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Tables

Table 1. PREVALENCE OF UNDERNOURISHMENT in developing countries and countries in transition

DEVELOPING WORLD

Region/subregion/country

[undernourishment category]

Total population

Number of people undernourished

Proportion of undernourished in total population

1990-1992

1995-1997

2000-2002

1990-1992

1995-1997

2000-2002

1990-1992

1995-1997

2000-2002

millions

millions

%

DEVELOPING WORLD

4058.7

4431.1

4796.7

823.8

796.7

814.6

20

18

17

 

ASIA AND THE PACIFIC*

2815.2

3039.5

3256.1

569.2

509.5

519.0

20

17

16

East Asia

1241.5

1307.2

1364.5

198.8

155.1

151.7

16

12

11

China [3]

1175.7

1237.8

1292.5

193.5

145.6

142.1

16

12

11

Dem. People's Rep. of Korea [5]

20.3

21.6

22.4

3.7

7.6

8.1

18

35

36

Mongolia [4]

2.3

2.4

2.5

0.8

1.1

0.7

34

46

28

Rep. of Korea [1]

43.3

45.4

47.1

0.8

0.8

0.7

--

--

--

Southeast Asia

444.2

484.7

522.8

78.4

66.3

65.5

18

14

13

Cambodia [4]

10.1

11.8

13.5

4.3

5.2

4.4

43

44

33

Indonesia [3]

185.2

200.1

214.3

16.4

11.2

12.6

9

6

6

Lao People's Dem. Rep. [4]

4.2

4.8

5.4

1.2

1.3

1.2

29

28

22

Malaysia [1]

18.3

20.9

23.5

0.5

0.5

0.6

3

--

--

Myanmar [3]

41.2

44.8

48.2

4.0

3.2

2.8

10

7

6

Philippines [4]

62.5

69.9

77.1

16.2

16.3

17.2

26

23

22

Thailand [4]

55.1

58.5

61.6

15.2

12.0

12.2

28

20

20

Viet Nam [3]

67.5

74.0

79.2

20.6

16.7

14.7

31

23

19

South Asia

1125.3

1242.7

1363.3

291.3

287.3

301.1

26

23

22

Bangladesh [4]

112.1

126.3

140.9

39.2

50.4

42.5

35

40

30

India [4]

863.3

948.6

1033.3

215.8

203.0

221.1

25

21

21

Nepal [3]

19.1

21.4

24.1

3.9

5.6

4.0

20

26

17

Pakistan [4]

113.7

128.4

146.3

27.7

23.8

29.3

24

19

20

Sri Lanka [4]

17.0

17.9

18.8

4.8

4.6

4.1

28

26

22

 

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

443.4

482.5

521.2

59.5

54.8

52.9

13

11

10

North America

84.8

92.7

100.5

4.6

5.0

5.2

5

5

5

Mexico [3]

84.8

92.7

100.5

4.6

5.0

5.2

5

5

5

Central America

28.8

32.7

36.9

5.0

6.5

7.4

17

20

20

Costa Rica [2]

3.2

3.6

4.0

0.2

0.2

0.2

6

5

4

El Salvador [3]

5.2

5.8

6.3

0.6

0.8

0.7

12

14

11

Guatemala [4]

9.0

10.3

11.7

1.4

2.2

2.8

16

21

24

Honduras [4]

5.0

5.8

6.6

1.1

1.2

1.5

23

21

22

Nicaragua [4]

3.9

4.6

5.2

1.2

1.5

1.4

30

33

27

Panama [4]

2.5

2.7

3.0

0.5

0.6

0.8

21

23

26

The Caribbean

28.5

30.2

31.7

7.8

8.9

6.7

27

30

21

Cuba [2]

10.7

11.0

11.2

0.8

1.9

0.4

8

18

3

Dominican Rep. [4]

7.2

7.8

8.5

1.9

2.0

2.1

27

26

25

Haiti [5]

7.0

7.6

8.1

4.6

4.5

3.8

65

59

47

Jamaica [3]

2.4

2.5

2.6

0.3

0.3

0.3

14

11

10

Trinidad and Tobago [3]

