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20 Biodiversity for poverty alleviation in Indonesia


Suhardi[30]

ABSTRACT

Indonesia has one of the most diverse megadiversities in the world. Although its land area is only about 1.3 percent of the world’s, Indonesia has about 17 percent of all species. If the diversity in the sea is also included then Indonesia would be regarded as the greatest megadiverse region in the world. The 47 ecosystem types in Indonesia can be divided into seven biogeographic regions which are centered on the major island groups and include their surrounding seas. Despite its megadiversity, Indonesia has great problems with poverty. Poverty in Indonesia may be related to the destruction of the biodiversity since about 1.6 million ha of forests are destroyed annually. Every single species loss is believed to be followed by that of 10 to 30 other species. It is very important therefore to manage the biodiversity sustainably for the benefit of the people.

INTRODUCTION

Strategy to alleviate poverty

Management of biodiversity to alleviate poverty should be based on biogeographic regions or specific site conditions. Biogeographic regions in Indonesia are as follows:

Rifai (1983) (cited by Tri Sunarto (1988)) said that about 28 000 plant species are present in the whole of Indonesia but only about 6000 have been utilized in Indonesia, viz.

There are so many species that need to be explored in the interest of world biodiversity but the problems in Indonesia are serious, for example illegal logging destroys about 1.6 million ha of forests per year. Even in the national park in Central Kalimantan, at Gunung Leuser in north Sumatra and Aceh, forest degradation is taking place. It has been said that the loss of one species of tree will be followed by that of 10-30 other species such as insect and mamalia species and other types of plants.

The Government of Indonesia limits the supply to about 6 million m3 of logs per year for the wood industries in Indonesia although the demand of the timber industries (excluding pulp and paper) is about 50 million m3 per year. About 1.5 percent of the wood industries in south Kalimantan and only about 30 percent in Jambi Sumatra and 39 percent in east Kalimantan of these industries are still operating; east Kalimantan was the biggest timber producer in Indonesia until recently.

HOW TO SAVE THE BIODIVERSITY AND ALLEVIATE THE POVERTY IN INDONESIA?

Most of the destruction of biodiversity is due to several factors and one of the most important is that Indonesian people in fact depend on forest or biodiversity directly or indirectly for their needs such as food, clothing, medicine, education, culture and income.

People should therefore be aware of the importance of biodiversity and how to sustain the biodiversity. Most people only understand that they will earn money from logging but in Indonesia wood or timber actually provides a minor income. During the Dutch colonial period the forests in Java were utilized for the purpose of the Dutch Government, for example in their conversion into monocultures of coffee, cocoa, sugar cane and teak. The conversion benefited the Dutch Government but not biodiversity or the local people.

The problems of biodiversity became worse when the government, aiming for more income in a short period, started monoculture of Acacia mangium for their pulp industries without considering the need for biodiversity and for food, housing, clothing, health, culture and income.

Integrated farming management is a tool for sustainable biodiversity and for it to succeed, monocultures should be implemented only in limited areas in Indonesia. Integrated farming management for sustainable biodiversity should profit all stakeholders in the short, medium and long terms. Several cases have shown that mixed planting of forest with crops would benefit all stakeholders, as in the case of home gardens of farmers where the area could supply all their needs.

Teak forest dominates most of the forest areas in Java, mostly as monoculture. It has been suggested that integrated farming of teak could contribute to better biodiversity and nutrient availability, less risk of fire, and higher production of cattle, fruits, vegetables and other crops. There is also an increase in income for the farmer utilizing integrated farming of teak.

MANAGEMENT OF BIODIVERSITY BY INTEGRATED FARMING OF TEAK TO ALLEVIATE POVERTY

Teak has been planted widely in Java not only in state forests but also in the Hutan Rakyat. In PT Perhutani with a total area of about 1.5 million ha, most of the area is planted with teak and pine. Hutan Rakyat with an area of about 42 965 521 ha is planted with several trees including teak, mahogany and also food crops.

