Other international agreements, although they do not explicitly mention indigenous and local knowledge, certainly support the notion that countries are under a growing obligation to introduce policies to deal with indigenous and local knowledge. For example, the International Covenant on Social and Cultural Rights (ICESR) includes the right to the development and diffusion of science and culture. It further obliges signatories to provide measures for the enjoyment of the cultural heritage of indigenous peoples.
The International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (ILO 169) states that member states should promote 'the full realization of social, economic and cultural rights [of indigenous and tribal peoples] with respect to their social and cultural identity, their customs and traditions, and their institutions.' While neither of these instruments creates an explicit obligation, for nation states to implement means of vesting exclusive forms of protection rights in traditional knowledge holders, it could be argued that they support this kind of legislative measure.