1.2

1.3

1.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

13

15

12

South America

301.3

327.0

352.2

42.0

34.4

33.6

14

11

10

Argentina [1]

33.0

35.2

37.5

0.7

0.4

0.6

--

--

--

Bolivia [4]

6.8

7.6

8.5

1.9

1.9

1.8

28

25

21

Brazil [3]

151.2

162.8

174.0

18.5

16.5

15.6

12

10

9

Chile [2]

13.3

14.4

15.4

1.1

0.7

0.6

8

5

4

Colombia [3]

35.7

39.3

42.8

6.1

5.1

5.7

17

13

13

Ecuador [2]

10.5

11.6

12.6

0.9

0.6

0.6

8

5

4

Guyana [3]

0.7

0.7

0.8

0.2

0.1

0.1

21

12

9

Paraguay [3]

4.3

5.0

5.6

0.8

0.7

0.8

18

13

14

Peru [3]

22.2

24.3

26.4

9.3

4.6

3.4

42

19

13

Suriname [3]

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.1

0.0

0.0

13

10

11

Uruguay [2]

3.1

3.2

3.4

0.2

0.1

0.1

6

4

4

Venezuela [3]

20.0

22.4

24.8

2.3

3.5

4.3

11

16

17

 

NEAR EAST AND NORTH AFRICA*

322.8

362.6

399.4

24.8

34.9

39.2

8

10

10

Near East*

202.5

230.2

255.0

19.4

29.2

33.1

10

13

13

Iran, Islamic Rep. of [2]

58.0

63.3

67.3

2.1

2.1

2.7

4

3

4

Jordan [3]

3.4

4.4

5.2

0.1

0.3

0.4

4

7

7

Kuwait [3]

2.1

1.8

2.3

0.5

0.1

0.1

23

5

5

Lebanon [2]

2.8

3.2

3.5

0.1

0.1

0.1

--

3

3

Saudi Arabia [2]

17.1

19.5

22.8

0.7

0.8

0.8

4

4

3

Syrian Arab Rep. [2]

13.1

15.0

17.0

0.7

0.6

0.6

5

4

4

Turkey [2]

58.7

64.1

69.3

1.0

1.5

1.8

--

--

3

United Arab Emirates [1]

2.1

2.6

2.9

0.1

0.1

0.1

4

--

--

Yemen [5]

12.5

15.7

18.7

4.2

5.7

6.7

34

36

36

North Africa

120.4

132.4

144.4

5.4

5.7

6.1

4

4

4

Algeria [3]

25.6

28.4

30.8

1.3

1.7

1.7

5

6

5

Egypt [2]

57.0

62.8

69.1

2.5

2.2

2.4

4

3

3

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya [1]

4.4

4.8

5.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

--

--

--

Morocco [3]

25.0

27.3

29.6

1.5

1.7

2.0

6

6

7

Tunisia [1]

8.4

9.1

9.6

0.1

0.1

0.1

--

--

--

 

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA*

477.3

546.4

620.0

170.4

197.4

203.5

36

36

33

Central Africa

63.4

73.6

82.0

22.7

38.8

45.2

36

53

55

Cameroon [4]

12.0

13.8

15.4

4.0

4.6

3.9

33

33

25

Central African Rep. [5]

3.0

3.4

3.8

1.5

1.7

1.6

50

51

43

Chad [4]

6.0

6.9

8.1

3.5

3.4

2.7

58

49

34

Congo [5]

2.6

3.0

3.5

1.4

1.8

1.3

54

59

37

Dem. Rep. of the Congo [5]

38.8

45.3

49.9

12.2

27.2

35.5

32

60

71

Gabon [3]

1.0

1.1

1.3

0.1

0.1

0.1

10

8

6

East Africa*

167.8

190.8

217.7

76.4

88.7

86.2

46

46

40

Burundi [5]

5.7

6.1

6.4

2.7

3.8

4.4

48

63

68

Eritrea [5]**

na

3.3

3.9

na

2.2

2.8

na

68

73

Ethiopia [5]**

na

59.0

67.3

na

35.8

31.3

na

61

46

Kenya [4]