Teak forest is usually utilized by the timber companies but in fact the people living near the forest and other communities should utilize more of it for their needs. The teak forest especially should be designed to support such needs, with food as the first priority. Food is very important as the population in Java is the most dense in the country. Teak can be planted with food crops such as ganyong, garut (arrow root), sweet potatoes, cassava and corn. Table1 below shows the forest and non-wood products excluding food products from a teak dominated forest in Gunung Kidul area of Yogyakarta.

Table 1. Products from the teak forest community in Gunung Kidul area in year 2000/2001

Product

Volume

Value (Rp)
(US$1 = Rp 8 800)

Bamboo

2 857 802 poles

8 573 406 000

Charcoal

10 935 tonnes

5 467 500 000

Fire wood

2 294 082 stapels

573 520 500

Teak

69 359 400 m3

62 423 460 000

Non-teak

4 400 m3

190 000 000

Log

289 591 m3

86 877 300 000

Honey

237 558 litres

11 877 900

Silk

91.250 kg (cocoon)




167 118 750 860

Source:

Dinas Kehutanan Gunung Kidul, 2000/2001.

Note:

Bamboo, 1 pole = Rp3000;
Charcoal, 1 kg = Rp5000;
Fire wood, 1 unit = Rp3500;
Teak log, 1 m3 = Rp900 000;
Non-teak log, 1 m3 = Rp725 000;
Honey, 1 liter = Rp50 000;
Silk, 1 kg = Rp20 000.

Table 2 shows a comparison between a monoculture of teak and a mixed forest of Dalbergia latifolia. The heteroculture or mixed teak forest could contribute better to soil fertility than the monoculture of teak. P contents of root and leaves in the mixed forest are 1.23 percent and 1.21 percent respectively compared with only 1.21 percent and 1.20 percent in the teak forest. Available P in the soil is also higher in the heteroculture which is 0.0226 ppm compared with only 0.0134 ppm in the monoculture. Organic matter too is much higher in the heteroculture of teak than monocultures (4.51 vs. 1.51 percent respectively). This means that the former condition is better for soil microorganisms.

Table 2. Analysis of P, organic matter content and litter layer thickness

Analysis

Monoculture of teak

Heteroculture of teak

P content of root (%)

1.213

1.233

P content of leaves (%)

1.197

1.207

P available (ppm)

0.0134

0.0226

Organic matter content (%)

1.51

4.5133

Litter layer (cm)

1.227

1.600

Source: Suhardi (1990).

Mixed teak forest with Dalbergia latifolia could reduce fire problems. Humidity increases but the microtemperature wind velocity decreases. The data below show fire damage to forests in Indonesia:

1982-1983:

about 3 200 000 ha

1987:

about 66 000 ha

1994:

about 500 000 ha

1997-1998:

about 10 000 000 ha

BIODIVERSITY FOR FOOD PRODUCTION

Many species can grow well under teak which provide food, cosmetics and medicine. An example is ganyong (Canna edulis) which is a source of carbohydrates, capsule filter, cure for stomach ache and others.

Food production can be developed not only after Tumpang Sari which lasts only about two years but for the whole forest rotation. Dioscera allata (uwi) and Dioscera hispida (gadung) are among the approximately 35 species that could thrive under teak forest after fire and they are sources of food, medicine, fertilizer, cattle feed and also vegetable (Adriyanti 1994). Several food crops even form synergism with teak in providing nitrogen and land cover. Examples are Dalbergia latofolia, Acacia arabica, Clitoria ternatea, otok-otok, tekik, Leucaena lecocephala and Acacia villosa (Sumardi and Winastuti 1993).

Tumpang Sari, which involves teak planting for two years, was introduced in Java, Indonesia, in 1883 when the population was still only 20 million; it has since then increased, by 2003, to more than 100 million. Therefore it is very important that land under teak forest is utilized as a source of food, medicine, vegetable and cattle feed; at the same time this cultivation can increase the productivity of the teak. The biggest forest area is under Perum Perhutani in Java, where the population has become the biggest in the country and utilizing the land under the teak forest has become urgent while conserving the water status of the forests.

