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Convention on Biological Diversity:

World Bank Web site on indigenous knowledge:

The 1991 Act of the Union pour la Protection des Variétés Végétales (UPOV):

ITPGRFA or International Seed Treaty:

The African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources:

Web site for the International Covenant on Social and Cultural Rights (ICESR):

Web site for the Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (ILO 169)

The Trade Related Intellectual Property Agreement:

Additional background papers

GRAIN. 2003. Good ideas turned bad? A glossary of right-related terminology (available at

Traditional knowledge and patentability, IISD Trade and Development Brief, No. 7, International Institute for Sustainable Development.

Briggs, J., Roe, A. & Sharp, J. 2002. De-romanticizing indigenous knowledge: challenges from Egypt. In Indigenous environmental knowledge and sustainable development in semi-arid Africa. Briggs, J., Roe, A. & Sharp, J. University of Glasgow. Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Hansen, S., Van Fleet, J./American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2003. Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property: A Handbook on Issues and Options for Traditional Knowledge Holders in Protecting their Intellectual Property and Maintaining Biological Diversity.

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