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Activities: actions or tasks undertaken to achieve the outputs planned. (Unit 7)

Alternative: one of a number of possible solutions that could be used to reduce one, some, or all of the problems in achieving the result you want. (Unit 5)

Assets (financial, human, natural, physical, social): characteristics, possessions, or rights of access or use that help people to secure their livelihoods and react to unexpected events and setbacks. (Unit 5)

Artisanal fisheries: generally use relatively low levels of technology and investment both for fishing and for processing. The sector is also distinguished by its high levels of labour input, which is often recruited through family relationships. Still, there are large variations within and between countries, and there is no clear, universal definition of "artisanal". (Introduction)

Assumption: an event that must take place or a condition that must exist for a project to succeed, but over which the project management has little or no control. (Unit 8)


Baseline data: information that is collected at the start of the project. By collecting this information again during the project or at its end, you can measure a change, preferably due to the project interventions. (Unit 7)

Brainstorming session: a process whereby a group or individual proposes as many solutions as possible without judging whether they make sense or not, noting them down as they appear. Once they are all on paper, the ideas need to be scrutinised, assessed, combined or expanded until they become workable solutions. (Unit 6)

Budget: the total of cost required to complete an entire project, broken down by category of resources and by output. A periodic budget is one covering a part of the project period, usually one month for short projects and three to four months for longer projects. (Unit 7)


Cause-effect analysis: you determine the factors that lead to the existence of a certain problem (its causes), as well as the situations that the problem gives rise to (its effects). (Unit 5)

Constraint: an event, situation or condition that prevents a particular problem from being solved or a livelihood aim from being achieved. A constraint is beyond the control of the stakeholders. (Unit 5)


Duration: of an activity refers to the amount of time required to complete it if a person worked full time, e.g. four working days. (Unit 7)


Facilitator: a person who provides an environment that is conducive to group processes such as discussions and decision-making. Important qualities for a facilitator include good listening skills, respect for all and the ability to give constructive feedback and express empathy. A facilitator ensures that all participants feel free to speak by using methods that allow shy people to give their opinion and discourage dominant people from taking over the entire process. A facilitator ensures that the process is recorded, so that it is clear to everyone what decisions were taken, why they were taken, and what the next steps are. One or more group members may be asked to help in this task. (Introduction)

Feedback meeting: an opportunity to present preliminary or final results to landing site users, community leaders and other key people. This helps to make sure everyone is aware of recent activities and results. It is also a chance to correct any false information and add any information that is missing. (Unit 1)

Fishery: for the purpose of this manual, is a category of fishing operations (from financing and fishing to processing and trading) that shares certain characteristics and dynamics. For example, the fishers in a fishery all use similar gear, target the same fish species, and fish during the same period of the year. (Introduction)

Fisheries production chains: systematically following various activities related to fishing from beginning to end, from the preparation of fishing boats to the marketing of fish. An inventory is obtained by walking with landing site users as they go about their activities and along the way observing, asking questions, listening, discussing, identifying different zones and technologies, identifying problems, solutions and opportunities. All this is recorded and organized into a matrix. (Unit 3)

Fishing chain: focuses on the chain of activities constituting fishing, including the preparation of fishing boats, repairs and maintenance of equipment, replacement of equipment, crew recruitment, mobilization of capital (fuel, bait, ice, food and drinking-water); embarkation; fish capture; on-board fish conservation; debarkation; fish landing and selling to fish processors; income distribution and equipment storage. (Unit 3)

Fish marketing chain: focuses on the activities that occur from the time that the fish has been landed and sold to fish processors, right up to its sale to consumers. It constitutes fish handling, conservation and marketing, buying fish upon landing, lending money, buying ice and ice boxes; cleaning fish; transporting fish; conserving fish through smoking, drying, salting or deep freezing; fish storage; and marketing fresh and conserved fish to consumers in local, regional or international markets. (Unit 3)


Historical time line: refers to a list of key events in the history of a landing site that helps identify past, current and future trends, events, problems and achievements over time. (Unit 4)


Impact: Changes that the project may bring about or in the target group, either in terms of the purpose or the goal. (Unit 8)

