Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page


APPENDIXES


Appendix 1. Nutrients in foods

Whether or not a food is a good source of a nutrient depends on:

TABLE 1 · USEFUL SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS

CARBOHYDRATES

Starches

Sugars

Dietary fibre

· cereals
· roots and tubers
· starchy fruits
· mature legumes

· sweet fruits
· sugar
· honey
· sweet foods

· wholemeal cereals and roots
· legumes
· vegetables
· fruits

FATS

Fats high in unsaturated fatty acids

Fats high in saturated fatty acids

Fats high in trans fatty acids

· most vegetable oils (e.g. sunflower, maize, groundnut and olive)
· wholegrain cereals
· groundnuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds and other oilseeds
· fatty fish
· avocados

· butter, ghee, lard
· whole milk (fresh or soured)
· fats from meat and poultry
· coconuts
· red palm oil

· margarine and vegetable ghee
· lard/cooking fat

PROTEINS

· breastmilk
· milks from animals
· eggs
· meat and offal of animals, birds and fish
· mature beans, peas and dal
· groundnuts and soybeans
· cereals, if eaten in large amounts

IRON

Easily absorbed

Poorly absorbed, unless eaten with meat, offal, poultry or fish, or foods rich in vitamin C

· liver, blood and other offal
· flesh of animals, birds and fish (the redder the flesh, the more iron it contains)
· breastmilk

· wholegrain cereals, particularly millets and sorghum
· legumes
· amaranthus, spinach and some other dark green leaves

ZINC

· meat and offal
· fish and poultry
· insects


VITAMIN A

· liver and kidneys
· egg yolks
· breastmilk, particularly colostrum
· milk fat, butter and cheese
· whole dried fish (including liver)
· fresh unbleached red palm oil
· orange vegetables, e.g. carrots and pumpkins
· ripe mangoes and pawpaws
· yellow/orange sweet potatoes
· dark/medium green vegetables, e.g. spinach, amaranthus and kale (the darker the leaf, the more vitamin A it contains)
· yellow maize and yellow bananas, if eaten in large amounts

FOLATE

· beans and groundnuts
· fresh vegetables, particularly dark green leaves
· liver and kidneys
· breastmilk
· eggs
· cereals, if eaten in large amounts

VITAMIN C

· fresh fruits, e.g. guava, citrus and baobab
· fresh vegetables, e.g. green leaves, tomatoes and peppers
· breastmilk
· fresh animal milks
· fresh starchy roots and fruits, if eaten in large amounts

TABLE 2 · ENERGY, PROTEIN AND FAT CONTENT OF SOME FOODS

FOOD
% EP
IN 100 g EDIBLE PORTION OF FOOD
ENERGY
PROTEIN
FAT
kcal
MJ
g
g
CEREALS
Breads, white
100
261
1.09
7.7
2.0
Maize/corn





· whole, flour
100
353
1.48
9.3
3.8
· refined, flour
100
368
1.54
9.4
1.0
· thick porridge*
100
105
0.44
2.6
0.3
· thin porridge*
100
54
0.23
1.4
-
Millet, bulrush
100
341
1.43
10.4
4.0
Rice, polished





· raw
100
361
1.51
6.5
1.0
· boiled*
100
123
0.51
2.2
0.3
Sorghum, whole, flour
100
345
1.44
10.7
3.2
STARCHY ROOTS AND FRUITS
Cassava





· fresh
74
149
0.62
1.2
0.2
· dried or flour
100
344
1.44
1.6
0.5
· fresh, boiled*
100
149
0.62
1.2
-
Plantains, raw
66
135
0.56
1.2
0.3
Potatoes, Irish, raw
80
79
0.33
2.1
0.1
Sweet potatoes, raw
80
105
0.44
1.7
0.3
Yams, fresh, raw
84
118
0.49
1.5
0.2
LEGUMES
Beans and peas, dried, raw
100
333
1.39
22.6
0.8
Groundnuts, dried, raw
100
567
2.37
25.8
45.0
Soybeans, dried, raw
100
416
1.74
36.5
20.0
Sunflower seeds, raw
100
605
2.53
22.5
49.0
ANIMAL FOODS
Breastmilk
100
70
0.29
1.0
4.4
Cow’s milk
100
61
0.26
3.3
3.3
Eggs
88
158
0.66
12.0
11.2
Meat with some fat (goat)
100
161
0.67
19.5
7.9
Chickens/poultry
67
140
0.59
20.0
7.0
Fish flesh, fresh
100
90
0.38
18.4
0.8
Fish flesh, dried, salted, large
100
255
1.07
47.0
7.4
OILS, FATS AND SUGAR
Edible oils/lard
100
900
3.76
0
100.0
Butter/margarine
100
718
3.00
0
82.0
Sugar
100
400
1.67
0
0

Source: FAO. 1993. Food and nutrition in the management of group feeding programmes. Rome.

