BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY: A TRAINING MANUAL FOR EXTENSION

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS


SUPPORT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL BIOGAS PROGRAMME
(FAO/TCP/NEP/4451-T)

BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY:
A TRAINING MANUAL FOR EXTENSION

NEPAL
September 1996


Consolidated Management Services Nepal (P) Ltd.
CMS House, Lazimpat, GPO Box # 10872, Kathmandu, Nepal
Tel # (977-1 ) 410 498/421 654, Fax # (977-1) 415 886
E-mail : cmsnepal@cms.wlink.com.np



TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE
TABLE OF TABLES
TABLE OF FIGURES
TABLE OF CHARTS
TABLE OF ANNEXES
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
RELEVANT UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

INTRODUCTION TO MANUAL

SESSION ONE : SYSTEM APPROACH TO BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Components of a Biogas System

1.2.1 Biogas
1 2.2 Methanogenic Bacteria or methanogens
1.2.3 Biodigester
1.2.4. Inputs and their Characteristics
1.2.5 Digestion
1.2.6 Slurry
1.2.7 Use of Biogas

1.3 Implications of Biogas System

1.4 Session Plan

1.5 Review Questions

1.6 References

1.7 Further Reading Materials

SESSION TWO : RELEVANCE OF BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY TO NEPAL

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Energy Situation in Nepal

2.2.1 Tradition Sources of Energy
2.2.2 Commercial Sources of Energy
2.2.3 Sources of Alternative Energy

2.3 Biogas in Other Countries

2.4 Biogas Potential in Nepal

2.5 Uses of Biogas

2.5.1 Cooking
2.5.2 Lighting
2.5.3 Refrigeration
2.5.4 Biogas-fueled Engines
2.5.5 Electricity Generation

2.6 Biogas and Agriculture

2.7 Biogas and Forests

2.8 Biogas and Women

2.9 Health and Sanitation

2.10 Municipal Waste

2.11 Economy and the Employment

2.12 Session Plan

2.13 Review Questions

2.14 References

2.15 Further Reading Materials

SESSION THREE : BIOGAS PROGRAMMES

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Biogas Programmes in China

3.2.1 Use of Gas and Slurry
3.2.2 Training
3.2.3 Organization

3.3 Biogas programme in India

3.4 Biogas in Nepal

3.4.1 Brief History of Biogas Development in Nepal
3.4.2 Programmes of GGC and its Linkage
3.4.3 Support for the Development of a National Biogas Programme (FAO/TCP/NEP/4451-T)
3.4.4 Biogas Support Programme
3.4.5 Basic Features of BSP Third Phase
3.4.6 Biogas Companies
3.4.7 Need for Research and Development

3.5 Session Plan

3.6 Review Questions

3.7 References

3.8 Further Reading Materials

SESSION FOUR : UTILIZATION OF SLURRY AS FEED AND FERTILIZER

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Inter-Relationship of Biogas Technology and Agriculture

4.3 Limitations of Chemical Fertilizer Use

4.4 Organic Fertilizer

4.5 Importance of Slurry for Crop Production

4.6 Characteristics of Digested Slurry

4.7 Utilization of Digested Slurry...

4.7.1 Application of Slurry in Liquid Form
4.7.2 Application of Slurry in Dried Form
4.7.3 Utilization of Slurry for Compost Making

4.8 Size of Compost Pit

4.9 Quality Assessment of Compost and Digested Slurry

4.10 Influence of Slurry on the Yield of Crops and Vegetables

4.11 Field Experiment

4.12 Effluent as a Supplement in Ration of Animal and Fish

4.12.1 Digested Slurry as a Feed to Animal
4.12.2 Digested Slurry as a Feed to Fish
4.12.3 Improving the Quality of Feed

4.13 Other Uses

4.14 Session Plan

4.15 Review Questions

4.16 References

4.17 Other Reading Materials

SESSION FIVE : INSTALLATION COST AND FINANCIAL VIABILITY

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Financial Analysis

5.2.1 Project Life
5.2.2 Benefits and Costs
5.2.3 Cash Flow Analysis
5.2.4 Time Value of Money and Discount Rate (Factor)
5.2.5 Net Present Value
5.2.6 Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
5.2.7 Benefit Cost Ratio