Implementation schedule: a table that specifies when, and over what time period an activity will be implemented, thereby showing the sequence in which events should take place within a project’s total time frame. (Unit 7)

Indicators: concrete proof that you have achieved what you said you would. Indicators need to be precise, measurable and realistic. (Unit 7)

Institutional diagram: a practical tool that helps you to identify the organizations, leaders and other individuals or groups that influence the landing site. It also clarifies the interests of these individuals or groups and the possibilities for collaboration. This information will be extremely useful in the design and implementation of a landing site development plan. (Unit 2)

Intervention area: the geographical location (in this case the landing site and or nearby fishing communities) where a project will take place. (Unit 8)


Landing site: covers a certain physical area; the infrastructure in place; technical, financial and social services available; activities taking place and users deriving all or part of their livelihood from its activities. A landing site may range from a small settlement on a stretch of beach with hardly any infrastructure and facilities to larger artisanal fisheries areas that are part of bigger ports or harbours in or close to urban centres. (Introduction)

Landing site user: refers to people living and/or working at the landing site. These are people involved in fishing or fishing-related activities, such as boat owners, fishers, fish processors, fish traders, mechanics, food sellers and carpenters. For the purpose of this manual, the term "landing site user" does not include members of government, NGOs or other agencies, such as fisheries field staff, customs officers or harbour police. (Unit 1)

Livelihood: comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living. (Introduction)

Logical framework or logframe: a development tool that helps you to systematically think through the structure of your project and to consider how the tasks lead to certain activities and outputs, the project purpose and its goal, assumptions and risks, the specifying indicators and the means of verification. A logframe helps to summarize and communicate to others exactly what you are trying to do. (Unit 8)


Means of verification: an articulation of exactly which sources and methods internal or external evaluators should use to find proof of project results and indicators. (Unit 8)

Monitoring and evaluation - sometimes called M&E: refers to the systematic assessment of how well you have progressed towards the project goal or general objective. Evaluation events are periodic and ask fundamental questions about the overall progress and direction of the project. Project monitoring supports evaluation by providing information generated on a continuous basis. (Unit 7)


Opportunity: a current or future event, situation or condition that will help reduce or eliminate a particular problem. An opportunity is external to the control of the stakeholders. (Unit 5)

Optimal ignorance: means getting only the information that is really needed and no more. (Introduction)

Outputs: results or deliverables which you are planning to produce as a result of implementing the activities, and which will lead to the achievement of your project’s purpose or specific objective(s). (Unit 7)


Pair-wise ranking: a method of prioritizing options by comparing pairs of alternatives, adding up the number of times each is selected, and arranging them sequential order. (Unit 5)

Participation: the act of taking part in or having a share in an activity or event. (Introduction)

Participatory landing site census: a tool that helps count the number of people using a landing site, the distribution of landing site users among user groups and the number and type of fishing and processing units. It uses a participatory approach involving landing site users and representatives. (Unit 2)

Participatory mapping: a way to guide landing site users to draw maps reflecting available resources, land use planning and social structure. The aim is to encourage landing site users to think systematically about their problems and possible solutions, and to help external facilitators to understand those problems and to analyse options for addressing them. (Unit 2)

Partner analysis: the systematic assessment of stakeholders, community organizations, government bodies, NGOs and other development organizations which are likely to be interested in contributing to the implementation of a particular project. (Unit 6)

Performance questions: queries that help you define the monitoring and evaluation plan. They are based on the outputs of a project and on the four objectives of monitoring and evaluation: evaluating and monitoring, implementation, learning, and impact measurement. (Unit 7)

Problem tree: a systematic analysis of the interrelations between problems, represented in a drawing or schema. As each problem gives rise to other problems, the drawing branches out, so that the result looks like a tree. (Unit 5) Note: for the purpose of this manual, problems are defined very specifically as things that prevent you from attaining the results that you wish to achieve. This means that difficulties not related to the results you wish to achieve will not be considered from this point on. (Unit 5)

Project financing: the specification of the partners and stakeholders and the amount of money each contributes to the project. The sum of these contributions adds up to the total project budget or cost. (Unit 8)

Project goal or general objective: a wider development purpose to which a project aims to contribute but will not be achieved by the project alone. It is the result of the change in behaviour brought about by a whole series of projects and programmes. (Unit 8)

