solutions
(How can villagers solve the problem?)

Women






Men






Community-leader






Examples of questions to ask while facilitating:

Tool 10 - Community action plan

Relevance for extension and household resource management: This tool can help communities formulate concrete and realistic plans for implementing development activities and identify needs for extension services (and other services).

Use: The action plan builds on the problem analysis chart and discussions, and should focus on the development activities most likely to succeed.

Example

Priority problem

Solutions

Activities

Beneficiaries

Who will do it?

Costs Who/how

Duration/Start






















Examples of questions to ask while facilitating


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