24.4

28.1

31.1

10.7

10.8

10.3

44

38

33

Rwanda [5]

6.4

5.5

8.0

2.8

2.8

3.0

44

52

37

Sudan [4]

25.5

28.7

32.2

8.0

6.6

8.5

32

23

27

Uganda [3]

17.9

20.9

24.2

4.2

5.4

4.6

24

26

19

United Rep. of Tanzania [5]

27.0

31.7

35.6

9.9

15.8

15.6

37

50

44

Southern Africa

71.0

80.6

90.1

34.1

36.5

35.7

48

45

40

Angola [5]

9.6

11.2

12.8

5.6

5.4

5.1

58

49

40

Botswana [4]

1.4

1.6

1.7

0.3

0.4

0.6

23

27

32

Lesotho [3]

1.6

1.7

1.8

0.3

0.2

0.2

17

14

12

Madagascar [5]

12.3

14.2

16.4

4.3

5.7

6.0

35

40

37

Malawi [4]

9.6

10.3

11.6

4.8

4.1

3.8

50

40

33

Mauritius [3]

1.1

1.1

1.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

6

6

6

Mozambique [5]

13.9

16.4

18.2

9.2

9.5

8.5

66

58

47

Namibia [4]

1.5

1.7

1.9

0.5

0.6

0.4

35

36

22

Swaziland [3]

0.9

1.0

1.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

14

23

19

Zambia [5]

8.4

9.6

10.6

4.0

4.6

5.2

48

48

49

Zimbabwe [5]

10.7

11.9

12.7

4.9

5.6

5.6

45

47

44

West Africa

175.1

201.4

230.3

37.2

33.5

36.4

21

17

16

Benin [3]

4.8

5.6

6.4

1.0

0.9

0.9

20

17

15

Burkina Faso [3]

9.2

10.6

12.3

1.9

2.0

2.3

21

19

19

Côte d'Ivoire [3]

12.9

14.7

16.1

2.3

2.3

2.2

18

16

14

Gambia [4]

1.0

1.2

1.4

0.2

0.4

0.4

22

31

27

Ghana [3]

15.7

17.9

20.0

5.8

3.2

2.5

37

18

13

Guinea [4]

6.4

7.5

8.2

2.5

2.3

2.1

39

31

26

Liberia [5]

2.1

2.3

3.1

0.7

1.0

1.4

34

42

46

Mali [4]

9.3

10.6

12.3

2.7

3.4

3.6

29

32

29

Mauritania [3]

2.1

2.4

2.7

0.3

0.3

0.3

15

11

10

Niger [4]

7.9

9.4

11.1

3.2

3.9

3.8

41

42

34

Nigeria [3]

88.7

102.7

117.8

11.8

8.9

11.0

13

9

9

Senegal [4]

7.5

8.5

9.6

1.8

2.2

2.3

23

25

24

Sierra Leone [5]

4.1

4.1

4.6

1.9

1.8

2.3

46

44

50

Togo [4]

3.5

4.0

4.7

1.2

1.0

1.2

33

25

26

COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION

Region/subregion/country

[undernourishment category]

Total population

Number of people undernourished

Proportion of undernourished in total population

1993-1995

2000-2002

1993-1995

2000-2002

1993-1995

2000-2002

millions

millions

%

COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION

413.6

409.8

23.3

28.3

6

7

Commonwealth of Independent States

284.5

281.7

19.0

24.1

7

9

Armenia [4]

3.4

3.1

1.8

1.1

52

34

Azerbaijan [3]

7.7

8.2

2.6

1.2

34

15

Belarus [1]

10.3

10.0

0.1

0.2

--

--

Georgia [4]

5.4

5.2

2.1

1.4

39

27

Kazakhstan [3]

16.7

15.5

0.2

2.0

--

13

Kyrgyzstan [3]

4.5

5.0

0.9

0.3

21

6

Rep. of Moldova [3]

4.4

4.3

0.2

0.5

5

11

Russian Fed. [2]