Project proposal: describes and summarizes the entire project in detail. This document, required by most agencies, helps funding agencies to assess the proposal and take a responsible funding decision. At the same time such a document serves as a guide for project implementation. Apart from background information on the proposed project, it stipulates what the project intends to achieve and how it will be done. It also sets a time frame for activities and stipulates how to check whether you are on the right track and how to know whether you have achieved your objectives. (Unit 8)

Project purpose or specific objective: the ultimate change in behaviour and conditions that you seek to achieve by implementing a project. The project purpose is the result of the sum of the various project outputs. (Unit 8)


Ranking by voting or buying: a way to prioritize alternatives by voting. In the case of buying, every participant receives three to five stones (or other tokens) to "buy" the alternatives they prefer. (Unit 5)

Resources: any type of inputs required to implement a project. (Unit 7)

Risk: refers to the possibility that an assumption will not hold. (Unit 8)


Seasonal calendar: refers to a matrix attempting to establish regular cycles or patterns of activities at a landing site over a 12-month period. (Unit 4)

Situation analysis: an analysis of stakeholders, problems, strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities, in order to get a comprehensive understanding of the current state of affairs at the selected landing site. (Unit 5)

Social characteristics describe stakeholders according to criteria such as gender, age, ethnic background, religion, roles played in the community, employment or level of income. (Unit 5)

Stakeholder: a person, a group of people, or an organization that has the ability to directly or indirectly affect the success of a project and that has an interest in the project’s outcome. Stakeholders include landing site users as well as members of government or other agencies. (Unit 2)

Stakeholder analysis: consists of examining the underlying needs of stakeholders with respect to a particular problem, their influence with respect to a particular solution, and their power to aid or prevent the solution from being achieved. (Unit 6)

Strategy: a way to resolve a particular problem, with a specification of the details of how you will achieve that goal. It is based on the process of assessing the pros and cons of various alternatives and choosing one or a limited number of them that will best serve you. (Unit 6)

Strengths: the characteristics and assets that people possess or have access to in order to overcome difficulties or to help them achieve their livelihood aims. (Unit 5)

Support to people chain: focuses on the support system available with regard to personal care of people working or visiting the landing site. Facilities may include transport; shelter; food and drinking-water; sanitation, waste disposal, communication facilities and security. (Unit 3)


Target population: the specific landing site user groups whose livelihoods are to be improved as a result of the project’s implementation. (Unit 8)

Tasks: the smallest unit in the planning of a project, consisting of things that need to be done to implement an activity. (Unit 7)

Technical adviser: the person expected to structure and monitor the participatory development process. A technical adviser points out when outside expertise may be required, where to find that expertise or how to go about finding it. A technical adviser records the results of the participatory development process and turns them into project proposals. (Introduction)

Threats: possible future events, situations, or conditions beyond the control of stakeholders, which could undermine or destroy the achievements, aims and livelihood outcomes that stakeholders are working to achieve. (Unit 5)

Time period: refers to the stretch of time over which an activity is implemented. This will tend to be longer than the duration; an activity may be completed over a two-week period but require only four working days of time within that period. (Unit 7)

Triangulation: refers to a way of examining issues and information from more than one perspective. By considering the views of all major stakeholders involved in landing site operations your analysis will be more complete and widely shared. This facilitates the implementation of the resulting proposal and increases its chance of success because the stakeholders understand and support the project. (Introduction)


Weaknesses: refer to certain characteristics in people, such as having few or no assets, which make it more complicated or impossible to achieve their livelihood aims. (Unit 5)

Working group: the body in charge of landing site development planning. It consists of representatives from the many groups that influence the functioning of a landing site. It may include people from landing site user groups, development agencies, NGOs, government agencies, related projects, religious groups and others. It can also include fisheries field staff, customs officers or harbour police. (Unit 1)

Work plan: a table of activities in which you specify the time, date and tools you are going to use in the planning process. It will give a clear idea of what is going to happen to all those involved, including the working group, the landing site users and yourself. It also indicates when an input is needed from a certain group of people and when the planning process should finish. (Unit 1)

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