Notes:

kcal

= kilocalorie

MJ

= megajoules (joules are the modern unit for measuring energy. 1 000 kcal = 4.18 MJ)

% EP

= Percent edible portion = proportion of the ‘as-purchased’ weight of food which can be eaten expressed as a percentage

-

= trace

*

= values calculated. The amount of flour in thick and thin maize ‘porridge’ varies. These are approximate values only.

TABLE 3 · NUTRIENTS IN SELECTED FOODS

FOOD

RICH SOURCE OF:

USEFUL SOURCE OF:

Cereals

Starch, fibre

Protein
B-group vitamins
Some minerals

Starchy roots and fruits

Starch, fibre

Some minerals
Vitamin C if fresh
Vitamin A if yellow

Mature beans and peas

Starch, protein, fibre

B-group vitamins
Some minerals

Oilseeds

Fat, protein, fibre

B-group vitamins
Some minerals

Meats and fish

Protein, iron, zinc

Other minerals
Some vitamins

Liver (all kinds)

Protein
Iron
Zinc
Vitamin A
Folate,
Other vitamins

-

Milks and milk foods

Fat
Protein
Some minerals
Some vitamins

-

Breastmilk

Fat
Protein
Most vitamins and
minerals except iron

Iron

Eggs

Protein
Vitamins

Fat
Minerals (not iron)

Fats and oils

Fat

-

Dark/medium green

Vitamin C

Protein

leaves

Folate

Some iron
Fibre
Vitamin A

Orange vegetables

Vitamin A
Vitamin C

Minerals
Fibre

Orange fruits

Fruit sugar
Vitamin A
Vitamin C

Fibre

Citrus fruits

Fruit sugar
Vitamin C

-

Source: Adapted from Burgess and others. 1994. Community nutrition for Eastern Africa. AMREF, Nairobi.

Appendix 2. Energy and nutrient needs

Use the following table to compare the energy and nutrient needs of different members of the family.

TABLE 4 · DAILY RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR ENERGY AND NUTRIENTS

SEX/AGE

BODY WEIGHT

ENERGY

PROTEIN

IRON

ZINC

VITAMIN A

VITAMIN C

FOLATE

Years

kg

kcal

MJ

g

mg

mg

mcg RE

mg

mcg DFE

BOTH SEXES










0-6 months

6.0

524

2.19

11.6

0a

1.1

375

25

80

6-11 months

8.9

708

2.97

14.1

9

0.8

400

30

80

1-3

12.1

1 022

4.28

14.0

6

8.4

400

30

160

4-6

18.2

1 352

5.66

22.2

6

10.3

450

30

200

7-9

25.2

1 698

7.10

25.2

9

11.3

500

35

300

GIRLS










10-17

46.7

2 326

9.73

42.6

14/32b

15.5

600

40

400

BOYS










10-17

49.7

2 824

11.81

47.8

17

19.2

600

40

400

WOMEN

55.0









18-59


2 408

10.08

41.0

29/11c

9.8

500

45

400

Pregnant


+278

+1.17

+6.0

Highd

15.0

800

55

600

Breastfeeding


+450

+1.90

+17.5

15

16.3

850

70

500

60 and over


2 142

8.96

41.0

11

9.8

600

45

400

MEN

65.0









18-59


3 091

12.93

49.0

14

14.0

600

45

400

60 and over


2 496

10.44

49.0

14

14.0

600

45

400

Sources: Energy - FAO. 2004. Energy in human nutrition. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Technical Paper Series, No. 1. Rome; Protein - WHO. 1985. Energy and protein requirements. Technical Report Series 724. Geneva; Micronutrients - FAO/WHO. 2002. Human vitamin and mineral requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Rome.

Notes:

kcal

= kilocalorie

MJ

= megajoules


(joules are the modern unit for measuring energy. 1 000 kcal = 4.18 MJ)

RE

= retinol equivalents

DFE

= dietary folate equivalents

These values assume that:

a. Full-term babies are born with sufficient iron stores for six months.

b. Amount needed when menstruation starts.

c. Amount needed after menopause.

d. Needs are so high that iron supplements are usually recommended for pregnant women and pregnant adolescent girls.