148.4

144.9

6.4

5.2

4

4

Tajikistan [5]

5.7

6.1

1.2

3.7

21

61

Turkmenistan [3]

4.1

4.7

0.5

0.4

13

9

Ukraine [2]

51.7

49.3

1.2

1.5

--

3

Uzbekistan [4]

22.3

25.3

1.7

6.6

8

26

Baltic States

7.6

7.2

0.4

0.2

5

2

Estonia [3]

1.5

1.4

0.1

0.1

9

5

Latvia [2]

2.5

2.4

0.1

0.1

3

4

Lithuania [1]

3.6

3.5

0.2

0.0

4

--

Eastern Europe

121.4

120.9

3.9

4.0

3

3

Albania [3]

3.2

3.1

0.2

0.2

5

6

Bosnia and Herzegovina [3]

3.6

4.1

0.3

0.3

9

8

Bulgaria [3]

8.5

8.0

0.7

0.8

8

11

Croatia [3]

4.5

4.4

0.7

0.3

16

7

Czech Rep. [1]

10.3

10.3

0.2

0.2

--

--

Hungary [1]

10.2

10.0

0.1

0.0

--

--

TFYR Macedonia [3]

2.0

2.0

0.3

0.2

15

11

Poland [1]

38.5

38.6

0.3

0.3

--

--

Romania [1]

22.8

22.4

0.4

0.2

--

--

Serbia and Montenegro [3]

10.5

10.5

0.5

1.1

5

11

Slovakia [3]

5.3

5.4

0.2

0.3

4

5

Slovenia [1]

2.0

2.0

0.1

0.0

3

--

For notes on Table 1, please see page 39.

Table 2. FOOD AVAILABILITY, DIET DIVERSIFICATION, CHILD MORTALITY, CHILD NUTRITIONAL STATUS, EDUCATION AND URBANIZATION in developing countries, classified by category of prevalence of undernourishment

CATEGORY OF PREVALENCE OF UNDERNOURISHMENT
in total population 2000-2002
Country

Food availability
Dietary energy supply (DES)

Diet diversification
Share of non-starchy food in total DES

Child mortality
Under-five mortality rate

Child nutritional status
Under-five underweight

Education
Literacy rate

Urbanization
Urban share in total population

1990-1992

2000-2002

1979-1981

2000-2002

1990

2002

1990

2000

1990

2003

1990

2000

kcal/day/person

%

per 1000 live births

%

%

%

LESS THAN 2.5% UNDERNOURISHED

Argentina

2990

3070

67

65

28

19

2

5

98

99

87

89

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

3280

3320

54

51

42

19

na

5

91

97

80

85

Malaysia

2820

2890

48

53

21

8

25

20

95

98

50

62

Rep. of Korea

3000

3060

32

51

9

5

na

na

100

100

74

80

Tunisia

3150

3270

42

47

52

26

10

4

84

95

58

63

United Arab Emirates

2930

3200

70

62

14

9

na

na

85

92

83

85

2.5 TO 4% UNDERNOURISHED

Chile

2610

2850

51

56

19

12

2

1

98

99

83

86

Costa Rica

2710

2860

62

65

17

11

3

na

97

99

54

59

Cuba

2720

3000

58

63

13

9

na

4

99

100

74

75

Ecuador

2510

2740

65

66

57

29

17

14

96

98

55

60

Egypt

3200

3340

36

35

104

39

10

11

61

72

43

42

Iran, Islamic Rep. of

2980

3070

39

38

72

41

na

11

86

95

56

64

Lebanon

3160

3160

58

62

37

32

na

3

92

96

83

87

Saudi Arabia

2770

2840

52

50

44

28

na

na

85

94

78

86

Syrian Arab Rep.