Soybean for food industries has also been planted in trials in the teak forest. The results showed that the local variety is better than other exotic species (Team Peneliti Tumpang Sari UGM 1974b). Arachis hypogaea was also tested after two years Tumpang Sari to increase the benefit of teak forest for the whole rotation. By using Rhizobium inoculation the trials gave better production of A. hypogaea (Winastuti 1993)

The trails to increase food production involve not only increasing the area under cultivation but also planting different plant varieties. For rice, for example, varieties such as C-4, IR 127, Gama 318, O 56, IR 661-1-170-1-3; IR 1545-339, IR 1614-330-1 and galur IRRI have been tested (Team Peneliti Tumpang Sari UGM 1974a). Total volume in 3 ha is 100.1791 m3. Therefore volume per ha is 33.3930 m3 or 3.33 m3ha-1y-1. At Rp500 000 m-3 the estimate value is Rp 1 650 000 ha-1y-1.

Table 3. Total volume of tree species in each plot (plot size 100 m x 30 m) at Bubung Village (m3 y-1).

Type/species

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

Acacia

2.058

0.0575

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Teak

0.941

4.9859

4.6456

0.7378

0

35.002

1.7660

6.4715

0.4270

0.2907

Mahagony

6.2953

1.8248

0.8728

0.0063

0

0

7.0604

1.6065

1.9147

9.3306

Paraserianthes falcataria

1.4000

0

0

0

0.1435

6.4781

0.9184

2.4731

0

0

Artocarpus integer

0

0.1242

0.2071

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Coconut

0.2480

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Bamboo

0.3

0.8

0.3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Others

0

0

0

0

0.4923

0

0

0

0

0


11.2423

7.7924

6.0255

0.7441

0.6358

41.4801

9.7448

10.5511

2.3417

9.6213

Table 4 shows that the average number of trees per ha is about 174. However, for a 15-ha teak forest interplanted with other crops with cattle rearing (Tables 5 and 6), the average number of tees per ha is 481 with an additional value of Rp32 624 000 per year.

Table 4. Number of tree species in each plot (100 m x 30 m)

Type/species

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

Acacia

3

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Teak

5

63

127

44

0

42

9

40

10

1

Mahagony

18

14

53

3

0

0

21

9

10

3

P. falcataria

2

0

0

0

0

13

1

8

0

0

A. integer

0

1

3

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

Coconut

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Bamboo

3

8

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Others

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

Total

32

87

186

47

4

55

31

57

20

4


523 in 3 ha or average of 174 trees per ha

Table 5. Total product or income per year of 15-ha plot of fruit trees, vegetables, tuber (yam group), medicinal plants and cattle

Type of non-wood product

Total value in Rp

Average per ha

Fruit

263 400 000

17 560 000

Vegetables

126 360 000

8 424 000

Yam group (tubers)

600 000

40 000

Medicinal plant

5 000 000

333 334

Cattle

94 000 000

6 266 667

Total

489 360 000

32 624 000

From the above, it is clear that planting teak in combination with other timber and non-timber crops would bring better returns than planting teak alone. Higher income would also come from the lower cost of maintenance. For the monoculture of teak, the maintenance cost is about Rp2 000 000 per ha but that of the heteroculture of cassava with teak is only Rp400 000 per ha (report from Inhutani V Kotabumi).

FRUITS AND ESTATE CROPS

Planting fruits and estate crops among teak could give more income (Table 6), and also earlier income which would help most of the farmers and companies concentrate on their activities. There is also better chance to get credit from the bank.

Table 6. Total income from fruit and estate crops planted with teak in a 15-ha plot

Type of tree

Number of trees

Total product (kg)

Price per kg (Rp)

Total value (Rp)

Cacao

3500

8 000

12 000

115 200 000

Clove

100

200

50 000

10 000 000

Coconut

600

18 000

500

9 000 000

Coffea

200

200

6 000

1 200 000

Rambutan

400

20 000

2 000

40 000 000

Parkia spp.