Appendix 3. Additional sources of information

Brown, K. & Wuehler, S. 2000. Zinc and human health. From MI.

Burgess, A. & others. 1994. Community nutrition for Eastern Africa. From AMREF.

FANTA/AED. 2003. Food and nutrition implications of antiretroviral therapy in resource limited settings. From FANTA.

FAO. 2001. Improving nutrition through home gardening. A training package for preparing field workers in Africa. From FAO.

FAO/WHO. 2002. Human vitamin and mineral requirements. From FAO.

FAO/WHO. 2002. Living well with HIV/AIDS. A manual on nutritional care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS. From FAO.

INACG. 2002. Anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. From INACG.

IVACG. 2002. The Annecy accords to assess and control vitamin A deficiency. From IVACG.

Linkages/AED. 2001. Essential health sector actions to improve maternal nutrition in Africa. From Linkages.

Linkage/AED. 2002. Birth, initiation of breastfeeding and the first 7 days after birth. Facts for feeding. From Linkages.

Linkages/AED. 2002. Exclusive breastfeeding: the only water source young infants need. FAQ Sheet 5. From Linkages.

Linkages/AED. 2002. Mother-to-mother support for breastfeeding. FAQ Sheet 2. From Linkages.

Linkages/AED. 2002. Nutrition Job Aids. From Linkages.

Linkages/AED. 2002. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Asia: practical guidance for programs. From Linkages.

McLaren, D. & Frigg, M. 2001. SIGHT AND LIFE guidebook on vitamin A in health and disease. 2nd edition. From Task Force Sight and Life.

WFP. 2000. Food and nutrition handbook. From WFP.

WHO. 2000. Complementary feeding: family foods for breastfed children. From WHO.

WHO. 2000. Management of the child with a serious infection or severe malnutrition. From WHO.

WHO. 2001. Iron deficiency anaemia assessment, prevention and control: a guide for programme managers. From WHO.

WHO. 2003. Nutrient requirements of people living with HIV/AIDS. Report of a technical consultation 13-15 May 2003. WHO, Geneva.

WHO/FAO. 2003. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 916. From WHO.

WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA/UNAIDS. 2003. HIV and infant feeding: a guide for health care managers and supervisors (revised). From WHO.

Addresses for these and other nutrition publications:

AMREF

African Medical and Research Foundation
P.O. Box 27691
00506 Nairobi, Kenya
E-mail: amrefbooks@amrefhq.org

FANTA/AED

Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project
Academy for Educational Development
1825 Connecticut Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20009, United States of America
E-mail: fanta@aed.org

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Sales & Marketing Group
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
E-mail: Publications-sales@fao.org
Try for free copies by writing to the Director, Food and
Nutrition Division.

INACG

International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group
ILSI Human Nutrition Institute
One Thomas Circle, NW, Ninth Floor
Washington, DC 20005-5802, United States of America
E-mail: hni@ilsi.org

IVACG

International Vitamin A Consultative Group
ILSI Human Nutrition Institute
One Thomas Circle, NW, Ninth Floor
Washington, DC 20005-5802, United States of America
E-mail: hni@ilsi.org

Linkages/AED

Linkages Project
Academy for Educational Development
1825 Connecticut Ave.
Washington, DC 20009, United States of America
E-mail: linkages@aed.org

MI

Micronutrient Initiative
P.O. Box 56127
250 Albert St.
Ottawa, Ontario
Canada K1R 7Z1
E-mail: mi@micronutrient.org

SCN

Standing Committee on Nutrition
c/o WHO
20, ave. Appia
1211 CH-Geneva 27, Switzerland
E-mail: scn@who.int

TALC

Teaching-aids At Low Cost
P.O. Box 49
St. Albans
Herts AL1 5TX
United Kingdom
E-mail: info@talcuk.org
Task Force SIGHT and LIFE
P.O. Box 2116
CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland
E-mail: sight.life@dsm.com

UNICEF

United Nations Children’s Fund
Publications Section
3 United Nation Plaza
New York, NY 10017, United States of America
E-mail: pubdoc@unicef.org

WFP

World Food Programme
Via Cesare Giulio Viola 68
Parco dei Medici
00148 Rome, Italy
E-mail: wfpinfo@wfp.org

WHO

World Health Organization
Distribution and Sales
20, ave. Appia
CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
E-mail: bookorders@who.int
Try for free copies by writing to the Director,
Department of Nutrition for Health and Development


Previous Page Top of Page Next Page