2830

3040

51

54

44

28

12

7

80

89

49

50

Turkey

3490

3360

45

47

78

41

10

8

93

97

59

65

Uruguay

2660

2830

62

59

24

15

4

na

99

99

89

92

5 TO 19% UNDERNOURISHED

Algeria

2920

2990

41

41

69

49

9

6

77

91

51

57

Benin

2340

2520

30

27

185

156

na

23

40

57

34

42

Brazil

2810

3010

57

66

60

37

7

6

92

96

75

81

Burkina Faso

2350

2410

26

25

210

207

33

34

25

38

14

17

China

2710

2960

20

42

49

38

17

10

95

98

27

36

Colombia

2440

2580

59

59

36

23

10

7

95

97

69

75

Côte d'Ivoire

2470

2620

34

35

157

191

12

21

53

64

40

44

El Salvador

2490

2550

44

48

60

39

15

10

84

89

49

58

Gabon

2450

2610

58

51

92

91

na

12

na

na

68

81

Ghana

2080

2620

35

28

125

97

30

25

82

93

36

44

Guyana

2350

2710

50

50

90

72

18

14

100

100

33

36

Indonesia

2700

2910

25

30

91

43

38

25

95

98

31

42

Jamaica

2500

2670

58

60

20

20

7

4

91

95

51

52

Jordan

2820

2670

48

48

43

33

6

4

97

100

72

79

Kuwait

2370

3050

62

58

16

10

11

2

88

93

95

96

Lesotho

2450

2620

26

19

120

87

16

18

87

91

17

18

Mauritania

2560

2780

50

49

183

183

48

32

46

50

44

58

Mauritius

2890

2960

49

53

25

19

24

15

91

95

41

43

Mexico

3100

3160

52

53

46

29

14

8

95

97

72

75

Morocco

3030

3040

35

36

85

43

10

9

55

71

48

55

Myanmar

2630

2880

20

27

130

108

32

35

88

92

25

28

Nepal

2350

2440

19

23

145

87

na

48

47

64

9

14

Nigeria

2540

2700

45

35

235

201

35

31

74

89

35

44

Paraguay

2400

2560

56

59

37

30

4

na

96

97

49

55

Peru

1960

2550

46

46

80

39

11

7

95

97

69

73

Suriname

2530

2630

52

56

48

40

na

13

na

na

65

74

Swaziland

2460

2360

45

53

110

149

na

10

85

92

23

23

Trinidad and Tobago

2640

2730

59

62

24

20

7

6

100

100

69

74

Uganda

2270

2360

52

55

160

141

23

23

70

81

11

12

Venezuela

2460

2350

63

60

27

22

8

4

96

98

84

87

Viet Nam

2180

2530

16

28

53

26

41

34

94

96

20

24

20 TO 34% UNDERNOURISHED

Bangladesh

2070

2190

15

16

144

73

66

48

42

50

20

23

Bolivia

2110

2250

52

50

120

71

11

8

93

97

56

62

Botswana

2260

2160

45

51

58

110

na

13

83

90

42

50

Cambodia

1870

2060

12

22

115

138

na

45

74

81

13

17

Cameroon

2110

2260

45

43

139

166

15

23

81

92

40

49

Chad

1780

2150

34

42

203

200

na

28

48

71

21

24

Dominican Rep.

2260

2320

65

67

65

38

10

5

88

92

55

58

Gambia

2370

2270

36

47

154

126

na

17

42

62

25

26

Guatemala

2350

2190

40

48

82

49

33

24

73

81

41

45

Guinea

2110

2380

40

40

240

165

24

23

na

na

25

33

Honduras

2310

2350

46

54

59

42

18

17

80

86

40

44

India

2370

2420

32

39

123

90

56

47

64

75

26

28

Kenya

1920

2110

36

46

97

122

23

21

90

96

25

36

Lao People's Dem. Rep.