200

20 000

2 000

40 000 000

Gnetum gnemon

500

5 000

3 000

15 000 000

Durio zibethinus

25

1 500

5 000

7 500 000

Pepper

1500

750

30 000

22 500 000

Mango

200

2 000

1 500

3 000 000

Total

7225

75 650


263 400 000

Per ha

481.6



17 560 000

In addition to allowing more trees per ha and bringing better income, the heteroculture provides better shading from the trees for better growth to the non-timber crops as can be seen from the nutrient distribution in Table 2.

What needs to be developed?

MANAGEMENT OF BIODIVERSITY BY INTEGRATED PLANTING OF OIL PALM WITH DIPTEROCARPS

In Indonesia, there is also the conversion of large areas of forest into oil palm estates. The government and also most of the farmers are interested in planting oil palm due to the higher income from oil palm and thus also higher revenue for the government. As a result, oil palm estates have been established wherever the palms could be planted. Trials have shown that the growth of timber, especially of dipterocarps, is excellent and gives so little competition to oil palm production. The cost of management of dipterocarps in oil palm estate is cheaper than that of planting timber alone as plantation. Oil palm also plays a role as shading for the dipterocarps. Integrated oil palm estates can also act as a source of biodiversity, food and also medicinal plants.

BIODIVERSITY IN RUBBER PLANTATION

More than 600 000 ha of rubber plantations in Sumatra have matured and need to be replanted. Planting dipterocarps under rubber should be considered. If rubber is planted together with dipterocarps as shade trees then the farmers would have the two benefits of rubber and wood. There would be wood supply for the industries and the world could get more oxygen and more carbon would be fixed. Planting dipterocarps under rubber would therefore bring more income to farmers, and more biodiversity and probably better conservation of water and wildlife.

MANAGEMENT OF BIODIVERSITY UNDER SECONDARY FOREST

There are several issues that need to be clarified with more research to show that if secondary forest is not too much disturbed by illegal logging then the biodiversity will return. Certainly some plant species can grow well and faster, and some species of fauna can only thrive, under undisturbed conditions. However, how much the biodiversity is affected by the degree of forest disturbance has yet to be demonstrated.

CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adriayanti, D.T. 1994. Deskripsi jenis tanaman pioner pada lahan bekas kebakaran dihutan jati. KPH Madiun, Fak. Kehutanan, UGM. 57 pp.

Rifai, M.A. 1993. Plasma nutfah. Erosi genetika dan usaha pelestarian tumbuhan obat Indonesia. Bio Indonesia 9: 15-28.

Suhardi. 1990. Konkurensi akar dan tajuk dari hutan jati campur di BKPH Kedungbrubus. KPH Saradan Lap Penelitian DPP UGM /10123/M/03/01. 26 pp.

Sumardi & Winastuti. 1993. Identifikasi agen-agen penambat nitrogen dalam hutan jati. Penelitian DPP UGM. UGM /85/M/09/01, Fak. Kehutanan. 19 pp.

Team Peneliti Tumpang Sari UGM. 1974a. Usaha penyempurnaan tanaman Tumpang Sari di wilayah hutan jati. Progress Report I/1974. Perum Perhutani/Dirjen, Kehutanan/Deptan, Fak. Kehutanan, UGM. 31 pp.

Team Peneliti Tumpang Sari UGM. 1974b. Usaha penyempurnaan tanaman Tumpang Sari di wilayah hutan jati. Progress Report II/1974. Perum Perhutani/Dirjen Kehutanan/Deptan, Fak. Kehutanan, UGM. 15 pp.

Winastuti, D.A. 1993. Intensifikasi kacang tanah (Arachis hypogaea) dengan inokulasi Rhizobium di bawah tegakan jati di Wanagama. DPP, UGM/85/M/09/01, 31 Des. 1992. 26 pp.


[30] Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; E-mail: suhardi@ugm.ac.id

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