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INTRODUCTION

SCOPE

This standard provides guidelines for conducting pest risk analysis (PRA) for regulated non-quarantine pests (RNQPs). It describes the integrated processes to be used for risk assessment and the selection of risk management options to achieve a pest tolerance level.

REFERENCES

Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, 1994. World Trade Organization, Geneva.

Glossary of phytosanitary terms, 2004. ISPM No. 5, FAO, Rome.

Glossary supplement No. 1: Guidelines on the interpretation and application of the concept of official control for regulated pests, 2002. ISPM No. 5, FAO, Rome.

Glossary supplement No. 2: Guidelines on the interpretation and application of potential economic importance and related terms including reference to environmental considerations, 2003. ISPM No. 5, FAO, Rome.

Guidelines for pest risk analysis, 1996. ISPM No. 2, FAO, Rome.

Guidelines for surveillance, 1997. ISPM No. 6, FAO, Rome.

International Plant Protection Convention, 1997. FAO, Rome.

Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests, including analysis of environmental risks and living modified organisms, 2004. ISPM No. 11, FAO, Rome.

Principles of plant quarantine as related to international trade, 1995. ISPM No. 1, FAO, Rome.

Regulated non-quarantine pests: concept and application, 2002. ISPM No. 16, FAO, Rome.

Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas, 1996. ISPM No. 4, FAO, Rome.

Requirements for the establishment of pest free places of production and pest free production sites, 1999. ISPM No. 10, FAO, Rome.

The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management, 2002. ISPM No. 14, FAO, Rome.

DEFINITIONS[1]

area

An officially defined country, part of a country or all or parts of several countries [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; CEPM, 1999; based on the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures]

area of low pest prevalence

An area, whether all of a country, part of a country, or all or parts of several countries, as identified by the competent authorities, in which a specific pest occurs at low levels and which is subject to effective surveillance, control or eradication measures [IPPC, 1997]

consignment

A quantity of plants, plant products and/or other articles being moved from one country to another and covered, when required, by a single phytosanitary certificate (a consignment may be composed of one or more commodities or lots) [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

host range

Species of plants capable, under natural conditions, of sustaining a specific pest [FAO, 1990]

infestation (of a commodity)

Presence in a commodity of a living pest of the plant or plant product concerned. Infestation includes infection [CEPM, 1997; revised CEPM, 1999]

intended use

Declared purpose for which plants, plant products, or other regulated articles are imported, produced or used [ISPM No. 16, 2002]

IPPC

The International Plant Protection Convention, as deposited in 1951 with FAO in Rome and as subsequently amended [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

monitoring survey

Ongoing survey to verify the characteristics of a pest population [FAO, 1995]

National Plant Protection Organization

Official service established by a government to discharge the functions specified by the IPPC [FAO, 1990; formerly Plant Protection Organization (National)]

non-quarantine pest

Pest that is not a quarantine pest for an area [FAO, 1995]

NPPO

National Plant Protection Organization [FAO, 1990; ICPM, 2001]

official

Established, authorized or performed by a National Plant Protection Organization [FAO, 1990]

official control

The active enforcement of mandatory phytosanitary regulations and the application of mandatory phytosanitary procedures with the objective of eradication or containment of quarantine pests or for the management of regulated non-quarantine pests (see Glossary Supplement No. 1) [ICPM, 2001]

pathway

Any means that allows the entry or spread of a pest [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995]

pest

Any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; IPPC, 1997]

pest categorization

The process for determining whether a pest has or has not the characteristics of a quarantine pest or those of a regulated non-quarantine pest [ISPM No. 11, 2001]

pest free place of production

Place of production in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained for a defined period [ISPM No. 10, 1999]

pest free production site

A defined portion of a place of production in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained for a defined period and that is managed as a separate unit in the same way as a pest free place of production [ISPM No. 10, 1999]

Pest Risk Analysis

The process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic evidence to determine whether a pest should be regulated and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to be taken against it [FAO, 1995; revised IPPC, 1997]

pest status (in an area)

Presence or absence, at the present time, of a pest in an area, including where appropriate its distribution, as officially determined using expert judgement on the basis of current and historical pest records and other information [CEPM, 1997; revised ICPM, 1998]

phytosanitary measure (agreed interpretation)

Any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests [FAO, 1995; revised IPPC, 1997; ICPM, 2002]

The agreed interpretation of the term phytosanitary measure accounts for the relationship of phytosanitary measures to regulated non-quarantine pests. This relationship is not adequately reflected in the definition found in Article II of the IPPC (1997).

phytosanitary regulation

Official rule to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests, including establishment of procedures for phytosanitary certification [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; CEPM, 1999; ICPM, 2001]

planting (including replanting)

Any operation for the placing of plants in a growing medium, or by grafting or similar operations, to ensure their subsequent growth, reproduction or propagation [FAO, 1990; revised CEPM, 1999]

plants

Living plants and parts thereof, including seeds and germplasm [FAO, 1990; revised IPPC, 1997]

plants for planting

Plants intended to remain planted, to be planted or replanted [FAO, 1990]

PRA

Pest Risk Analysis [FAO, 1995; revised ICPM, 2001]

PRA area

Area in relation to which a Pest Risk Analysis is conducted [FAO, 1995]

quarantine pest

A pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; IPPC, 1997]

Regional Plant Protection Organization

An intergovernmental organization with the functions laid down by Article IX of the IPPC [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; CEPM, 1999; formerly plant protection organization (regional)]

regulated non-quarantine pest

A non-quarantine pest whose presence in plants for planting affects the intended use of those plants with an economically unacceptable impact and which is therefore regulated within the territory of the importing contracting party [IPPC, 1997]

regulated pest

A quarantine pest or a regulated non-quarantine pest [IPPC, 1997]

RNQP

Regulated non-quarantine pest [ISPM No. 16, 2002]

RPPO

Regional Plant Protection Organization [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

suppression

The application of phytosanitary measures in an infested area to reduce pest populations [FAO, 1995; revised CEPM, 1999]

technically justified

Justified on the basis of conclusions reached by using an appropriate pest risk analysis or, where applicable, another comparable examination and evaluation of available scientific information [IPPC, 1997]

OUTLINE OF REQUIREMENTS

The objectives of a pest risk analysis (PRA) for regulated non-quarantine pests (RNQPs) are, for a specified PRA area, to identify pests associated with plants for planting, to evaluate their risk and, if appropriate, to identify risk management options to achieve a tolerance level. PRA for RNQPs follows a process defined by three stages:

Stage 1 (initiating the process) involves identifying the pest(s) associated with the plants for planting that are not quarantine pests but which may be of regulatory concern and that should be considered for risk analysis in relation to the identified PRA area.

Stage 2 (risk assessment) begins with the categorization of individual pests associated with the plants for planting and their intended use to determine whether the criteria for an RNQP are satisfied. Risk assessment continues with an analysis to determine if the plants for planting are the main source of the pest infestation and if the economic impact(s) of the pest on the intended use of those plants for planting are unacceptable.

Stage 3 (risk management) involves identifying a pest tolerance level to avoid the unacceptable economic impact(s) identified at stage 2 and management options to achieve that tolerance.


[1] The references listed in brackets refer to the definition or revision of the term.

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