2110

2290

14

23

163

100

44

40

70

80

15

19

Malawi

1880

2150

29

24

241

182

28

25

63

73

12

15

Mali

2220

2200

30

28

250

222

31

33

28

39

24

30

Mongolia

2070

2240

52

53

104

71

12

13

99

99

57

57

Namibia

2060

2270

42

40

84

67

26

na

87

93

27

31

Nicaragua

2220

2280

52

49

68

41

11

10

68

73

53

56

Niger

2020

2130

28

26

320

264

43

40

17

25

16

21

Pakistan

2300

2430

42

47

130

104

40

38

47

60

31

33

Panama

2320

2240

61

61

34

25

na

8

95

97

54

56

Philippines

2260

2380

41

44

63

37

34

32

97

99

49

59

Senegal

2280

2280

34

39

148

138

22

23

40

54

40

47

Sri Lanka

2230

2390

42

45

23

19

37

33

95

97

21

21

Sudan

2160

2260

50

47

120

94

34

41

65

80

27

36

Thailand

2250

2450

33

50

40

28

25

18

98

99

29

31

Togo

2150

2300

22

23

152

141

25

25

64

78

29

33

35% OR MORE UNDERNOURISHED

Angola

1780

2040

40

32

260

260

na

31

na

na

26

33

Burundi

1900

1640

56

48

190

190

38

45

52

67

6

9

Central African Rep.

1870

1980

34

43

180

180

27

24

52

71

37

41

Congo

1860

2090

34

37

110

108

24

na

93

98

48

52

Dem. People's Rep. of Korea

2450

2140

34

36

55

55

na

28

na

na

58

60

Dem. Rep. of the Congo

2170

1630

28

24

205

205

na

31

69

85

28

30

Eritrea

na

1520

na

25

147

89

41

40

61

73

16

19

Ethiopia

na

1840

na

20

204

171

46

47

43

59

13

15

Haiti

1780

2080

49

45

150

123

27

17

55

67

29

36

Liberia

2210

1990

27

36

235

235

na

27

57

72

42

45

Madagascar

2080

2060

27

23

168

135

41

40

72

82

24

26

Mozambique

1740

2030

25

25

240

205

na

26

49

64

21

32

Rwanda

1950

2050

50

44

173

203

29

24

73

86

5

14

Sierra Leone

1990

1930

40

36

302

284

29

27

na

na

30

37

United Rep. of Tanzania

2050

1960

31

29

163

165

29

29

83

92

22

32

Yemen

2040

2040

34

34

142

114

30

46

50

69

21

25

Zambia

1930

1900

23

23

180

182

21

28

81

90

39

35

Zimbabwe

1970

2020

34

44

80

123

12

13

94

98

29

34

Notes to Table 1

Countries revise their official statistics regularly for the past as well as the present. The same holds for population data of the UN. Whenever this happens, FAO revises its estimates of undernourishment accordingly. Therefore users are advised to refer to changes of estimates over time only within the same SOFI publication and refrain from comparing data published in editions for different years.

Figures following country name refer to the prevalence categories (proportion of the population undernourished in 2000-2002):

[1] < 2.5% undernourished

[2] 2.5-4% undernourished

[3] 5-19% undernourished

[4] 20-34% undernourished

[5] 35% undernourished

Table does not list countries for which there were insufficient data.

* Although not listed separately, provisional estimates for Afghanistan, Iraq, Papua New Guinea and Somalia have been included in the relevant regional aggregates.

** Eritrea and Ethiopia were not separate entities in 1990-1992 but estimates of the number and proportion of undernourished in the former Ethiopia PDR are included in regional and subregional aggregates for that period.

Key

--

proportion less than 2.5% undernourished

na

data not available

0.0

zero or less than half the unit shown

Sources

Total population: UN Population Prospects, 2002 revision Undernourishment: FAO estimates

Notes to Table 2

Non-starchy food: all food sources for DES, except cereals and roots and tubers.

Under-five mortality rate: probability that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. The probability is expressed as a rate per 1000 live births.

Under-five underweight: proportion of children under the age of five whose weight falls below the mean weight-for-age by two standard deviations or more. Dates of the surveys vary. For each country, data were included for the year closest to 1990 from the decade 1985-1994 and for the most recent year from the decade 1995-2004.

Literacy rate: The percentage of persons aged between 15 and 24 who can, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on everyday life.

Urbanization: Percentage of population at mid-year residing in urban areas.

Key

na data not available

Sources

Category of undernourishment, food availability and diet diversification: FAO Child mortality: UNICEF

Child nutritional status: WHO

Education: UNESCO

Urbanization: UN Population Division: UN Population Prospects, 2003 revision

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