5.3 Discussion on Result of Financial Analysis

5.4 Financial Viability Assessment as Practiced by ADB/N

5.5 Indicators of Financial Viability of Biogas Plants

5.6 Economic Analysis

5.6.1 Economic Valuation of Firewood
5.6.2 Economic Valuation of Kerocene
5.6.3 Economic Valuation of Labour
5.6.4 Value of Slurry
5.6.5 Investment Cost

5.7 Session Plan

5.8 Review Questions

5.9 References

SESSION SIX : SUBSIDY AND INSTITUTIONAL FINANCING

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Definition of Subsidy

6.3 Rationale of Subsidy for Biogas Plant Installation

6.4 Subsidy and External Financing

6.5 Review of Subsidy on Biogas Programmes in Nepal

6.6 Institutional Financing

6.7 Flow of Funds

6.8 Procedure for Obtaining Loan and Subsidy with Technical Assistance

6.9 Session Plan

6.10 Review Questions

6.11 Reference

SESSION SEVEN : FIELD VISIT PROGRAMME

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Methodology

7.3 Themes for Observation

7.4 Information on Plants Visited in each of the Five Training

7.5 General Opinions and Impression about Field Visits

7.6 Review Questions

SESSION EIGHT : EXTENSION SUPPORT SERVICES FOR BIOGAS

8.1 Introduction

8.2 From a Single Plant to National Objectives and Strategy

8.2.1 Building Government Commitment
8.2.2 Energy Related Objective of Eighth Five Year Plan
8.2.3 Objectives and Strategies of Perspective Energy Plan

8.3 Institutions for Extension of Biogas Technology

8.3.1 Establishment of Biogas Companies and Biogas Related NGOs
8.3.2 Formation of Biogas Steering Committee
8.3.3 Proposed Alternate Energy Promotion Centre

8.4 Factors Affecting Biogas Extension

8.4.1 Government Commitment
8.4.2 Subsidy
8.4.3 Institutional Arrangements
8.4.4 Energy Pricing
8.4.5 Education and Access to Technology
8.4.6 Performance of Existing Plants

8.5 Extension Approaches

8.6 Extension Methods

8.6.1 Door-to-door Visits
8.6.2 Use of Local Leaders
8.6.3 Exhibitions and Demonstration
8.6.4 Use of Mass Media
8.6.5 Occasional Publications
8.6.6 Audio-Visuals
8.6.7 Seminars and Workshops
8.6.8 Training

8.7 Session Plan

8.8 Relevant Questions

8.9 References

SESSION NINE : QUALITY STANDARDS

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The Need for Quality Control

9.3 Development of a System for Quality Control

9.3.1 Enforcement of Quality Control Measures

9.4 Important Parameters for Quality Control

9.4.1 Design
9.4.2 Deciding on the Size or Capacity of a Plant
9.4.3 Site Selection
9.4.4 Construction Materials and Trained Mason
9.4.5 Critical Stage of Construction

9.5 Appliances and Accessories

9.6 Commissioning

9.7 After-Sale-Services

9.8 Mobile Team for Supervision, Follow up and Monitoring

9.9 Common Problems in Plant Operation

9.10 Session Plan

9.11 Review Questions

9.12 References

9.13 Further Reading Materials

SESSION TEN : MONITORING AND EVALUATION

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Definitions

10.3 Indicators and Data Base

10.4 M&E as Integral Part of Programme Implementation Process

10.5 M&E At Different Levels

10.5.1 User Level
10.5.2 Biogas Company Level
10.5.3 Programme Level
10.5.4 National Level

10.6 The Logical Framework

10.7 Session Plan

10.8 Review Questions

10.9 References

APPENDICES

Appendix - 1 Registration Form
Appendix - 2 Training Schedule (including field visit)
Appendix - 3 Evaluation Form (to be filled in by the participants)
Appendix - 4 Model of Certificate