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Volume One of these guidelines covers the principal portable (operator-carried) equipment: lever-operated knapsack, motorised knapsack, compression sprayer, mistblower and rotary atomizer. Vehicle-mounted and trailed field crop sprayers and orchard sprayers are covered in Volume Two. Volume Three covers portable (operator-carried) foggers.

Volume Four of the FAO guidelines covers locust and grasshopper sprayers - including portable sprayers (carried in the hands or on the back of the operator) and vehicle-mounted sprayers (fixed to the bed of a pick-up vehicle or small truck). It covers four principal types of sprayer:

All of these are ULV sprayers i.e. they are designed to apply specialized ULV insecticide formulations undiluted, in volumes ranging from 0.3-3 litres/ha. These formulations are oil-based to reduce evaporation, and are atomized by the sprayer into small, evenly-sized droplets so that the wind can disperse them over a wide downwind swath. The independence from supplies of mixing water and the fact that the wide swaths allow a large track spacing and high work rate make them particularly suitable for rapid treatment of large locust and grasshopper targets in arid zones.

[1] Most locust and grasshopper sprayers have rotary atomizers, but the term RA is used to describe portable rotary atomiser sprayers and conform to terminology used in previous sprayer guidelines.

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